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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Pre-Mission Input Requirements To Enable Successful Sample Collection By A Remote Field/Eva Team, Barbara A. Cohen, Darlene S. S. Lim, Kelsey E. Young, Anna Brunner, Richard C. Elphic, Audrey Horne, Mary C. Kerrigan, Gordon O. Osinski, John R. Skok, Steven W. Squyres, David Saint-Jacques, Jennifer L. Heldmann Dec 2015

Pre-Mission Input Requirements To Enable Successful Sample Collection By A Remote Field/Eva Team, Barbara A. Cohen, Darlene S. S. Lim, Kelsey E. Young, Anna Brunner, Richard C. Elphic, Audrey Horne, Mary C. Kerrigan, Gordon O. Osinski, John R. Skok, Steven W. Squyres, David Saint-Jacques, Jennifer L. Heldmann

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

We used a field excursion to the West Clearwater Lake Impact structure as an opportunity to test factors that contribute to the decisions a remote field team (for example, astronauts conducting extravehicular activities (EVA) on planetary surfaces) makes while collecting samples for return to Earth. We found that detailed background on the analytical purpose of the samples, provided to the field team, enables them to identify and collect samples that meet specific analytical objectives. However, such samples are not always identifiable during field reconnaissance activities, and may only be recognized after outcrop characterization and interpretation by crew and/or science ...


Estimating The Water Quality Condition Of River And Lake Water In The Midwestern United States From Its Spectral Characteristics, Jing Tan Dec 2015

Estimating The Water Quality Condition Of River And Lake Water In The Midwestern United States From Its Spectral Characteristics, Jing Tan

Open Access Dissertations

This study focuses on developing/calibrating remote sensing algorithms for water quality retrieval in Midwestern rivers and lakes. In the first part of this study, the spectral measurements collected using a hand-held spectrometer as well as water quality observations for the Wabash River and its tributary the Tippecanoe River in Indiana were used to develop empirical models for the retrieval of chlorophyll (chl) and total suspended solids (TSS). A method for removing sky and sun glint from field spectra for turbid inland waters was developed and tested. Empirical models were then developed using a subset of the field measurements with ...


Image Segmentation Using Fuzzy-Spatial Taxon Cut, Lauren Barghout May 2015

Image Segmentation Using Fuzzy-Spatial Taxon Cut, Lauren Barghout

MODVIS Workshop

Images convey multiple meanings that depend on the context in which the viewer perceptually organizes the scene. This presents a problem for automated image segmentation, because it adds uncertainty to the process of selecting which objects to include or not include within a segment. I’ll discuss the implementation of a fuzzy-logic-natural-vision-processing engine that solves this problem by assuming the scene architecture prior to processing. The scene architecture, a standardized natural-scene-perception-taxonomy comprised of a hierarchy of nested spatial-taxons. Spatial-taxons are regions (pixel-sets) that are figure-like, in that they are perceived as having a contour, are either `thing-like', or a `group ...


Metacognition: Using Confidence Ratings For Type 2 And Type 1 Roc Curves, S A. Klein May 2015

Metacognition: Using Confidence Ratings For Type 2 And Type 1 Roc Curves, S A. Klein

MODVIS Workshop

In the past five years there has been a surge of renewed interest in metacognition ("thinking about thinking"). The typical experiment involves a binary judgment followed by a multilevel confidence rating. It is a confusing topic because the rating could be made either on one's confidence in the binary response (standard rating Type 1 ROC) or on one's confidence sorted by whether the response was correct (Type 2 ROC). Both are metacognition. After a few remarks on challenging aspects of the Type 2 approach, I will present some interesting results for Type 1 ROC for both memory and ...


