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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Can Wearable Devices Reduce Burnout By Making People Aware Of Stress?, Rohit Mundayaliyath Mundayadan Dec 2016

Can Wearable Devices Reduce Burnout By Making People Aware Of Stress?, Rohit Mundayaliyath Mundayadan

Open Access Theses

Wearable fitness technology is advancing in its capabilities. Every new sensor collects new health data, and it becomes important to study how effectively this data can be utilized to help people lead healthier lives. The American Psychological Association found that Americans live with stress levels higher than what is considered healthy. Poorly managed stress can lead to burnout, which leads to unproductive workers. Burnout is known to cost businesses considerable money. The goal of this research study was to determine if burnout could be reduced through the use of a consumer wearable device along with smartphone apps that alerted wearers ...


Dopamine D1 Receptor Activity In The Basolateral Amygdala Is Important For Mediating Fear, Reward And Safety Discrimination Learning, Ka Ho Ng Dec 2016

Dopamine D1 Receptor Activity In The Basolateral Amygdala Is Important For Mediating Fear, Reward And Safety Discrimination Learning, Ka Ho Ng

Open Access Theses

Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients frequently show impairment in safety learning (Jovanovic, Kazama, Bachevalier, & Davis, 2012). Since the amygdala is known to be critical for emotional processing(Wassum & Izquierdo, 2015) and dopamine signaling in the amygdala is important for mediating both fear and reward learning, current experiments examined the role of dopamine signaling in the BLA in mediating both safety learning and reward seeking. We manipulated dopamine D1 receptor activity with a D1 receptor agonist (SKF 38393) or D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390) either systemically or infused directly into the BLA 20 minutes prior to training rats in a fear-safety-reward ...


Task Manipulation Effects On The Relationship Between Working Memory Capacity And Go/No-Go Performance, Elizabeth A. Wiemers Dec 2016

Task Manipulation Effects On The Relationship Between Working Memory Capacity And Go/No-Go Performance, Elizabeth A. Wiemers

Open Access Theses

Seemingly minor task manipulations can have large and sometimes unpredicted effects on task performance. Despite this, single tasks are typical in both research and assessment applications. This series of experiments aims to systematically investigate the differences between various perceptual and semantic versions of go/no-go tasks and their relationships with working memory capacity (WMC) with the goal of determining the cause of inconsistencies in the literature. Because these versions of the go/no-go have not previously been systematically studied, the first experiment does so. After determining which performance differences exist based on versions of both task and decision, and noting ...


Finding The Ghost With The Machine: Breaking Through The Assessment Center Validity Ceiling By Exploring Decisional Processes Using New Sources Of Behavioral Data Within Virtual Assessments, Brett W. Guidry Dec 2016

Finding The Ghost With The Machine: Breaking Through The Assessment Center Validity Ceiling By Exploring Decisional Processes Using New Sources Of Behavioral Data Within Virtual Assessments, Brett W. Guidry

Open Access Dissertations

Decades of assessment center (AC) research has resulted in an inevitable “validity ceiling” whereby increasing the validity of the AC method is becoming increasingly difficult. To overcome this challenge, new avenues for collecting and evaluating AC participant behaviors must be explored, with a particular focus on overcoming the inherent limitations of human observation—a hallmark of the AC method. This study examines detailed logs of AC participant behaviors captured automatically and unobtrusively during a computer-based simulation assessment. Using a decision making framework, basic characteristics of the new behavioral data are tested against existing theories of decisional efficacy. The construct-related validity ...


Teoria De La Mente Y Sociedad En La Narrativa Policiaca De Lorenzo Silva Y Francisco Garcia Pavon: Estereotipos, Roles De Genero Y Minorias, Jesus Castro Gorfti Dec 2016

Teoria De La Mente Y Sociedad En La Narrativa Policiaca De Lorenzo Silva Y Francisco Garcia Pavon: Estereotipos, Roles De Genero Y Minorias, Jesus Castro Gorfti

Open Access Dissertations

Spanish:

The purpose of this study is to utilize certain aspects of cognitive psychology as a framework to analyze the police procedural novels of two Spanish authors: Francisco García Pavón and Lorenzo Silva. Specifically, we will focus on two main aspects of the mind studied by the cognitive sciences: Theory of Mind and metarepresentations. Theory of Mind (ToM) refers to the capacity that human beings have to attribute mental states to other humans, as well as oneself, based on their bodily and facial gestures. The concept of metarepresentation refers to the ability of humans to keep track of who said ...


