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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Why Social Pain Can Live On: Different Neural Mechanisms Are Associated With Reliving Social And Physical Pain, Meghan L. Meyer, Kipling D. Williams, Naomi I. Eisenberger Jan 2015

Why Social Pain Can Live On: Different Neural Mechanisms Are Associated With Reliving Social And Physical Pain, Meghan L. Meyer, Kipling D. Williams, Naomi I. Eisenberger

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Although social and physical pain recruit overlapping neural activity in regions associated with the affective component of pain, the two pains can diverge in their phenomenology. Most notably, feelings of social pain can be re-experienced or "relived," even when the painful episode has long passed, whereas feelings of physical pain cannot be easily relived once the painful episode subsides. Here, we observed that reliving social (vs. physical) pain led to greater self-reported re-experienced pain and greater activity in affective pain regions (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula). Moreover, the degree of relived pain correlated positively with affective pain system ...


Reduced Intestinal Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Increases Vagal Sensory Innervation Of The Intestine And Enhances Satiation, Jessica E. Biddinger, Edward A. Fox Jul 2014

Reduced Intestinal Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Increases Vagal Sensory Innervation Of The Intestine And Enhances Satiation, Jessica E. Biddinger, Edward A. Fox

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is produced by developing and mature gastrointestinal (GI) tissues that are heavily innervated by autonomic neurons and may therefore control their development or function. To begin investigating this hypothesis, we compared the morphology, distribution, and density of intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs), the predominant vagal GI afferent, in mice with reduced intestinal BDNF (INT-BDNF_/_) and controls. Contrary to expectations of reduced development, IGLE density and longitudinal axon bundle number in the intestine of INT-BDNF_/_ mice were increased, but stomach IGLEs were normal. INT-BDNF_/_ mice also exhibited increased vagal sensory neuron numbers, suggesting that their ...


Associative Concept Learning In Animals, Thomas R. Zentall, Edward A. Wasserman, Peter J. Urcuioli Jan 2014

Associative Concept Learning In Animals, Thomas R. Zentall, Edward A. Wasserman, Peter J. Urcuioli

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Nonhuman animals show evidence for three types of concept learning: perceptual or similarity-based in which objects/stimuli are categorized based on physical similarity; relational in which one object/stimulus is categorized relative to another (e.g., same/different); and associative in which arbitrary stimuli become interchangeable with one another by virtue of a common association with another stimulus, outcome, or response. In this article, we focus on various methods for establishing associative concepts in nonhuman animals and evaluate data documenting the development of associative classes of stimuli. We also examine the nature of the common within-class representation of samples that ...


Concurrent Identity Training Is Not Necessary For Associative Symmetry In Successive Matching, Heloísa Cursi Campos, Peter J. Urcuioli, Melissa Swisher Jan 2014

Concurrent Identity Training Is Not Necessary For Associative Symmetry In Successive Matching, Heloísa Cursi Campos, Peter J. Urcuioli, Melissa Swisher

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Pigeons demonstrate associative symmetry after successive matching training on one arbitrary and two identity relations (e.g., Urcuioli, 2008). Here, we tested whether identity matching training is necessary for this emergent effect. In Experiment 1, one group of pigeons (Dual Oddity) learned hue-form arbitrary matching and two oddity relations which shared sample and comparison elements with the arbitrary relations. A second (Control) group learned the same hue-form matching task and a second (form-hue) arbitrary task which, together with hue oddity, shared only the samples with the hue-form relations. On subsequent symmetry probe trials, four Dual Oddity pigeons exhibited higher probe-trial ...


Conceptual Changes To The Definition Of Borderline Personality Disorder Proposed For Dsm-5, Douglas B. Samuel, Joshua D. Miller, Thomas A. Widiger, Donald R. Lynam, Paul A. Pilkonis, Samuel A. Ball Jan 2012

Conceptual Changes To The Definition Of Borderline Personality Disorder Proposed For Dsm-5, Douglas B. Samuel, Joshua D. Miller, Thomas A. Widiger, Donald R. Lynam, Paul A. Pilkonis, Samuel A. Ball

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group proposed the elimination of diagnostic criterion sets in favor of a prototype matching system that defines personality disorders using narrative descriptions. Although some research supports this general approach, no empirical studies have yet examined the specific definitions proposed for DSM-5. Given the wide interest in borderline personality disorder (BPD), it is crucial to determine how this methodological shift might affect the content and conceptualization of the diagnosis. Eighty-two experts on BPD provided ratings of the DSM-IV-TR or DSM-5 version of BPD in terms of 37 traits proposed for DSM-5. Analyses revealed significant ...


