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Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

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Articles 31 - 60 of 6481

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Exercise Of Power In Prison Organizations And Implications For Legitimacy, John Wooldredge, Benjamin Steiner Jan 2016

The Exercise Of Power In Prison Organizations And Implications For Legitimacy, John Wooldredge, Benjamin Steiner

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Extrapolating from Bottoms and Tankebe’s framework for a social scientific understanding of “legitimacy,” we argue that differences in how correctional officers exercise “power” over prisoners can potentially impact their rightful claims to legitimate authority. Given the implications of this argument for the “cultivation” of legitimacy (as discussed by Weber), the study described here focused on (a) individual and prison level effects on the degree to which officers generally rely on different power bases when exercising their authority, and (b) whether more or less reliance on different power bases at the facility level impacts prisoners’ general perceptions of officers as ...


Lawful Or Fair? How Cops And Laypeople Perceive Good Policing, Tracey L. Meares, Tom R. Tyler, Jacob Gardener Jan 2015

Lawful Or Fair? How Cops And Laypeople Perceive Good Policing, Tracey L. Meares, Tom R. Tyler, Jacob Gardener

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Legal authorities and the public live in two separate worlds. One world is suffused with law, and the other world is suffused with people’s lived experiences that support their evaluations of fairness. When legal authorities consider whether police policies and practices are desirable, a framework regarding the lawfulness of the relevant policies and practices dominates the conversation. Police departments, their policies, and police officers’ actions are viewed as right or wrong with reference to constitutional standards, as interpreted by prosecutors, judges, and other legal actors. In contrast, we argue that the public is generally insensitive to the question of ...


To Be Judged By Twelve Or Carried By Six? Quasi-Involuntariness And The Criminal Prosecution Of Service Members For The Use Of Force In Combat - A Grunt's Perspective, Lupe Laguna Jan 2015

To Be Judged By Twelve Or Carried By Six? Quasi-Involuntariness And The Criminal Prosecution Of Service Members For The Use Of Force In Combat - A Grunt's Perspective, Lupe Laguna

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Post-9/11 conflicts have altered the way that the United States of America and her allies fight wars. Over the last ten years military commanders have embraced counterinsurgency doctrine as the path to victory in the War on Terror. As they have done so, commanders have been faced with the difficult task of balancing the need to protect local civilian populations with the need to proactively target insurgent fighters. To accomplish this mission, the military has adopted rules of engagement that allow a service member to engage a target when he or she perceives that the target exhibits “hostile intent ...


What Is Wrong With Sex In Authority Relations? A Study In Law And Social Theory, Galia Schneebaum Jan 2015

What Is Wrong With Sex In Authority Relations? A Study In Law And Social Theory, Galia Schneebaum

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Criminalization of Sex within Authority Relations (SAR)—such as sex in the relationship between a therapist and a patient or an employer and an employee—is a growing phenomenon. Current theories conceptualize and consequently justify SAR offenses either under a liberal conception of sexual autonomy or under a feminist conception of gender inequality. Yet both conceptualizations are inadequate and fail to capture the distinctiveness of this new legal category. Specifically, they fail to explain the main puzzle underlying SAR offenses, which proscribe sexual contact in the absence of coercion by the offender. Rejecting both liberal and feminist analytical frameworks, this ...


Framing A Narrative Of Discrimination Under The Eighth Amendment In The Context Of Transgender Prisoner Health Care, Sarah Halbach Jan 2015

Framing A Narrative Of Discrimination Under The Eighth Amendment In The Context Of Transgender Prisoner Health Care, Sarah Halbach

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

This Comment looks closely at the reasoning behind two recent federal court opinions granting transgender prisoners access to hormone therapy and sex-reassignment surgery. Although both opinions were decided under the Eighth Amendment’s ban on cruel and unusual punishment, which does not expressly prohibit discrimination based on gender identity, a careful look at the courts’ reasoning suggests that they were influenced by the apparent discrimination against the transgender plaintiffs. This Comment argues that future transgender prisoners may be able to develop an antidiscrimination doctrine within the Eighth Amendment by framing their Eighth Amendment medical claims in terms of discrimination based ...