Seeking Interdependence: Commitment Desirability And The Initiation And Maintenance Of Close Relationships, Yu-Yang Kenneth Tan Dec 2016

Seeking Interdependence: Commitment Desirability And The Initiation And Maintenance Of Close Relationships, Yu-Yang Kenneth Tan

Open Access Dissertations

People vary in the extent to which they believe that a committed relationship is desirable for them. The current research offers and examines the concept of commitment desirability, defined as the subjective desire to be involved in a committed romantic relationship. In six studies, the present research developed and tested a measure of commitment desirability and explored how it influences relationship initiation among those not currently involved in a relationship, and maintenance and dissolution decisions among those who are involved in a relationship. Study 1 and 2a developed and validated a reliable measure of commitment desirability. Study 2b examined the ...


College Students' Suicidal Ideation: Testing The Predictions Of The Existential - Constructivist Theory Of Suicide, Jennifer Danielle Lockman Dec 2016

College Students' Suicidal Ideation: Testing The Predictions Of The Existential - Constructivist Theory Of Suicide, Jennifer Danielle Lockman

Open Access Dissertations

Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the college student population (Schwartz, 2006), and empirically supported theories for understanding suicide among college students are lacking (Lester, 1989; Prinstein, 2008; Rogers & Benson, 2013). Although not yet examined empirically, Rogers (2001) proposed an Existential - Constructivist Theory of Suicide (ECTS), in which existential distress and the inability to reconstruct meaning from adverse life events contribute to suicidal ideation. ECTS includes both interpersonal and intrapersonal drivers of suicidal ideation, and for this reason, may better explain suicidal ideation in college students than existing theoretical models. Existing research focuses on Joiner’s (2005 ...


How Training Set And Prior Knowledge Affect Preschoolers' Perception Of Quantity And Early Number Learning, Arum Han Dec 2016

How Training Set And Prior Knowledge Affect Preschoolers' Perception Of Quantity And Early Number Learning, Arum Han

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation examines how training on the iPad can improve children’s quantity recognition, and whether different types of training might be warranted for children with different levels of experience. Study 1 tested the effects of multiple exemplar training (3 cars / 3 apples / 3 ducks, etc.) versus single exemplar training (3 cars / 3 cars / 3 cars, etc.) in recognizing quantities. For children just learning to recognize quantities (0-2 knowers), training with multiple exemplars was most effective for quantities three and four. For 3-6 knower children, single exemplar training was most effective for learning quantities five and six. Study 2 tested ...


Impact Of Peer Relationship And Exposure To Violence On Posttraumatic Stress For Children At Risk For Maltreatment, Aura Ankita Mishra Aug 2016

Impact Of Peer Relationship And Exposure To Violence On Posttraumatic Stress For Children At Risk For Maltreatment, Aura Ankita Mishra

Open Access Theses

Post-traumatic Stress (PTS) symptomology includes ruminating thoughts and feelings around trauma, inability to feel and express emotions, and avoidance of things related to the traumatic event (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Children and youth exposed to child maltreatment (abuse and neglect) are at higher risk of experiencing PTS. Extra-familial support, including peer support can reduce post-traumatic stress among youth (Pina et al., 2008). In the present study, Witnessing, Victimization, and Both Witnessing and Victimization due to Exposure to In-Home Violence and Peer Relationship Quality are evaluated as to their relative impact on PTS for children at risk for child maltreatment. Peer ...