Two Correspondence Problems Easier Than One, Aaron Michaux, Zygmunt Pizlo May 2015

Two Correspondence Problems Easier Than One, Aaron Michaux, Zygmunt Pizlo

MODVIS Workshop

Computer vision research rarely makes use of symmetry in stereo reconstruction despite its established importance in perceptual psychology. Such stereo reconstructions produce visually satisfying figures with precisely located points and lines, even when input images have low or moderate resolution. However, because few invariants exist, there are no known general approaches to solving symmetry correspondence on real images. The problem is significantly easier when combined with the binocular correspondence problem, because each correspondence problem provides strong non-overlapping constraints on the solution space. We demonstrate a system that leverages these constraints to produce accurate stereo models from pairs of binocular images ...


Binocular 3d Motion Perception As Bayesian Inference, Martin Lages, Suzanne Heron May 2015

Binocular 3d Motion Perception As Bayesian Inference, Martin Lages, Suzanne Heron

MODVIS Workshop

The human visual system encodes monocular motion and binocular disparity input before it is integrated into a single 3D percept. Here we propose a geometric-statistical model of human 3D motion perception that solves the aperture problem in 3D by assuming that (i) velocity constraints arise from inverse projection of local 2D velocity constraints in a binocular viewing geometry, (ii) noise from monocular motion and binocular disparity processing is independent, and (iii) slower motions are more likely to occur than faster ones. In two experiments we found that instantiation of this Bayesian model can explain perceived 3D line motion direction under ...


Formal Aspects Of Non-Rigid-Shape-From-Motion Perception, Vicky Froyen, Qasim Zaidi May 2015

Formal Aspects Of Non-Rigid-Shape-From-Motion Perception, Vicky Froyen, Qasim Zaidi

MODVIS Workshop

Our world is full of objects that deform over time, for example animals, trees and clouds. Yet, the human visual system seems to readily disentangle object motions from non-rigid deformations, in order to categorize objects, recognize the nature of actions such as running or jumping, and even to infer intentions. A large body of experimental work has been devoted to extracting rigid structure from motion, but there is little experimental work on the perception of non-rigid 3-D shapes from motion (e.g. Jain, 2011). Similarly, until recently, almost all formal work had concentrated on the rigid case. In the last ...


Object Recognition And Visual Search With A Physiologically Grounded Model Of Visual Attention, Frederik Beuth, Fred H. Hamker May 2015

Object Recognition And Visual Search With A Physiologically Grounded Model Of Visual Attention, Frederik Beuth, Fred H. Hamker

MODVIS Workshop

Visual attention models can explain a rich set of physiological data (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009, Neuron), but can rarely link these findings to real-world tasks. Here, we would like to narrow this gap with a novel, physiologically grounded model of visual attention by demonstrating its objects recognition abilities in noisy scenes.

To base the model on physiological data, we used a recently developed microcircuit model of visual attention (Beuth & Hamker, in revision, Vision Res) which explains a large set of attention experiments, e.g. biased competition, modulation of contrast response functions, tuning curves, and surround suppression. Objects are represented by object-view specific neurons, learned via a trace learning approach (Antonelli et al., 2014, IEEE TAMD). A visual cortex model combines the microcircuit with neuroanatomical properties like top-down attentional processing, hierarchical-increasing receptive field sizes, and synaptic transmission delays. The visual cortex model is complemented by a model of the frontal eye field (Zirnsak et al., 2011, Eur J Neurosci).

We evaluated the model on a realistic object recognition task in which a given target has to be localized in a scene (guided visual search task), using 100 different target objects, 1000 scenes, and two backgrounds. The model achieves an accuracy of 92% at black, and of 71% at white-noise backgrounds. We found that two of the underlying, neuronal attention mechanisms are prominently relevant for guided visual search: amplification of neurons preferring the target; and suppression of neurons encoding distractors or background noise.


Password Strength Analysis: User Coping Mechanisms In Password Selection, Brian Thomas Curnett Apr 2015

Password Strength Analysis: User Coping Mechanisms In Password Selection, Brian Thomas Curnett

Open Access Theses

The security that passwords provide could be seriously flawed due to the way people cope with having to memorize and recall their passwords. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard that is used to measure the password strength, known as entropy, is designed for a single use and does not consider that users may choose to keep parts of their password across password changes. This study shows that a portion of users keep some information from previous passwords across changes. These habits which will be called coping mechanisms that over time serve to erode the protection provided by ...