Trevino V. Thaler: Falling Short Of Meaningful Federal Habeas Corpus Reform, Cristina Law Jan 2015

Trevino V. Thaler: Falling Short Of Meaningful Federal Habeas Corpus Reform, Cristina Law

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Prisoners face many barriers when petitioning for federal habeas corpus relief, especially when asserting ineffective assistance of trial counsel claims. The Supreme Court’s decision in Trevino v. Thaler attempted to lower these barriers by carving out a narrow exception to the procedural default rule. Although a step in the right direction, this narrow exception fell short of meaningful habeas corpus reform. This Comment argues that although the Supreme Court’s decision in Trevino appears to guarantee habeas corpus petitioners the ability to raise ineffective assistance of trial counsel claims in federal court, it is unlikely to provide prisoners meaningful ...


Sentencing And Interbranch Dialogue, Eric S. Fish Jan 2015

Sentencing And Interbranch Dialogue, Eric S. Fish

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

American legislatures generally delegate primary control over sentencing policy to one of two actors: trial judges or a sentencing commission. In choosing between these actors, a legislature decides between two values: individualization or uniformity. If it empowers trial judges, sentences will be individually tailored to each defendant, but there will be unjust disparities because different judges have different sentencing practices. If it empowers a sentencing commission, sentences will be uniform across cases, but they will not be tailored to each defendant. This Article proposes a different architecture for American sentencing systems, one that relies on interbranch dialogue to transcend this ...


Estimating The Prevalence Of Entrapment In Post-9/11 Terrorism Cases, Jesse J. Norris, Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk Jan 2015

Estimating The Prevalence Of Entrapment In Post-9/11 Terrorism Cases, Jesse J. Norris, Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

How many of the terrorism convictions since September 11, 2001 have been the product of entrapment? Some scholars and journalists have suggested that the number is quite high. One report went so far as to claim that only 1% of terrorism prosecutions involve “real” terrorism. The government’s defenders, at the opposite extreme, come close to saying that entrapment in a terrorism case is a contradiction in terms.

Little empirical basis exists for evaluating these competing claims. Existing literature on terrorism and entrapment is typically based on detailed discussions of a few egregious cases, rather than systematic analysis of the ...


Examining The Sources Of Correctional Officer Legitimacy, Benjamin Steiner, John Wooldredge Jan 2015

Examining The Sources Of Correctional Officer Legitimacy, Benjamin Steiner, John Wooldredge

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Correctional officer legitimacy has been linked to prison safety and order, and it may also be relevant for inmate well-being and facilitating behavioral change. Yet few studies have examined the sources of correctional officer legitimacy. Findings from analyses of survey data collected from over 5,500 inmates housed throughout forty-six facilities in Ohio and Kentucky revealed that inmates’ perceptions of the treatment they received during their most recent encounters with correctional officers (procedural justice) impacted the strength of their beliefs regarding the legitimacy of those officers. The analyses also revealed that background factors such as inmates’ age and race were ...


Investigating The Programmatic Attack: A National Survey Of Veterans Treatment Courts, Julie Marie Baldwin Jan 2015

Investigating The Programmatic Attack: A National Survey Of Veterans Treatment Courts, Julie Marie Baldwin

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Veterans treatment courts (VTCs), a recent emergence from the specialized court movement, target the population of veterans in contact with the criminal justice system. Due to the contemporary nature of their dissemination, published empirical research on VTCs is only beginning to materialize. Additionally, national surveys of specialized courts are rare and typically occur decades after the courts emerge. This Article presents descriptive results regarding the establishment, policy, structure, and procedures of VTCs using data from the first national survey of these courts, conducted in the early stages of their emergence. A national compendium of VTCs (N = 114) was created. Seventy-nine ...


Symposium On The Center On Wrongful Convictions: Foreward, Karen L. Daniel Jan 2015

Symposium On The Center On Wrongful Convictions: Foreward, Karen L. Daniel

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No abstract provided.


An Ideological Odyssey: Evolution Of A Reformer, Rob Warden Jan 2015

An Ideological Odyssey: Evolution Of A Reformer, Rob Warden

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No abstract provided.


Remembering Disputed Sexual Encounters: A New Frontier For Witness Memory Research, Deborah Davis, Elizabeth F. Loftus Jan 2015

Remembering Disputed Sexual Encounters: A New Frontier For Witness Memory Research, Deborah Davis, Elizabeth F. Loftus

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

This paper reviews sources of distortion in memory for sexual encounters, particularly those between intoxicated participants. We review factors leading to initial misinterpretations of sexual consent including the indirect nature of sexual consent communications, misleading cultural sexual scripts, misinterpretation of passivity, and others. In this context, we consider the way in which alcohol can both contribute to initial misunderstanding and promote specific distortions in memory over time. Finally, we discuss additional influences on memory, including motivations related to self-esteem, self-concept maintenance, or litigation, and the effects of social influence from sources such as friends, forensic interviewers or therapists.