Relationship Quality, Engagement, Hope, Self-Worth, And Health-Risk Behaviors In A Physical Activity-Based Positive Youth Development Program, Shaina Cole Riciputi Aug 2016

Relationship Quality, Engagement, Hope, Self-Worth, And Health-Risk Behaviors In A Physical Activity-Based Positive Youth Development Program, Shaina Cole Riciputi

Open Access Theses

Physical activity-based positive youth development (PYD) programs have the potential to promote positive psychosocial and personal growth (Fraser-Thomas, Côté, & Deacon, 2005) and reduce health risk behaviors in youth (Tebes et al., 2007). Engagement, a motivationally-oriented construct representing the subjective quality of youths’ connection to a program (Skinner, Kindermann, Connell, & Wellborn, 2009), may help promote the positive outcomes associated with PYD participation. Based on competence motivation theory (Harter, 2012), program staff may affect engagement by providing instructional feedback related to program activities, and by fostering the interpersonal climate within the program. This study examined whether youths’ perceptions of their relationship with ...


Experimental Evaluation Of An Ipad-Based Augmentative And Alternative Communication Program For Early Elementary Children With Severe, Non-Verbal Autism, Ariana Azzato Aug 2016

Experimental Evaluation Of An Ipad-Based Augmentative And Alternative Communication Program For Early Elementary Children With Severe, Non-Verbal Autism, Ariana Azzato

Open Access Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment package including a modified protocol of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) implemented via an autism-specific iPad application. A multiple probe design (Horner & Baer, 1978) was replicated across four individuals with severe, non-verbal autism to investigate effects on requesting skills, natural speech production, and social-communicative behaviors. Results suggest beneficial effects, if implemented with high fidelity. The largest effects were on the participants’ requesting skills. All four participants were able to consistently request for desired items by activating the tablet device, and this skill was maintained after a ...


Seeking Certainty: Are People Who Are Experiencing Relational Doubt More Sensitive To Relationship Cues?, Christine Ann Daly Aug 2016

Seeking Certainty: Are People Who Are Experiencing Relational Doubt More Sensitive To Relationship Cues?, Christine Ann Daly

Open Access Theses

Experiencing uncertainty in one’s relationship is likely an aversive experience and a motivating factor in restoring confidence about where things stand. Thus, uncertain partners may place more weight on positive and negative interactions with their partner as they seek greater confidence in their evaluation of their relationship. The present research examined how partners responded to two different types of relationship information: a past relationship experience (Study 1, N= 154) and false feedback about its quality (Study 2, N = 154). Results suggest that while partners appear to place significance on positive information, regardless of their uncertainty, whether or not uncertain ...


Disentangling Universal And Cultural-Specific Risks To Mental Health Among Asian Americans: A Multi-Site Longitudinal Investigation, Pan Priscilla Lui Aug 2016

Disentangling Universal And Cultural-Specific Risks To Mental Health Among Asian Americans: A Multi-Site Longitudinal Investigation, Pan Priscilla Lui

Open Access Dissertations

Objective: Development-based intergenerational conflict related to separation-individuation is normative and similar across ethnocultural groups. Intergenerational cultural conflict related to acculturation mismatch—where intercultural contact leads parents and offspring to diverge in heritage and mainstream American values and behaviors—is specific to immigrant families. Although development-based conflict does not result in serious psychological distress or behavioral problems among healthy adolescents and emerging adults, acculturation-based conflict has been linked to maladjustment among offspring with immigrant parents in cross-sectional studies. The distinct and potentially mutually influential contributions of these types of conflict have not been evaluated as simultaneous processes unfolding during the developmentally ...


Exploring Problematic Online Gaming: A Qualitative Approach, Joseph M. Waters Aug 2016

Exploring Problematic Online Gaming: A Qualitative Approach, Joseph M. Waters

Open Access Dissertations

Online gaming, specifically Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs), has become a very popular pastime and often is the subject of scrutiny in the literature regarding problematic play. This study aimed to develop a better understanding of problematic online gaming by recruiting and interviewing MMORPG players who potentially played at problematic levels. Ten participants (9 males, 1 female) from a Mid-Western university were screened and interviewed regarding their online gaming experiences. Consensual qualitative research was used to analyze the data. Eleven domains emerged from the data analysis: (a) antecedents to involvement in online gaming, (b) gaming activity, (c) character creation ...