A Five-Factor Measure Of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits., Douglas B. Samuel, Ashley D.B. Riddell, Donald R. Lynam, Joshua D. Miller, Thomas A. Widiger Jan 2012

A Five-Factor Measure Of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Traits., Douglas B. Samuel, Ashley D.B. Riddell, Donald R. Lynam, Joshua D. Miller, Thomas A. Widiger

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

The current study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for the Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FFOCI), a newly-developed measure of traits relevant to obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from the perspective of the five-factor model (FFM). Twelve scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of specific FFM facets (e.g., Perfectionism as a maladaptive variant of FFM competence). On the basis of data from 407 undergraduates (oversampled for OCPD symptoms) these 12 scales demonstrated convergent correlations with established measures of OCPD and the FFM. Further, they obtained strong discriminant validity with respect to facets from other FFM domains. Most importantly, the individual ...


An Expert Consensus Approach To Relating The Proposed Dsm-5 Types And Traits., Douglas B. Samuel, Donald R. Lynam, Thomas A. Widiger, Samuel A. Ball Jan 2012

An Expert Consensus Approach To Relating The Proposed Dsm-5 Types And Traits., Douglas B. Samuel, Donald R. Lynam, Thomas A. Widiger, Samuel A. Ball

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Although personality disorders (PDs) have been defined categorically throughout the history of psychiatric nomenclatures, the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group proposed a substantial shift to a dimensional conceptualization and diagnosis of personality pathology. This proposal included the adoption of a trait model with 37 specific traits that fell within six higher-order domains. In addition, they specified that half of the current diagnoses be recast as types defined by narrative description, with the other half deleted. Instead, the deleted categories would be diagnosed through ratings on specifically assigned traits. The Work Group also specified a number of traits that ...


Treating Diet - Induced Obesity: A New Role For Vagal Afferents?, Edward A. Fox Jan 2012

Treating Diet - Induced Obesity: A New Role For Vagal Afferents?, Edward A. Fox

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Early Postnatal Overnutrition: Potential Roles Of Gastrointestinal Vagal Afferents And Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Edward A. Fox, Jessica E. Biddinger Jan 2012

Early Postnatal Overnutrition: Potential Roles Of Gastrointestinal Vagal Afferents And Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Edward A. Fox, Jessica E. Biddinger

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Early postnatal overnutrition: Potential roles of gastrointestinal vagal afferents and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0) 000-000, 2012. Abnormal perinatal nutrition (APN) results in a predisposition to develop obesity and the metabolic syndrome and thus may contribute to the prevalence of these disorders. Obesity, including that which develops in organisms exposed to APN, has been associated with increased meal size. Vagal afferents of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract contribute to regulation of meal size by transmitting satiation signals from gut-to-brain. Consequently, APN could increase meal size by altering this signaling, possibly through changes in expression of factors that control vagal ...


A Replication And Extension Of The Anti-Symmetry Effect In Pigeons, Peter J. Urcuioli, Melissa Swisher Jan 2012

A Replication And Extension Of The Anti-Symmetry Effect In Pigeons, Peter J. Urcuioli, Melissa Swisher

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Pigeons trained on successive AB symbolic matching show emergent BA anti-symmetry if they are also trained on successive AA oddity and BB identity (Urcuioli, 2008, Experiment 4). In other words, when tested on BA probe trials following training, they respond more to the comparisons on the reverse of the non-reinforced AB baseline trials than on the reverse of the reinforced AB baseline trials (the opposite of an associative symmetry pattern). The present experiment replicated this finding. In addition, it showed that anti-symmetry also emerged after baseline training on successive AB symbolic matching, AA identity, and BB oddity, consistent with the ...


