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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

‘Edge’ Integration Explains Contrast And Assimilation In A Gradient Lightness Illusion, Michael E. Rudd May 2015

‘Edge’ Integration Explains Contrast And Assimilation In A Gradient Lightness Illusion, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

In the ‘phantom’ illusion (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, submitted), either an incremental or a decremental target, when surrounded by a luminance gradient, can to be made to appear as an increment or a decrement, depending on the gradient width. For wide gradients, incremental targets appear as increments and decremental targets appear as decrements. For narrow gradients, the reverse is true. Here, I model these phenomena with a two-stage neural lightness theory (Rudd, 2013, 2014) in which local steps in log luminance are first encoded by oriented spatial filters operating on a log-transformed version of the image; then the filter outputs are appropriately integrated along image paths directed towards the target. A contrast gain control mechanism adjusts each filter’s gain on the basis of the outputs of other nearby filters. The weighted contribution of each filter to the target lightness decays exponentially with distance, as do the strengths of the between-filter gain modulations. I simulate the lightnesses of incremental and decremental targets as a function of gradient width and show that the model reproduces the key properties of the phantom illusion, even when the gain applied to decremental luminance ...


The Bounded Log-Odds Model Of Frequency And Probability Distortion, Hang Zhang, Laurence T. Maloney May 2015

The Bounded Log-Odds Model Of Frequency And Probability Distortion, Hang Zhang, Laurence T. Maloney

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


A Conceptual Framework Of Computations In Mid-Level Vision, Jonas Kubilius, Johan Wagemans, Hans P. Op De Beeck May 2015

A Conceptual Framework Of Computations In Mid-Level Vision, Jonas Kubilius, Johan Wagemans, Hans P. Op De Beeck

MODVIS Workshop

The goal of visual processing is to extract information necessary for a variety of tasks, such as grasping objects, navigating in scenes, and recognizing them. While ultimately these tasks might be carried out by separate processing pathways, they nonetheless share a common root in the early and intermediate visual areas. What representations should these areas develop in order to facilitate all of these higher-level tasks? Several distinct ideas have received empirical support in the literature so far: (i) boundary feature detection, such as edge, corner, and curved segment extraction; (ii) second-order feature detection, such as the difference in orientation or ...


Binocular 3d Motion Perception As Bayesian Inference, Martin Lages, Suzanne Heron May 2015

Binocular 3d Motion Perception As Bayesian Inference, Martin Lages, Suzanne Heron

MODVIS Workshop

The human visual system encodes monocular motion and binocular disparity input before it is integrated into a single 3D percept. Here we propose a geometric-statistical model of human 3D motion perception that solves the aperture problem in 3D by assuming that (i) velocity constraints arise from inverse projection of local 2D velocity constraints in a binocular viewing geometry, (ii) noise from monocular motion and binocular disparity processing is independent, and (iii) slower motions are more likely to occur than faster ones. In two experiments we found that instantiation of this Bayesian model can explain perceived 3D line motion direction under ...


Object Recognition And Visual Search With A Physiologically Grounded Model Of Visual Attention, Frederik Beuth, Fred H. Hamker May 2015

Object Recognition And Visual Search With A Physiologically Grounded Model Of Visual Attention, Frederik Beuth, Fred H. Hamker

MODVIS Workshop

Visual attention models can explain a rich set of physiological data (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009, Neuron), but can rarely link these findings to real-world tasks. Here, we would like to narrow this gap with a novel, physiologically grounded model of visual attention by demonstrating its objects recognition abilities in noisy scenes.

To base the model on physiological data, we used a recently developed microcircuit model of visual attention (Beuth & Hamker, in revision, Vision Res) which explains a large set of attention experiments, e.g. biased competition, modulation of contrast response functions, tuning curves, and surround suppression. Objects are represented by object-view specific neurons, learned via a trace learning approach (Antonelli et al., 2014, IEEE TAMD). A visual cortex model combines the microcircuit with neuroanatomical properties like top-down attentional processing, hierarchical-increasing receptive field sizes, and synaptic transmission delays. The visual cortex model is complemented by a model of the frontal eye field (Zirnsak et al., 2011, Eur J Neurosci).

We evaluated the model on a realistic object recognition task in which a given target has to be localized in a scene (guided visual search task), using 100 different target objects, 1000 scenes, and two backgrounds. The model achieves an accuracy of 92% at black, and of 71% at white-noise backgrounds. We found that two of the underlying, neuronal attention mechanisms are prominently relevant for guided visual search: amplification of neurons preferring the target; and suppression of neurons encoding distractors or background noise.