Selective Influences, Mental Architectures, And Contextuality, Ru Zhang Aug 2016

Selective Influences, Mental Architectures, And Contextuality, Ru Zhang

Open Access Dissertations

Given a system with say two external factors α and β and two random outputs A and B in response to the external factors. α forms the context of A and β forms the context of B. When the marginal distribution of A is not affected by the change of β and the marginal distribution of B is not affected by the change of α, we say marginal selectivity present in the system. Can we say there is no context effect then? Our answer is “not yet for interdependent A and B”. If in addition, one can find a hidden ...


Improving Online Food Safety Communication: The Role Of Media, Jing Ma Aug 2016

Improving Online Food Safety Communication: The Role Of Media, Jing Ma

Open Access Dissertations

Food safety is important as foodborne illness outbreaks cause great economic and societal losses. Efforts to protect public health and reduce foodborne illness outbreaks will not be fully effective unless the resulting information is communicated to consumers.

However, food safety communications have not been particularly satisfactory (Worsfold, 2006). If food safety information were more accessible, consumers would be more likely to use it (Worsfold, 2006). In this regard, the Internet presents great possibilities for communicating food safety information to the public. But media’s role has been largely overlooked in existing literature. When the lack of research is combined with ...


Facial Processing And Social Motivation In Psychopathy: An Event-Related Potential Study, Emily Dubose Sherman Aug 2016

Facial Processing And Social Motivation In Psychopathy: An Event-Related Potential Study, Emily Dubose Sherman

Open Access Dissertations

Recent work has urged a shift in the perspective of psychopathy to focus on the interpersonal aspects of the disorder that are often overlooked in the broader literature. Conceptual and empirical overlap with an exemplar interpersonal disorder- autism spectrum disorder- lends support to viewing psychopathy as an interpersonal disorder; however, there are interpersonal dysfunctions associated with psychopathy that cannot be attributed wholly to overlap with autistic traits. The current study examined self-report measures, a lab task, and event-related potentials (ERPs) that are related to social, interpersonal functioning and motivation to help elucidate what aspects of psychopathy and ASD are overlapping ...


The Graphic Side Of Fear: The Effects Of Anti-Tobacco Graphic Threat Appeals, Latasha R. Swanson Aug 2016

The Graphic Side Of Fear: The Effects Of Anti-Tobacco Graphic Threat Appeals, Latasha R. Swanson

Open Access Dissertations

Many public health organizations have proposed and implemented campaigns and policies involving graphic ads or warnings to deter individuals from smoking. The current study evaluated how high-cigarette dependent smokers evaluate these messages compared to low-cigarette dependent smokers using a mixed, 3 x 2 factorial design. A pilot study involving focus groups, interviews, and evaluation questionnaires (N=10) was conducted to classify graphic threat appeals and develop stimulus materials for the primary study. For the primary study, three graphic threat appeal conditions were evaluated by Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) users (N=200). Findings suggested that the graphicness of the images significantly ...


Reflexivity: A First Demonstration, Melissa Jane Swisher Aug 2016

Reflexivity: A First Demonstration, Melissa Jane Swisher

Open Access Dissertations

Currently, the emergent relation of reflexivity after training a set of baseline relations has not been demonstrated with any animal—human or nonhuman. True reflexivity can only be demonstrated if no identity (i.e., physically matching stimulus) relations are trained. In six experiments, the emergence of reflexivity and its opposite, anti-reflexivity, were explored. Pigeons received concurrent successive matching training on two or three arbitrary tasks: AB hue-form and BC form-hue (and AC hue-hue) matching. Once they had acquired these tasks, they were tested for BB (form-form) reflexivity or BB’ (form-form) anti-reflexivity matching. Most (10 of 13) pigeons that received three ...


Exploring Animacy As A Mnemonic Dimension, Joshua Edward Vanarsdall Aug 2016

Exploring Animacy As A Mnemonic Dimension, Joshua Edward Vanarsdall

Open Access Dissertations

There is a great deal of evidence across cognitive science that animacy, or more generally, the features that make up what it means to be a living thing, is a foundational dimension of human cognition. In perception, animates both capture attention (Pratt, Radulescu, Guo, & Abrams, 2010) and are relatively immune to change blindness (New, Cosmides, & Tooby, 2007). Developmental work places the animate-inanimate distinction as one of the first categories children learn (Opfer & Gelman, 2011). Work in neuroscience points toward a fundamental role for animacy in semantic memory (Caramazza & Mahon, 2003), and linguists have identified animacy as a “linguistic universal” (Comrie ...