Emergent Identity Matching After Successive Matching Training Ii: Reflexivity Or Transitivity?, Peter J. Urcuioli, Melissa Swisher Jan 2012

Emergent Identity Matching After Successive Matching Training Ii: Reflexivity Or Transitivity?, Peter J. Urcuioli, Melissa Swisher

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Three experiments evaluated whether the apparent reflexivity effect reported by Sweeney and Urcuioli (2010) for pigeons might, in fact, be transitivity. In Experiment 1, pigeons learned symmetrically reinforced hue-form (A-B) and form-hue (B-A) successive matching. Those also trained on form-form (B-B) matching responded more to hue comparisons that matched their preceding samples on subsequent hue-hue (A-A) probe trials. By contrast, most pigeons trained on just A-B and B-A matching did not show this effect; but some did – a finding consistent with transitivity. Experiment 2 showed that the latter pigeons also responded more to form comparisons that matched their preceding samples ...


Simulating The Effect Of Dopamine Imbalance On Cognition: From Positive Affect To Parkinson's Disease, Sebastien Helie, Erick J. Paul, F Gregory Ashby Jan 2012

Simulating The Effect Of Dopamine Imbalance On Cognition: From Positive Affect To Parkinson's Disease, Sebastien Helie, Erick J. Paul, F Gregory Ashby

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Cools (2006) suggested that prefrontal dopamine levels are related to cognitive stability whereas striatal dopamine levels are related to cognitive plasticity. With such a wide ranging role, almost all cognitive activities should be affected by dopamine levels in the brain. Not surprisingly, factors influencing brain dopamine levels have been shown to improve/worsen performance in many behavioral experiments. On the one hand, Nadler and his colleagues (2010) showed that positive affect (which is thought to increase cortical dopamine levels) improves a type of categorization that depends on explicit reasoning (rule-based) but not a type that depends on procedural learning (informationintegration ...


Psychologically Realistic Cognitive Agents: Taking Human Cognition Seriously, Ron Sun, Sebastien Helie Jan 2012

Psychologically Realistic Cognitive Agents: Taking Human Cognition Seriously, Ron Sun, Sebastien Helie

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Cognitive architectures may serve as a good basis for building mind/brain-inspired, psychologically realistic cognitive agents for various applications that require or prefer human-like behavior and performance. This article explores a well-established cognitive architecture CLARION and shows how its behavior and performance capture human psychology at a detailed level. The model captures many psychological quasi-laws concerning categorization, induction, uncertain reasoning, decision-making, and so on, which indicates human-like characteristics beyond what other models have been shown capable of. Thus, CLARION constitutes an advance in developing more psychologically realistic cognitive agents.


Learning And Transfer Of Category Knowledge In An Indirect Categorization Task, Sebastien Helie, F Gregory Ashby Jan 2012

Learning And Transfer Of Category Knowledge In An Indirect Categorization Task, Sebastien Helie, F Gregory Ashby

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Knowledge representations acquired during category learning experiments are ‘tuned’ to the task goal. A useful paradigm to study category representations is indirect category learning. In the present article, we propose a new indirect categorization task called the “Same” – “Different” categorization task. The same-different categorization task is a regular same-different task, but the question asked to the participants is about the stimulus category membership instead of stimulus identity. Experiment 1 explores the possibility of indirectly learning rule-based and information-integration category structures using the new paradigm. The results suggest that there is little learning about the category structures resulting from an indirect ...


A Neurocomputational Account Of Cognitive Deficits In Parkinson's Disease, Sébastien Hélie, Erick J. Paul, F Gregory Ashby Jan 2012

A Neurocomputational Account Of Cognitive Deficits In Parkinson's Disease, Sébastien Hélie, Erick J. Paul, F Gregory Ashby

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by the accelerated death of dopamine (DA) producing neurons. Numerous studies documenting cognitive deficits of PD patients have revealed impairments in a variety of tasks related to memory, learning, visuospatial skills, and attention. While there have been several studies documenting cognitive deficits of PD patients, very few computational models have been proposed. In this article, we use the COVIS model of category learning to simulate DA depletion and show that the model suffers from cognitive symptoms similar to those of human participants affected by PD. Specifically, DA depletion in COVIS produced deficits in rule-based ...