The Unindicted Co-Ejaculator And Necrophilia: Addressing Prosecutors' Logic-Defying Responses To Exculpatory Dna Results, Jacqueline Mcmurtrie Jan 2015

The Unindicted Co-Ejaculator And Necrophilia: Addressing Prosecutors' Logic-Defying Responses To Exculpatory Dna Results, Jacqueline Mcmurtrie

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

This article addresses a prosecutor’s development of new and bizarre theories, particularly in cases involving confession evidence, to explain away exculpatory DNA results. In Juan Rivera’s case, the prosecutor’s theory for why sperm found inside the 11-year-old victim on the day she was murdered did not belong to Rivera was that she had sex with someone before Rivera came along and raped (but did not ejaculate) and murdered her. The unnamed-lover theory is used so often by prosecutors that it has a moniker: “the unindicted co-ejaculator.” In the case of the Dixmoor Five, teenagers convicted of the ...


The Chronic Failure To Discipline Prosecutors For Misconduct: Proposals For Reform, Thomas P. Sullivan, Maurice Possley Jan 2015

The Chronic Failure To Discipline Prosecutors For Misconduct: Proposals For Reform, Thomas P. Sullivan, Maurice Possley

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

While most prosecutors adhere to the maxim that their primary task is to obtain just results, there are some who violate their ethical responsibilities in order to rack up convictions. This article describes the distressing, decades-long absence of discipline imposed on prosecutors whose knowing misconduct has resulted in terrible injustices being visited upon defendants throughout the country. Many honorable lawyers have failed to speak out about errant prosecutors, thus enabling their ethical breaches. The silent accessories include practicing lawyers and judges of trial and reviewing courts who, having observed prosecutorial misconduct, failed to take corrective action. Fault also lies with ...


Who Could It Be Now? Challenging The Reliability Of First Time In-Court Identifications After State V. Henderson And State V. Lawson, Aliza B. Kaplan, Janis C. Puracal Jan 2015

Who Could It Be Now? Challenging The Reliability Of First Time In-Court Identifications After State V. Henderson And State V. Lawson, Aliza B. Kaplan, Janis C. Puracal

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Despite the recent advances in assessing the reliability of eyewitness identifications, the focus to date has largely been identifications made pretrial. Little has been written about identifications made for the first time in the courtroom. While in-court identifications have an extraordinarily powerful effect on juries, all such identifications are potentially vulnerable to post-event memory distortion and decay. Absent an identification procedure that effectively tests the witness’s memory, it is impossible to know if the witness’s identification of the defendant is a product of his or her original memory or a product of the extraordinarily suggestive circumstances created by ...


Prohibition, Stare Decisis, And The Lagging Ability Of Science To Influence Criminal Procedure, Wesley M. Oliver Jan 2015

Prohibition, Stare Decisis, And The Lagging Ability Of Science To Influence Criminal Procedure, Wesley M. Oliver

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Science has revealed that, contrary to longstanding intuitions, eyewitnesses are sometimes mistaken and false confessions do occur. The methods police use to obtain identifications and confessions can affect their reliability. Yet criminal procedure does not deter investigatory methods that produce unreliable evidence as thoroughly as it does those methods that produce reliable evidence. If an officer conducts an illegal search of a car trunk, the evidence is excluded and subsequently officers know that they must follow the rules if they hope to admit the fruits of such searches. If, however, an officer creates a suggestive lineup—which risks a false ...


Maternal And Paternal Imprisonment And Children's Social Exclusion In Young Adulthood, Holly Foster, John Hagan Jan 2015

Maternal And Paternal Imprisonment And Children's Social Exclusion In Young Adulthood, Holly Foster, John Hagan

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The United States has entered its fourth decade of high imprisonment levels. It is now possible to assess the impact of parental imprisonment on children who have completed the transition to adulthood. We elaborate the role of parental incarceration from a life course perspective on intergenerational social exclusion in young adulthood. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health [Add Health] representatively sampled the historically unique national cohort born in the 1980s, during the onset of mass incarceration. Four waves of the Add Health survey provide a valuable moving window on incarcerated parents and the transitions of their children from adolescence ...


