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Articles 1 - 30 of 86

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Community-Scale Water Treatment Systems In The Dominican Republic, Jonathan Racey, Annabelle Papai, Elise Fischer, Becca Johnson Dec 2018

Community-Scale Water Treatment Systems In The Dominican Republic, Jonathan Racey, Annabelle Papai, Elise Fischer, Becca Johnson

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit: Connecting Through Listening & Scholarship

Engagement and Service-Learning Summit: Reciprocal and Sustainable Partnerships


My Experience In Swaziland With Give Hope, Fight Poverty, Megan Kaser Nov 2018

My Experience In Swaziland With Give Hope, Fight Poverty, Megan Kaser

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Megan Kaser, a recent 2017 alum in the College of Health and Human Sciences at Purdue University, describes her experience with Give Hope, Fight Poverty (GHFP)—a nonprofit organization in Indianapolis, Indiana. She is currently pursuing a master’s degree in physician assistant studies. GHFP’s mission is “to foster philanthropy domestically by designing service-learning programs that engage U.S. college students with rural communities in Swaziland, Africa, and work together to educate, empower, and lift orphaned and vulnerable children—particularly those living in child-headed households— out of poverty” (Give Hope, Fight Poverty, n.d.). By incorporating college students in ...


Portraits Of Jeju Haenyeo As Models Of Empowerment In The Korean Newspaper Maeilshinbo During Japanese Occupation, Seohyeon Lee, Soon-Ok Myong Jun 2018

Portraits Of Jeju Haenyeo As Models Of Empowerment In The Korean Newspaper Maeilshinbo During Japanese Occupation, Seohyeon Lee, Soon-Ok Myong

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

In their article "Portraits of Jeju Haenyeo as Models of Empowerment in the Korean Newspaper Maeilshinbo during Japanese Occupation" Seohyeon Lee and Soon-ok Myong analyze the life of Korean women divers, Jeju Haenyeo, portrayed in the news articles of the Maeilshinbo, the only Korean newspaper during Japanese occupation (1910-1945). In the past, the activities of Haenyeo have been considered the cultural product of Jeju Island. However, within a structure of female repression, Confucian feudalism and colonization, the Haenyeo can be seen as emancipatory pioneers and voluntary economic agents, displaying initiative and pro-activeness and protecting their rights and interests by organizing ...


Linking Signal Detection Theory And Encoding Models To Reveal Independent Neural Representations From Neuroimaging Data, Fabian A. Soto May 2018

Linking Signal Detection Theory And Encoding Models To Reveal Independent Neural Representations From Neuroimaging Data, Fabian A. Soto

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Texture Statistics Are Sufficient For Ensemble Perception, Sasen S. Cain, Matthew S. Cain May 2018

Texture Statistics Are Sufficient For Ensemble Perception, Sasen S. Cain, Matthew S. Cain

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Michelson Contrast For Transparency Perception In Scenes With Multiple Luminances, Minjung Kim, Guillermo Aguilar, Marianne Maertens May 2018

Michelson Contrast For Transparency Perception In Scenes With Multiple Luminances, Minjung Kim, Guillermo Aguilar, Marianne Maertens

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Modeling Neural Computations In Lgn And Visual Cortex That Underlie Contextual Modulation Of Lightness And Darkness Magnitudes In Simple And Complex Images, Michael E. Rudd May 2018

Modeling Neural Computations In Lgn And Visual Cortex That Underlie Contextual Modulation Of Lightness And Darkness Magnitudes In Simple And Complex Images, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


A Feature-Based Model Of Visually Perceiving Deformable Objects, Vivian C. Paulun, Filipp Schmidt, Roland W. Fleming May 2018

A Feature-Based Model Of Visually Perceiving Deformable Objects, Vivian C. Paulun, Filipp Schmidt, Roland W. Fleming

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Global Estimation Of Signed 3d Surface Tilt From Natural Images, Seha Kim, Johannes Burge May 2018

Global Estimation Of Signed 3d Surface Tilt From Natural Images, Seha Kim, Johannes Burge

MODVIS Workshop

The ability of human visual systems to estimate 3D surface orientation from 2D retinal images is critical. But the computation to calculate 3D orientation in real-world scenes is not fully understood. A Bayes optimal model grounded in natural statistics has explained 3D surface tilt estimation of human observers in natural scenes (Kim and Burge, 2018). However, the model is limited because it estimates only unsigned tilt (tilt modulo 180deg). We extend the model to predict signed tilt estimates and compared with human signed estimates. The model takes image pixels as input and produces optimal estimates of tilt as output, using ...