Implementation Intentions Increase Parent-Teacher Communication Among Latinos, Ximena Arriaga, Zayra Longoria Nov 2011

Implementation Intentions Increase Parent-Teacher Communication Among Latinos, Ximena Arriaga, Zayra Longoria

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

This research tested an implementation intentions intervention to increase parent-teacher communication among Latino parents of young children. Parents (n=57) were randomly assigned to form implementation intentions or simply goal intentions to communicate with their child’s teacher. They completed measures of communication and goal intentions immediately prior to the manipulation, and after the manipulation for 6 consecutive weeks. Implementation intentions increased parent-teacher communication among parents with higher initial (pre-manipulation) goal intentions, but not among those with lower initial goal intentions. The findings support existing work on the conditions for implementation intentions to work, and address an important aspect of ...


Contending With Foreign Accent Variability In Early Lexical Acquisition., Rachel Schmale, George Hollich, Amanda Seidl Nov 2011

Contending With Foreign Accent Variability In Early Lexical Acquisition., Rachel Schmale, George Hollich, Amanda Seidl

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

By their second birthday, children are beginning to map meaning to form with relative ease. One challenge for these developing abilities is separating information relevant to word identity (i.e. phonemic information) from irrelevant information (e.g. voice and foreign accent). Nevertheless, little is known about toddlers’ abilities to ignore irrelevant phonetic detail when faced with the demanding task of word learning. In an experiment with English-learning toddlers, we examined the impact of foreign accent on word learning. Findings revealed that while toddlers aged 2; 6 successfully generalized newly learned words spoken by a Spanish-accented speaker and a native English ...


Relationship Commitment And Perceptions Of Harm To Self, Christopher Agnew, Natalie Dove Mar 2011

Relationship Commitment And Perceptions Of Harm To Self, Christopher Agnew, Natalie Dove

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Commitment to a relationship is associated with a number of consequences, including willingness to sacrifice for the relationship, greater cognitive interdependence between partners, and increased trust in one’s partner. Consistent with such consequences, we hypothesized that greater commitment is associated with decreased perceptions of one’s partner as a source of harm to the self. We conducted two studies (one correlational, one experimental) to test hypotheses regarding the association between commitment level and personal harm perceptions, based on tenets from interdependence theory and balance theory. Study 1 revealed significant negative associations between commitment and personal harm perceptions. Results from ...


Religious And Non-Religious Spirituality In Relation To Death Acceptance Or Rejection, Victor G. Cicirelli Feb 2011

Religious And Non-Religious Spirituality In Relation To Death Acceptance Or Rejection, Victor G. Cicirelli

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Meanings of religious and non-religious spirituality are explored, with implications for death acceptance, death rejection, and life extension. In the first of two exploratory studies, 16 elders low on intrinsic religiosity were compared with 116 elders high in religiosity; they differed both in qualitative responses and on death attitudes. In the second, 48 elders were assessed on religious and non-religious spirituality, and compared on attitudes toward death rejection, life extension, and death acceptance. Conclusions were that a sizable minority of elders hold non-religious spirituality beliefs, and these beliefs are related to greater acceptance of life extension and death rejection.


Assessing Personality In The Dsm-5: The Utility Of Bipolar Constructs., Douglas B. Samuel Jan 2011

Assessing Personality In The Dsm-5: The Utility Of Bipolar Constructs., Douglas B. Samuel

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

All previous editions of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) have described and assessed personality solely in terms of pathological categories. Nonetheless, there is compelling evidence that normal-range personality traits also provide clinically useful information, emphasizing the importance of thoroughly assessing both adaptive and maladaptive aspects of personality within a clinical context. The proposed inclusion of a dimensional trait model in the upcoming DSM-5 represents an important shift in the understanding of personality pathology and provides an ideal opportunity to integrate the assessment of normal personality into clinical practice. Building upon research conceptualizing ...