The Psychology Of Workplace Deviant & Criminal Behavior, William Brice, Deborah E. Rupp Jan 2015

The Psychology Of Workplace Deviant & Criminal Behavior, William Brice, Deborah E. Rupp

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The 2013 book Deviant and Criminal Behavior in the Workplace addresses the psychological constructs, situations, and environments underlying active counterproductive workplace behaviors. Building on a diverse range of psychological findings, this book highlights that the field of criminology needs to expand outside of the realm of violence and instead look at how deviant workplace behaviors can tie into—and motivate—other types of crime.


Prosecutors And Victims: Why Wrongful Convictions Matter, Jeanne Bishop, Mark Osler Jan 2015

Prosecutors And Victims: Why Wrongful Convictions Matter, Jeanne Bishop, Mark Osler

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Often, discussions of wrongful convictions focus almost entirely on the wrongfully convicted and ignore two important constituencies: prosecutors and crime victims. Both constituencies have unique connections to wrongful convictions and should be recognized as potentially powerful allies for change. Prosecutors are deeply committed to justice and to the outcomes of their cases; they can help identify and correct wrongful convictions and introduce policies to avoid wrongful convictions in the first place. Wrongful convictions matter to crime victims because convicting the wrong person leaves the real perpetrator free to commit more crimes, creates a new, innocent victim, and drains resources that ...


An Empirical Assessment Of Corporate Environmental Crime-Control Strategies, Sally S. Simpson, Carole Gibbs, Melissa Rorie, Lee Ann Slocum, Mark A. Cohen, Michael Vandenbergh Jan 2013

An Empirical Assessment Of Corporate Environmental Crime-Control Strategies, Sally S. Simpson, Carole Gibbs, Melissa Rorie, Lee Ann Slocum, Mark A. Cohen, Michael Vandenbergh

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Corporate illegality is often attributed to greed by corporate managers and insufficient legal safeguards. Underlying this argument is an explicit critique of corporate crime regulatory systems. Yet there is little systematic investigation of the relative merits of different types or components of crime-control strategies; research comparing more punitive command-and-control strategies with self-regulatory approaches is particularly lacking. In this Article, we assess these crime prevention-and-control mechanisms in the context of individual and situational risk factors that may increase the likelihood of illegal behavior in the environmental arena. We use data drawn from two groups of business managers who participated in a ...


Exposing The Traditional Marriage Agenda, Jessica Feinberg Apr 2012

Exposing The Traditional Marriage Agenda, Jessica Feinberg

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

The success of a social justice movement, especially with regard to issues upon which the public will be voting, depends in significant part on how the issues are defined or framed. Anti-same-sex marriage campaigns frequently urge voters to vote in favor of laws defining marriage as between a man and a woman in order to “protect traditional marriage.” Instead of framing the issue as a question of whether individuals of the same sex should be banned from marrying, anti-same-sex marriage campaigns often frame the issue as a question of whether traditional marriage should be protected from redefinition. This strategy has ...


Fitness Tax Credits: Costs, Benefits, And Viability, Daniel M. Reach Apr 2012

Fitness Tax Credits: Costs, Benefits, And Viability, Daniel M. Reach

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

As the number of overweight and obese Americans rises, it becomes increasingly clear that Americans need further incentives to stimulate lasting lifestyle changes. Tax incentives focused on exercise, which have been largely unexplored to this point, are an effective response to the growing obesity problem in the United States that would largely avoid the political opposition that tax policies focused on diet have encountered. In addition, they would also provide a more palatable solution for the taxpayer beneficiaries with a relatively low impact on government revenues. Viable tax incentives to encourage greater fitness include tax credits and sales tax breaks ...


Applying Indices Post-Grutter To Monitor Progress Toward Attaining A Diverse Student Body, Roger W. Reinsch, Sonia Goltz, Hong Chen, Joel C. Tuoriniemi Apr 2012

Applying Indices Post-Grutter To Monitor Progress Toward Attaining A Diverse Student Body, Roger W. Reinsch, Sonia Goltz, Hong Chen, Joel C. Tuoriniemi

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

The Supreme Court decision in Grutter v. Bollinger provided more definitive guidance for institutions of higher education desiring to use racial preferences in an effort to achieve a diverse student body. This Article first examines Grutter and other relevant cases to set forth the parameters established by the Supreme Court concerning how university preferences, including but not limited to race, may be used in an admissions policy. This Article then provides a framework for creating and using diversity indices that can help institutions implement the guidelines found in these court decisions and monitor whether or not the goal of diversity ...