Consumer Inferences Of Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) Claims On Packaged Foods, Gaeul Kim Apr 2015

Consumer Inferences Of Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) Claims On Packaged Foods, Gaeul Kim

Open Access Theses

With the growing public demands in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) of the food industry, CSR claims have begun to appear on food packages, as companies started communicating their CSR initiatives to consumers. Although food packages emerged as an important CSR communication tool, consumers' processing of CSR claims and the effects of these claims on product evaluations still remain unknown. In this regard, the present study carries two important research questions. First, do non-health/nutrition-related CSR claims influence consumers' product evaluations, such as perceived health benefits or tastes? If so, how does the effect of CSR claims differ by type of ...


Communication, Home Bias And Social Capital, Sharon Raszap Skorbiansky Apr 2015

Communication, Home Bias And Social Capital, Sharon Raszap Skorbiansky

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation consists of three essays on the effects of communication, home bias and social capital. The first study analyzes three different laboratory treatments that determine if policies that introduce and improve communication are beneficial to a market. The control treatment has no communication. Then, two different types of communication mechanisms are introduced: cheap communication, where subjects are able to lie, and truthful communication, where only honest messages may be sent. The results demonstrate that truthful communication dramatically improves subjects' ability to trade efficiently, ultimately leading to higher social surplus and lower income inequalities. Cheap communication does not produce the ...


Elucidation Of Pharmacologically Manipulated Responding In The Delay Discounting Task In High Alcohol Preferring Mice, Meredith Halcomb Apr 2015

Elucidation Of Pharmacologically Manipulated Responding In The Delay Discounting Task In High Alcohol Preferring Mice, Meredith Halcomb

Open Access Dissertations

Impulsive behavior is the hallmark of many psychopathologies. Uncovering the neurobiological mechanisms driving impulsivity is paramount in the development of through the delay discounting (DD) task in both human and animal models. The present study is an examination of the predictive validity of the two primary types of DD procedures in animals, the Adjusting Amounts (AA) and within session Increasing Delays (ID) tasks. Methods:Subjects were administered either1.25 mg/kg d-amphetamine (AMP), 1.5 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) or saline and tested in either the AA or ID method for 15 days to evaluate drug effects on impulsive behavior ...


Keynote Address: The State Of Information Literacy Policy: A Global Priority, Sharon A. Weiner Jan 2015

Keynote Address: The State Of Information Literacy Policy: A Global Priority, Sharon A. Weiner

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Access to information is important for economic development and community-based solutions to global challenges. However, access to information alone is not sufficient: people need to know how to find, evaluate, manage, analyze, and compile information and communicate the results effectively for the intended audience. This paper presents a global overview of information literacy policy. The paper discusses the meaning of information literacy and its relation to information policy. The paper proposes a role of information literacy in addressing global challenges. It gives national examples of information literacy policy. Finally, the paper identifies challenges in information literacy policy and discusses ways ...


Agriculture/ Graduate Students/ Carlson & Bracke/ Purdue University/ 2014, Jake Carlson, Marianne S. Bracke Jan 2015

Agriculture/ Graduate Students/ Carlson & Bracke/ Purdue University/ 2014, Jake Carlson, Marianne S. Bracke

Data Information Literacy Case Study Directory

Librarians at Purdue University had the opportunity to develop a semester long data information literacy program to ten students in the College of Agriculture. The program was run as a pilot to test out ideas and approaches in teaching data literacy competencies to students. Topics included high level subjects such as data lifecycles, data management planning, metadata and sharing data, along with practical issues such as file naming conventions, developing a metadata record for a data set and depositing data into a repository. Materials in this case study include weekly lesson plans, slide decks, assignments, an application and other documents ...


The Use Of Oral History And Narrative Research In Broadening The Historical Foundation Of The Agricultural Communication Field, Natalie L Federer Jan 2015

The Use Of Oral History And Narrative Research In Broadening The Historical Foundation Of The Agricultural Communication Field, Natalie L Federer

Open Access Dissertations

The historical foundation of the agricultural communication community (consisting of both academics and the profession) is shallow and void of humanistic perspective, and there is a minimal amount of historical content that focuses on academic and professional history. The need to explore and interpret historical dimensions of this field is vital to further development of the discipline as an academic and professional field. Oral history was utilized to capture and preserve the interview content from a small sample of agricultural communication and Extension professionals and faculty while narrative research, interpretative theory, and constructivism were utilized to further understand and interpret ...