Inferring The Neural Representation Of Faces From Adaptation Aftereffects, Kara J. Emery, Michael A. Webster Ph.D. May 2018

Inferring The Neural Representation Of Faces From Adaptation Aftereffects, Kara J. Emery, Michael A. Webster Ph.D.

MODVIS Workshop

The aftereffects of adaptation to faces have been studied widely, in part to characterize the coding schemes for representing different facial attributes. Often these aftereffects have been interpreted in terms of two alternative models of face processing: 1) a norm-based or opponent code, in which the facial dimension is represented by relative activity in a pair of broadly-tuned mechanisms with opposing sensitivities; or 2) an exemplar code, in which the dimension is sampled by multiple channels narrowly-tuned to different levels of the stimulus. Evidence for or against these alternatives is based on the different patterns of aftereffects they predict (e ...


Effect Of Noise On Mutually Inhibiting Pyramidal Cells In Visual Cortex: Foundation Of Stochasticity In Bi-Stable Perception, Naoki Kogo, Felix Kern, Thomas Nowotny, Raymond Van Ee, Richard Van Wezel, Takeshi Aihara May 2018

Effect Of Noise On Mutually Inhibiting Pyramidal Cells In Visual Cortex: Foundation Of Stochasticity In Bi-Stable Perception, Naoki Kogo, Felix Kern, Thomas Nowotny, Raymond Van Ee, Richard Van Wezel, Takeshi Aihara

MODVIS Workshop

Bi-stable perception has been an important tool to investigate how visual input is interpreted and how it reaches consciousness. To explain the mechanisms of this phenomenon, it has been assumed that a mutual inhibition circuit plays a key role. It is possible that this circuit functions to resolve ambiguity of input image by quickly shifting the balance of competing signals in response to conflicting features. Recently we established an in vitro neural recording system combined with computerized connections mediated by model neurons and synapses (“dynamic clamp” system). With this system, mutual inhibition circuit between two pyramidal cells from primary visual ...


Divisive Inhibition As A Solution To The Correspondence Problem In Perceptual Grouping, Chien-Chung Chen, Yi-Shiuan Lin, Li Lin May 2018

Divisive Inhibition As A Solution To The Correspondence Problem In Perceptual Grouping, Chien-Chung Chen, Yi-Shiuan Lin, Li Lin

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Discovery Of Activities Via Statistical Clustering Of Fixation Patterns, Jeffrey B. Mulligan May 2018

Discovery Of Activities Via Statistical Clustering Of Fixation Patterns, Jeffrey B. Mulligan

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


How Wolves Turned Into Dogs And How Dogs Are Valuable In Meeting Human Social Needs, Kurt Kotrschal Apr 2018

How Wolves Turned Into Dogs And How Dogs Are Valuable In Meeting Human Social Needs, Kurt Kotrschal

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

A wealth of recent behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic results allows us to draw a new, comprehensive picture of the human-wolf- dog relationship. Dogs originated from wolves 35,000 years ago, mainly via selection for tameness. Wolves were probably spiritual partners and hunting buddies of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers over wide areas of Eurasia. Coming together and staying together was probably facilitated by the close ecological and social match between wolves and humans. Both are cursorial hunters and scavengers living in cooperative but relatively closed family groups, which selected for very similar mentalities.

Parallel selection for tameness (i.e., being “nice”) in dogs ...


Water Supply In Developing Countries, Jason K. Hawes, Ernest R. Blatchley Iii, Audrey Caprio, Andrew T. Kanach Jan 2018

Water Supply In Developing Countries, Jason K. Hawes, Ernest R. Blatchley Iii, Audrey Caprio, Andrew T. Kanach

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit: Connecting Through Listening & Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Water Supply In Developing Countries: Student Experiences In The Dominican Republic, Albert Alwang, Margaret Busse, Audrey Caprio, Marieke Fenton, Jason Hawes, Andrew Kanach, Autumn Mcelfresh-Sutton Oct 2017

Water Supply In Developing Countries: Student Experiences In The Dominican Republic, Albert Alwang, Margaret Busse, Audrey Caprio, Marieke Fenton, Jason Hawes, Andrew Kanach, Autumn Mcelfresh-Sutton

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

In 2010, the United Nations established access to safe drinking water as a basic human right; however, many areas around the globe still lack access. The interdisciplinary service-learning course “Water Supply in Developing Countries” was established at Purdue in 2012 to address the complex issue of water insecurity around the world. Over the past five years, the course has produced teams involving students from nursing, engineering, agricultural economics, biology, and food science working together to develop sustainable, community-scale drinking water treatment systems. In partnership with Aqua Clara International, the student team in 2017 established a drinking water treatment system at ...