High Expectations And Some Wounded Hopes: The Policy And Politics Of A Uniform Statute On Videotaping Custodial Interrogations, Andrew E. Taslitz Apr 2012

High Expectations And Some Wounded Hopes: The Policy And Politics Of A Uniform Statute On Videotaping Custodial Interrogations, Andrew E. Taslitz

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

Much has been written about the need to videotape the entire process of police interrogation of suspects. Videotaping discourages abusive interrogation techniques, improves police training in proper techniques, reduces frivolous suppression motions, and improves jury decision making about the voluntariness and accuracy of a confession. Despite these benefits, only a small number of states have adopted legislation mandating electronic recording of the entire interrogation process. In the hope of accelerating legislative adoption of this procedure and of improving the quality of such legislation, the Uniform Law Commission (ULC) ratified a uniform recording statute for consideration by the states. I was ...


Foreclosing Foreclosure: Escaping The Yawning Abyss Of The Deep Mortgage And Housing Crisis, Aleatra P. Williams Apr 2012

Foreclosing Foreclosure: Escaping The Yawning Abyss Of The Deep Mortgage And Housing Crisis, Aleatra P. Williams

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

In 2007, Rick Sharga, vice president of marketing at RealtyTrac, stated that with more stringent lending and underwriting standards, “we will likely see a significant foreclosure decrease” within the next three years. However, a sustained and considerable decrease in foreclosures has yet to occur. In fact, the real estate market downfall and resulting mortgage and housing crisis have proven to be wider, deeper, and more serious than first anticipated. Since 2007, millions of homeowners faced, and continue to face, foreclosure proceedings. To provide protections for homeowners, federal and state actors have attempted regulatory and legislative solutions to stem the foreclosure ...


An Inconvenient Lie: Big Tobacco Was Put On Trial For Denying The Effects Of Smoking; Is Climate Change Denial Off-Limits?, Elizabeth Dubats Apr 2012

An Inconvenient Lie: Big Tobacco Was Put On Trial For Denying The Effects Of Smoking; Is Climate Change Denial Off-Limits?, Elizabeth Dubats

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

Plaintiffs have made several notable attempts to bring nuisance, trespass, and negligence suits against major sources of greenhouse gas emissions for climate change related injuries. While climate change is a widely recognized environmental issue, courts have refused to recognize it as a basis for a valid cause of action in tort, finding either petitioners lack standing to bring the claim, or that the claim raises political questions that should not be addressed by the judiciary. Some more recent climate change tort claims have also included allegations of fraud on the part of the hydrocarbon industry for actively perpetuating misinformation about ...


Narrative And Drama In The American Trial, Robert P. Burns Jan 2012

Narrative And Drama In The American Trial, Robert P. Burns

Faculty Working Papers

This short essay summarizes an understanding of the trial as a medium in which law is realized or actualized, rather than imposed or enforced. It suggests that we should pay close attention to the actual practices that prevail at trial, its "consciously structured hybrid" of languages and practices, if we want to understand the nature of law.


Soul Of A Woman: The Sex Stereotyping Prohibition At Work, Kimberly A. Yuracko Jan 2012

Soul Of A Woman: The Sex Stereotyping Prohibition At Work, Kimberly A. Yuracko

Faculty Working Papers

In 1989 the Supreme Court in Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins declared that sex stereotyping was a prohibited from of sex discrimination at work. This seemingly simple declaration has been the most important development in sex discrimination jurisprudence since the passage of Title VII. It has been used to extend the Act's coverage and protect groups that were previously excluded. Astonishingly, however, the contours, dimensions and requirements of the prohibition have never been clearly articulated by courts or scholars. In this paper I evaluate four interpretations of what the sex stereotyping prohibition might mean in order to determine what it ...


Legislating A Family-Friendly Workplace: Should It Be Done In The United States?, Marianne Delpo Kulow Jan 2012

Legislating A Family-Friendly Workplace: Should It Be Done In The United States?, Marianne Delpo Kulow

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

This Article reviews both domestic and international efforts to legislate a more family-friendly workplace, with an eye toward measuring the impact of these various initiatives and predicting both their future success and the likelihood of more widespread adoption. In particular, the Article reviews federal, state, and international legislative efforts to mandate: paid parental leaves; paid sick days; and flexible work arrangements. The Article then attempts to measure the effectiveness of such legislatively required, family-friendly policies by suggesting ways to measure and to predict the impact of U.S. legislative efforts to reconcile the conflicting responsibilities of work and parenthood. The ...