Understanding The Mechanism For Response Selection In Compatibility Tasks: Referential Coding Contrasted With Biological Properties Of The Hands, Nicole M. Murchison Aug 2016

Understanding The Mechanism For Response Selection In Compatibility Tasks: Referential Coding Contrasted With Biological Properties Of The Hands, Nicole M. Murchison

Open Access Dissertations

Several researchers have hypothesized that the hands have unique effects on visual attentional resources and performance in response-selection tasks. This hand-specific processing hypothesis – that biological properties of the hands/palms uniquely affect visual attention and response selection – can be compared to a referential object coding hypothesis – that objects are coded in relation to other salient objects – favored in explanations of many compatibility effects. To test implications of these accounts, and specific effects that the hands (or general referential objects) have on attentional prioritization, I had participants perform three compatibility tasks using the hands or wooden blocks as referential objects. These ...


L2 Effect On Bilingual Spanish/English Encoding Of Motion Events: Does Manner Salience Transfer?, Heidi E. Parker Aug 2016

L2 Effect On Bilingual Spanish/English Encoding Of Motion Events: Does Manner Salience Transfer?, Heidi E. Parker

Open Access Dissertations

This study explores the potential effect of a second language (L2) on first language (L1) encoding of motion events. The domain of interest is MANNER and the goal is to investigate if the degree of manner salience can be restructured under the effect of a L2. Slobin (2004, 2006) proposes an expansion of Talmy’s (1985, 1991, 2000) binary typology and observes that the degree of manner saliencevaries cross-linguistically. The two languages investigated in this study, Spanish and English, are at divergent points along the cline of manner salience. In addition, Slobin (1996b) suggests dividing MANNER into tier one ...


South Asian Women's Sexual Relationship Power: Examining The Role Of Sexism, Cultural Values Conflict, Discrimination, And Social Support, Chandni D. Shah Aug 2016

South Asian Women's Sexual Relationship Power: Examining The Role Of Sexism, Cultural Values Conflict, Discrimination, And Social Support, Chandni D. Shah

Open Access Dissertations

The lack of literature examining sexual experiences of South Asian women in dating relationships has important implications for the healthy development of long lasting romantic relationships. It is important to understand South Asian women’s relationship experiences in the context of power and sexism (interpersonal power framework; Pulerwitz, Gortmaker, & DeJong, 2000) and the role of specific sociopolitical factors (e.g., discrimination). Understanding South Asian women’s experiences of power in a sociopolitical context will help professionals when working with them to develop healthier sexual relationships through therapy outreach, and community programming. I used a correlational, quantitative study to examine the ...


Psychosocial Factors And Mental Health Of Muslims Living In The United States, Lamise N. Shawahin Aug 2016

Psychosocial Factors And Mental Health Of Muslims Living In The United States, Lamise N. Shawahin

Open Access Dissertations

Muslim Americans are at risk for experiencing systematic and interpersonal acts of discrimination (Rippy & Newman, 2006). Such experiences of discrimination can lead to the development of depressive symptoms. Thus, it is critical to understand factors that may influence the relationship between experiencing discrimination and developing depressive symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial adversities (i.e., perceived discrimination), psychosocial resources (i.e., coping strategies, religious community support) and depressive symptoms. Hypotheses regarding both the relationships among the variables, as well as the mediating role psychosocial resources play in the relationship between perceived discrimination ...


Data Mining Twitter For Cancer, Diabetes, And Asthma Insights, Kimberly Chulis Aug 2016

Data Mining Twitter For Cancer, Diabetes, And Asthma Insights, Kimberly Chulis

Open Access Dissertations

Twitter may be a data resource to support healthcare research. Literature is still limited related to the potential of Twitter data as it relates to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to contrast the processes by which a large collection of unstructured disease-related tweets could be converted into structured data to be further analyzed. This was done with the objective of gaining insights into the content and behavioral patterns associated with disease-specific communications on Twitter. Twelve months of Twitter data related to cancer, diabetes, and asthma were collected to form a baseline dataset containing over 34 million tweets. As ...