Integrating Personality Disorder With Basic Personality Science., Douglas B. Samuel Jan 2011

Integrating Personality Disorder With Basic Personality Science., Douglas B. Samuel

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

An editorial comment on Kendler K, Meyers J, Reichborn-Kjennerud T “Borderline personality disorder traits and their relationship with dimensions of normative personality: A web-based cohort and twin study”


Personality Disorders And Retention In A Therapeutic Community For Substance Dependence, Douglas B. Samuel, Donna M. Lapaglia, Lisa M. Maccarelli, Brent A. Moore, Samuel A. Ball Jan 2011

Personality Disorders And Retention In A Therapeutic Community For Substance Dependence, Douglas B. Samuel, Donna M. Lapaglia, Lisa M. Maccarelli, Brent A. Moore, Samuel A. Ball

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Although therapeutic community (TC) treatment is a promising intervention for substance use disorders, a primary obstacle to successful treatment is premature attrition. Because of their prevalence within substance use treatment facilities, personality disorder (PD) diagnoses have been examined as predictors of treatment completion. Prior research on TC outcomes has focused almost exclusively on antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and the results have been mixed. The current study extends previous research by examining the impact of the 10 Axis II PDs on early (first 30 day) attrition as well as overall time to dropout in a 9-month residential TC. Survival analyses indicated ...


Conscientiousness And Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, Douglas B. Samuel, Thomas A. Widiger Jan 2011

Conscientiousness And Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, Douglas B. Samuel, Thomas A. Widiger

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were ...


Comparing The Temporal Stability Of Self-Report And Interview Assessed Personality Disorder., Douglas B. Samuel, Christopher J. Hopwood, Emily B. Ansell, Leslie C. Morey, Charles A. Sanislow, John C. Markowitz, Shirley Yen, M Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, Carlos M. Grilo Jan 2011

Comparing The Temporal Stability Of Self-Report And Interview Assessed Personality Disorder., Douglas B. Samuel, Christopher J. Hopwood, Emily B. Ansell, Leslie C. Morey, Charles A. Sanislow, John C. Markowitz, Shirley Yen, M Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, Carlos M. Grilo

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Findings from several large-scale, longitudinal studies over the last decade have challenged the long held assumption that personality disorders (PDs) are stable and enduring. However, the findings, including those from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS; Gunderson et al., 2000), rely primarily upon results from semistructured interviews. As a result, less is known about the stability of PD scores from self-report questionnaires, which differ from interviews in important ways (e.g., source of the ratings, item development, and instrument length) that might increase temporal stability. The current study directly compared the stability of the DSM-IV PD constructs assessed via ...


Elders’ Attitudes Toward Extending The Healthy Life Span, Victor G. Cicirelli Jan 2011

Elders’ Attitudes Toward Extending The Healthy Life Span, Victor G. Cicirelli

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Despite continuing debate between anti-aging researchers seeking major life span extension and concerned gerontologists and bioethicists, elders’ views have received little research attention. Study aimed to relate elders’ attitudes toward strong life span extension to psychosocial and background factors. Participants were 109 American elders (65% women) aged 60-99 (M = 77.08, SD = 9.05). Measures included attitudes toward living long and living forever, Desired Age, Death Acceptance, Goal Seeking, Internality, and background variables (age, gender, marital status, education, religion, health). Attitudes were more positive toward an extended life span than living forever (p < .01). In regression analyses, more positive attitudes were related to greater Desired Age, less Death Acceptance, greater Goal Seeking, and greater Internality, and to lower age and non-Christian religious affiliation. Qualitative analyses explored goals for various periods of additional life. Elders’ positive attitudes toward extended life need consideration by experts debating this issue.


The Investment Model Of Commitment Processes, Caryl E. Rusbult, Christopher Agnew, Ximena Arriaga Jan 2011

The Investment Model Of Commitment Processes, Caryl E. Rusbult, Christopher Agnew, Ximena Arriaga

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

The investment model of commitment processes is rooted in interdependence theory and emerged from the broader scientific zeitgeist of the 1960s and 1970s that sought to understand seemingly irrational persistence in social behavior. The investment model was developed originally to move social psychology beyond focusing only on positive affect in predicting persistence in a close interpersonal relationship. As originally tested, the investment model holds that commitment to a target is influenced by three independent factors: satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Commitment, in turn, is posited to mediate the effects of these three bases of dependence on behavior ...