Acoustic Signatures Of Habitat Types In The Miombo Woodlands Of Western Tanzania, Sheryl Vanessa Amorocho, Dante Francomano, Kristen M. Bellisario, Ben Gottesman, Bryan C. Pijanowski Aug 2017

Acoustic Signatures Of Habitat Types In The Miombo Woodlands Of Western Tanzania, Sheryl Vanessa Amorocho, Dante Francomano, Kristen M. Bellisario, Ben Gottesman, Bryan C. Pijanowski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The Miombo Woodlands of Tanzania comprise several habitat types that are home to a great number of flora and fauna. Understanding their responses to increasing human disturbance is important for conservation, especially in places where people depend so directly on their local ecosystem services to survive. Soundscapes are a powerful approach to study complex biomes undergoing change. The sounds emitted by soniferous fauna characterize the acoustic profile of the landscapes they inhabit such that habitats with the highest acoustic abundance are considered as the most diverse and possibly more ecologically resilient. However, acoustic variability within similar habitat types may pose ...


Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles Aug 2017

Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Understanding speech in noisy environments can be difficult, especially for people with hearing loss. The background noise can cover up the sounds of interest. Normally, the auditory system works to alleviate this problem by tagging and then cancelling the noise. Our experiments are aimed at understanding the mechanism of this noise cancellation process. We hypothesize that non-linear signal processing in the mammalian cochlea (the most peripheral part of the auditory system) is the basis of noise cancellation. To test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) to sounds embedded in background noise with different statistical properties. ANFs ...


Neural Computation Of Statistical Image Properties In Peripheral Vision, Christoph Zetzsche, Ruth Rosenholtz, Noshaba Cheema, Konrad Gadzicki, Lex Fridman May 2017

Neural Computation Of Statistical Image Properties In Peripheral Vision, Christoph Zetzsche, Ruth Rosenholtz, Noshaba Cheema, Konrad Gadzicki, Lex Fridman

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Using Classification Images To Understand Models Of Lightness Perception, Minjung Kim, Jason M. Gold, Richard F. Murray May 2017

Using Classification Images To Understand Models Of Lightness Perception, Minjung Kim, Jason M. Gold, Richard F. Murray

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Edge Integration And Image Segmentation In Lightness And Color: Computational And Neural Theory, Michael E. Rudd May 2017

Edge Integration And Image Segmentation In Lightness And Color: Computational And Neural Theory, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Heuristics From Statistics—Modeling The Behavior And Perception Of Non-Rigid Materials, Vivian C. Paulun, Roland W. Fleming May 2017

Heuristics From Statistics—Modeling The Behavior And Perception Of Non-Rigid Materials, Vivian C. Paulun, Roland W. Fleming

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Needs Of Agriculture Scholars: The Purdue Report For Ithaka S+R, Jane Kinkus Yatcilla, Marianne Stowell Bracke Jan 2017

Investigating The Needs Of Agriculture Scholars: The Purdue Report For Ithaka S+R, Jane Kinkus Yatcilla, Marianne Stowell Bracke

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

This is Purdue's final report for the Ithaka S+R sponsored mutli-institutional study, "Investigating the Needs of Agricultural Scholars."


Dopamine D1 Receptor Activity In The Basolateral Amygdala Is Important For Mediating Fear, Reward And Safety Discrimination Learning, Ka Ho Ng Dec 2016

Dopamine D1 Receptor Activity In The Basolateral Amygdala Is Important For Mediating Fear, Reward And Safety Discrimination Learning, Ka Ho Ng

Open Access Theses

Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients frequently show impairment in safety learning (Jovanovic, Kazama, Bachevalier, & Davis, 2012). Since the amygdala is known to be critical for emotional processing(Wassum & Izquierdo, 2015) and dopamine signaling in the amygdala is important for mediating both fear and reward learning, current experiments examined the role of dopamine signaling in the BLA in mediating both safety learning and reward seeking. We manipulated dopamine D1 receptor activity with a D1 receptor agonist (SKF 38393) or D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390) either systemically or infused directly into the BLA 20 minutes prior to training rats in a fear-safety-reward ...


Quantifying Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics With Mechanistically-Based Biogeochemistry Models And In Situ And Remotely Sensed Data, Shaoqing Liu Dec 2016

Quantifying Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics With Mechanistically-Based Biogeochemistry Models And In Situ And Remotely Sensed Data, Shaoqing Liu

Open Access Dissertations

Terrestrial ecosystem plays a critical role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. Therefore, it is important to accurately quantify the carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystem under future climatic change condition. This dissertation evaluates the regional carbon dynamics by using upscaling approach, mechanistically-based biogeochemistry models and in situ and remotely sensed data.