Facebook Engagement On College Students' Interpersonal And Intrapersonal Functioning, Scott S. Deatherage Aug 2016

Facebook Engagement On College Students' Interpersonal And Intrapersonal Functioning, Scott S. Deatherage

Open Access Dissertations

In recent years college students have incorporated social-networking sites, and more specifically Facebook, into their daily lives. Facebook has received empirical attention; attention focused on what students are doing on Facebook, who its users are, and, more recently, why students access Facebook. However, researchers who have assessed motivations for accessing Facebook have emphasized how motivations are associated with certain activities, and have not simultaneously and directly examined how activities and motivations are associated with both maladaptive and adaptive factors of students’ interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. The purpose of the present study was to examine how Facebook engagement is associated with ...


The Effects Of Including Almonds In An Energy-Restricted Diet On Weight, Body Composition, Visceral Adipose Tissue, Blood Pressure And Cognitive Function, Jaapna Dhillon Aug 2016

The Effects Of Including Almonds In An Energy-Restricted Diet On Weight, Body Composition, Visceral Adipose Tissue, Blood Pressure And Cognitive Function, Jaapna Dhillon

Open Access Dissertations

Inclusion of almonds in an energy restricted diet has been reported to enhance or have no effect on weight loss. Their effects specifically on visceral fat stores during energy restriction have not been widely examined. Additionally, almond consumption has been associated with reduced blood pressure, but whether this is linked to or is independent of changes of body composition has not been examined. Moreover, almond consumption during energy restriction may be an effective strategy for reversing the negative effects of dieting on cognitive performance. The unique nutrient profile of almonds also has the potential to influence cognitive function post-prandially. The ...


Help-Seeking Intention Among College Students: Cross-Cultural Study Between East Asian International Students And Domestic Students In The Unites States, Ji Yun Kang Aug 2016

Help-Seeking Intention Among College Students: Cross-Cultural Study Between East Asian International Students And Domestic Students In The Unites States, Ji Yun Kang

Open Access Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to understand East Asian international student’s underutilization of counseling services (versus U.S. domestic students) by applying Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior (TRA/PB) and Ludwikowski, Vogel, and Armstrong (2009)’s stigma model to help-seeking. Participants were 146 East Asian international students and 210 domestic college students at Purdue University. AMOS 23.0 for Structural Equation Modeling was used to conduct a Latent Mean Analysis (LMA) and a multigroup analysis. The multigroup analysis results found that help-seeking intention was explained by the same hypothesized model in both groups, which was based on ...


Zephyr: A Social Psychology-Based Mobile Application For Long-Distance Romantic Partners, Dhiraj Bodicherla May 2016

Zephyr: A Social Psychology-Based Mobile Application For Long-Distance Romantic Partners, Dhiraj Bodicherla

Open Access Theses

Long-distance romantic relationships have become quite common nowadays. With CMC tools advancing day-by-day, their usage among LDRs is proliferating rapidly. Attachment-related anxiety and avoidance can block the ability to enjoy happy relationships. During such situations, remembering happy past moments can be comforting. In this study a mobile chat application that enables LDR couples to reminisce about happy moments was developed. This study primarily focuses on evaluating the usability of this mobile application using survey-based methods. System Usability Scale was considered to discuss the outcome of the study. The overall results provide useful recommendations for further improvements in the design of ...


The Things They Carried: The Biological Residue Of Childhood Misfortune, Patricia M. Morton Apr 2016

The Things They Carried: The Biological Residue Of Childhood Misfortune, Patricia M. Morton

Open Access Dissertations

There is a well-established relationship between childhood misfortune and adult health, but how these early-life experiences “get under the skin” to later manifest as poor health is less clear. To elucidate this process, this dissertation investigates (1) how childhood conditions influence immune functioning and (2) whether these physiological consequences of early misfortune lead to poor health, indicated by ischemic heart disease (IHD) onset. Guided by cumulative inequality theory and biological embedding, this dissertation also examines adult health lifestyles and socioeconomic status (SES) as possible mechanisms linking childhood misfortune to inflammation and IHD in later life. Data come from six waves ...