May-December Paradoxes: An Exploration Of Age-Gap Relationships In Western Society, Justin Lehmiller, Christopher Agnew Jan 2011

May-December Paradoxes: An Exploration Of Age-Gap Relationships In Western Society, Justin Lehmiller, Christopher Agnew

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Cancer Prevention Interdisciplinary Education Program At Purdue University: Overview And Preliminary Results, D. Teegarden, Ji-Yeon Lee, Omolola A. Adedokun, Amy Childress, Loran C. Parker, Wilella D. Burgess, Julie Nagel, Deborah W. Knapp, Sophie A. Lelievre, Christopher Agnew, Cleveland G. Shields, James F. Leary, Robin Adams, Jakob D. Jensen Jan 2011

Cancer Prevention Interdisciplinary Education Program At Purdue University: Overview And Preliminary Results, D. Teegarden, Ji-Yeon Lee, Omolola A. Adedokun, Amy Childress, Loran C. Parker, Wilella D. Burgess, Julie Nagel, Deborah W. Knapp, Sophie A. Lelievre, Christopher Agnew, Cleveland G. Shields, James F. Leary, Robin Adams, Jakob D. Jensen

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Cancer prevention is a broad field that crosses many disciplines; therefore, educational efforts to enhance cancer prevention research focused on interdisciplinary approaches to the field are greatly needed. In order to hasten progress in cancer prevention research, the Cancer Prevention Internship Program (CPIP) at Purdue University was designed to develop and test an interdisciplinary curriculum for undergraduate and graduate students. The hypothesis was that course curriculum specific to introducing interdisciplinary concepts in cancer prevention would increase student interest in and ability to pursue advanced educational opportunities (e.g., graduate school, medical school). Preliminary results from the evaluation of the first ...


Multiplicatively Interacting Factors Selectively Influencing Parameters In Multiple Response Class Processing And Rate Trees, Richard Schweickert, Zhuangzhuang Xi Jan 2011

Multiplicatively Interacting Factors Selectively Influencing Parameters In Multiple Response Class Processing And Rate Trees, Richard Schweickert, Zhuangzhuang Xi

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Evidence in many experiments indicates that the processes involved in producing responses are arranged in a tree structure. Evidence often indicates further that an experimental factor, such as item similarity, changes a single parameter, leaving others invariant. In typical studies, a few tree structures are hypothesized a priori, and tested by goodness of fit. With the method of Tree Inference, a tree is constructed by examining the data to see if patterns occur that are predicted when two factors selectively influence different processes (Schweickert & Chen, 2008). The patterns can reveal, for example, whether selectively influenced processes are executed in order, and what the order is. If the patterns do not occur, one can conclude that no tree is possible in which the factors selectively influence processes. In earlier work, three restrictions were imposed on the trees considered: There were two classes of responses; parameters were probabilities, bounded above by 1; and factors were assumed to change parameters associated with ...


Any Pair Of 2d Curves Is Consistent With A 3d Symmetric Interpretation., Tadamasa Sawada, Yunfeng Li, Zygmunt Pizlo Jan 2011

Any Pair Of 2d Curves Is Consistent With A 3d Symmetric Interpretation., Tadamasa Sawada, Yunfeng Li, Zygmunt Pizlo

Department of Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications

Symmetry has been shown to be a very effective a priori constraint in solving a 3D shape recovery problem. Symmetry is useful in 3D recovery because it is a form of redundancy. There are, however, some fundamental limits to the effectiveness of symmetry. Specifically, given two arbitrary curves in a single 2D image, one can always find a 3D mirror-symmetric interpretation of these curves under quite general assumptions. The symmetric interpretation is unique under a perspective projection and there is a one parameter family of symmetric interpretations under an orthographic projection. We formally state and prove this observation for the ...