Digital Forensics And Community Supervision: Making A Case For Field Based Digital Forensics Training, Christopher Michael Flory Apr 2015

Digital Forensics And Community Supervision: Making A Case For Field Based Digital Forensics Training, Christopher Michael Flory

Open Access Theses

In this paper I will review the literature concerning investigator digital forensics models and how they apply to field investigators. A brief history of community supervision and how offenders are supervised will be established. I will also cover the difference between community supervision standards and police standards concerning searches, evidence, standards of proof, and the difference between parole boards and courts. Currently, the burden for digital forensics for community supervision officers is placed on local or state law enforcement offices, with personnel trained in forensics, but may not place a high priority on outside cases. Forensic field training for community ...


How Effective Is Group Feedback In Encouraging Occupants Of An Office Building To Reduce Energy Consumption?, Ushik D. Shah Apr 2015

How Effective Is Group Feedback In Encouraging Occupants Of An Office Building To Reduce Energy Consumption?, Ushik D. Shah

Open Access Theses

Lighting contributes to a high percentage of the total energy use in office buildings. The lack of financial incentive often dissuades office workers from trying to save electricity at their work place. This thesis aims at reducing the total power consumed by an office building by using persuasive technologies on the occupants to promote environmentally conscious and energy saving behavior. ^ A three week field study was conducted by providing occupants of an office building feedback about their energy consumption along with messages to encourage them to save energy. Feedback was provided via television screens and flyers placed strategically at the ...


International Water And Food Security Development: Performance Evaluation And Assessment Of Research Needs At Multiple Scales, Caitlin Anne Grady Apr 2015

International Water And Food Security Development: Performance Evaluation And Assessment Of Research Needs At Multiple Scales, Caitlin Anne Grady

Open Access Dissertations

Water and food security remain the top development challenges of the decade, and perhaps the century. Since the Millennium Development Goals were established in 2000, billions of people have obtained access to more food, better nutrition, improved water, and basic sanitation facilities worldwide. This progress has been accomplished through the dedication of international organizations, non-governmental organizations, country-level governments, private corporations, and individuals at international, regional, and local scales. Truly tremendous strides have been made in water and food provisioning for humans worldwide. These past two decades have also seen the largest population growth on record, the highest rates of childhood ...


Public Understanding Of Chemistry Research In Print News, Michael D. Hands Apr 2015

Public Understanding Of Chemistry Research In Print News, Michael D. Hands

Open Access Dissertations

Despite numerous calls for improving scientific literacy, many American adults show a lack of understanding of experiments, scientific study, and scientific inquiry. News media is one important avenue for science learning, but previous research investigating health and/or environmental science news has shown that it is inconsistent in the presentation of scientific research limitations, potentially impacting reader understanding. In the first phase of this dissertation, seventeen news articles reporting on a single chemistry research article, along with associated press releases and research articles, were analyzed using move analysis to determine the structure of each type of text. It was found ...


Applying Hierarchical Task Analysis Method To Discovery Layer Evaluation, Marlen Promann, Tao Zhang Jan 2015

Applying Hierarchical Task Analysis Method To Discovery Layer Evaluation, Marlen Promann, Tao Zhang

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

While usability tests have been helpful in evaluating the success or failure of implementing discovery layers in the library context, the focus of usability tests has remained on the search interface rather than the discovery process for users. The informal site-­‐ and context specific usability tests have offered little to test the rigor of the discovery layers against the user goals, motivations and workflow they have been designed to support. This study proposes hierarchical task analysis (HTA) as an important complementary evaluation method to usability testing of discovery layers. Relevant literature is reviewed for the discovery layers and the HTA ...