The upscaling studies based on FLUXNET network has provided us the spatial and temporal pattern of the carbon fluxes but it fails to consider the atmospheric CO2 effect given its important physiological role in carbon assimilation. In the second chapter, we consider the effect of atmospheric CO2 ...


Essays On Malawian Agriculture: Micro-Level Welfare Impacts Of Agricultural Productivity; Profitability Of Fertilizer Use; And Targeting Of Fertilizer Subsidy Programs, Francis Addeah Darko Dec 2016

Essays On Malawian Agriculture: Micro-Level Welfare Impacts Of Agricultural Productivity; Profitability Of Fertilizer Use; And Targeting Of Fertilizer Subsidy Programs, Francis Addeah Darko

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation comprises of three essays that address different aspects of agriculture in Malawi using a two-wave panel data collected by the National Statistical Office of Malawi with support from the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) program. Each essay stands alone as an independent study because of differences in research questions and the methodologies used in addressing the questions.

The first essay analyzes the micro-level welfare impacts of agricultural productivity. Welfare is measured by various dimensions of poverty and food insecurity; and agricultural productivity is measured by maize yield and value of crop output ...


Experiencing The Culture Of Cap-Haïtien: A Trip To Haiti, Alacyn Cox, Kamille Brawner, Kylie Echard Oct 2016

Experiencing The Culture Of Cap-Haïtien: A Trip To Haiti, Alacyn Cox, Kamille Brawner, Kylie Echard

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Alacyn Cox and Kamile Brawner, third-year students, and Kylie Echard, a second-year student, are in the College of Agriculture. In this article, they provide readers with a glimpse of their first impressions on the economy, traditions, and culture they experienced during a study abroad, service-learning experience in Haiti.


Detangling The Interrelationships Between Self-Regulation And Ill-Structured Problem Solving In Problem-Based Learning, Xun Ge, Victor Law, Kun Huang Oct 2016

Detangling The Interrelationships Between Self-Regulation And Ill-Structured Problem Solving In Problem-Based Learning, Xun Ge, Victor Law, Kun Huang

Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning

One of the goals for problem-based learning (PBL) is to promote self-regulation. Although self-regulation has been studied extensively, its interrelationships with ill-structured problem solving have been unclear. In order to clarify the interrelationships, this article proposes a conceptual framework illustrating the iterative processes among problem-solving stages (i.e., problem representation and solution generation) and self-regulation phases (i.e., planning, execution, and reflection). The dynamics of the interrelationships are further illustrated with three ill-structured problem-solving examples in different domains (i.e., information problem solving, historical inquiry, and science inquiry). The proposed framework contributes to research and practice by providing a new ...


Intellectual Property Rights For New Seed Technologies: Balancing Farmers’ And Breeders’ Rights, Preethi Krishnan, Andrew Raridon, Leigh Raymond, Mangala Subramaniam Sep 2016

Intellectual Property Rights For New Seed Technologies: Balancing Farmers’ And Breeders’ Rights, Preethi Krishnan, Andrew Raridon, Leigh Raymond, Mangala Subramaniam

Purdue Policy Research Institute (PPRI) Policy Briefs

Many cite improved seed technologies as vital to addressing the challenge of food insecurity, especially when faced with combined stresses of global climate change, population growth, and natural resource depletion (Anthony and Ferroni 2012; Lipton 2007). As improved seeds find their way into the developing world, policymakers are struggling to find the appropriate institutional mechanisms to regulate their creation and use. Arguments over intellectual property rights (IPR) are central to this debate. Some activists in the Global South are distrustful of any IPR regime that creates private ownership over seeds, whereas international financial institutions such as the World Trade Organization ...


Review Of The Gender And Social Impacts Of Improved Seed Technology In Developing Countries: Policy Implications, Preethi Krishnan, Andrew Raridon, Leigh Raymond, Mangala Subramaniam Sep 2016

Review Of The Gender And Social Impacts Of Improved Seed Technology In Developing Countries: Policy Implications, Preethi Krishnan, Andrew Raridon, Leigh Raymond, Mangala Subramaniam

Purdue Policy Research Institute (PPRI) Policy Briefs

Experts have acknowledged the limits to growth that the processes of climate change, population expansion, and resource depletion will place on agricultural producers in the 21st century (FAO 2012). In response, scientists are employing biotechnology to create new improved seed varieties. However, developing improved seed technology (IST) involves complex and controversial issues that span across disciplines in the biological and social sciences (see Box 1). In this policy brief, we emphasize the need to better examine the gender and social impacts of advancements in seed technology. Based on a detailed review of the literature, we determine that despite recent ...