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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Teaching And Learning Anthropology In The Museum: Developing An Exhibit With The Ignatian Pedagogical Paradigm, Catherine Nichols Jul 2019

Teaching And Learning Anthropology In The Museum: Developing An Exhibit With The Ignatian Pedagogical Paradigm, Catherine Nichols

Anthropology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Elements of the Ignatian Pedagogical Paradigm (IPP), or teaching and learning in the Jesuit tradition, can be successfully integrated into both formal anthropology courses, as well as informal environments such as museum exhibits in order to advance anthropological pedagogy. This article discusses how I integrated the IPP into the design of an anthropology course on museum exhibit development, and within the exhibit itself. Students benefitted from direct activities such as opportunities to study and interpret material culture, and were asked to reflect on the experience of applying their anthropological knowledge and interests in a public venue. Visitors to the exhibit ...


Measuring Trust In Medical Researchers: Comparing Agree-Disagree And Construct-Specific Survey Questions, Jennifer Dykema, Dana Garbarski, Ian F. Wall, Dorothy F. Edwards Jun 2019

Measuring Trust In Medical Researchers: Comparing Agree-Disagree And Construct-Specific Survey Questions, Jennifer Dykema, Dana Garbarski, Ian F. Wall, Dorothy F. Edwards

Sociology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

While scales measuring subjective constructs historically rely on agree-disagree (AD) questions, recent research demonstrates that construct-specific (CS) questions clarify underlying response dimensions that AD questions leave implicit and CS questions often yield higher measures of data quality. Given acknowledged issues with AD questions and certain established advantages of CS items, the evidence for the superiority of CS questions is more mixed than one might expect. We build on previous investigations by using cognitive interviewing to deepen understanding of AD and CS response processing and potential sources of measurement error. We randomized 64 participants to receive an AD or CS version ...


Logistic Discriminant Analysis And Structural Equation Modeling Both Identify Effects In Random Data, Ariel Linden, Fred B. Bryant, Paul R. Yarnold May 2019

Logistic Discriminant Analysis And Structural Equation Modeling Both Identify Effects In Random Data, Ariel Linden, Fred B. Bryant, Paul R. Yarnold

Psychology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Recent research compared the ability of various classification algorithms [logistic regression (LR), random forests (RF), support vector machines (SVM), boosted regression (BR), multi-layer perceptron neural net model (MLP), and classification tree analysis (CTA)] to correctly fail to identify a relationship between a binary class (dependent) variable and ten randomly generated attributes (covariates): only CTA failed to find a model. We use the same ten-variable N=1,000 dataset to assess training classification accuracy of models developed by logistic discriminant analysis (LDA), generalized structural equation modelling (GSEM), and robust diagonally-weighted least-squares (DWLS) SEM for binary outcomes. Except for CTA, all machine-learning ...


Strengths So White: Interrogating Strengthsquest Education Through A Critical Whiteness Lens, Nicholas Tapia-Fuselier, Lauren Irwin May 2019

Strengths So White: Interrogating Strengthsquest Education Through A Critical Whiteness Lens, Nicholas Tapia-Fuselier, Lauren Irwin

Journal of Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs

Many college student leadership programs utilize StrengthsQuest as a tool for individual and group development. Although StrengthsQuest is touted as a universal tool to help all individuals leverage their strengths in varied settings, the authors are critical of both the tool itself and the ways educators utilize StrengthsQuest. This paper employs tenets of critical whiteness theory, including color evasiveness, normalization, and solipsism, to deconstruct StrengthsQuest within the context of leadership education. Additionally, the authors offer possibilities for reimagining StrengthsQuest education in ways that center inclusion and justice. Finally, strategies for critical leadership educators are discussed.


(Un)Fulfilling Requirements: Satisfactory Academic Progress And Its Impact On First-Generation, Low-Income, Asian American Students, Liza Talusan, Ray Franke May 2019

(Un)Fulfilling Requirements: Satisfactory Academic Progress And Its Impact On First-Generation, Low-Income, Asian American Students, Liza Talusan, Ray Franke

Journal of Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs

Over the past few years, our understanding of the diverse identities of Asian American students has increased. Yet, the experiences of Asian American students who identify as coming from low-income backgrounds and as first generation college students has been underrepresented in the literature. In particular, this study explored how Asian American students experienced the financial aid process, including the ways in which the federal Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP) policy that establishes eligibility criteria for continued student financial aid impacts their experiences in college. Findings suggest student strategies for navigating a complicated process and institutional strategies for reducing confusion and increasing ...


An Education In Sexuality & Sociality: Reflections & Critiques, Frank Karioris May 2019

An Education In Sexuality & Sociality: Reflections & Critiques, Frank Karioris

Journal of Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs

The opening editorial of this volume speaks to Dr. Frank Karioris's recently released book, An Education on Sexuality and Sociality: Heteronormativity on Campus. The outline of this piece is in conversation with the complementary book review in this volume, highlighting the strengths, areas for growth, and future implications for research and practice in higher education.


Mentoring For American Indian/Alaska Native Youth Population, Julia Pryce, Crystal Aschenbrener May 2019

Mentoring For American Indian/Alaska Native Youth Population, Julia Pryce, Crystal Aschenbrener

Social Work: School of Social Work Faculty Publications and Other Works

This review examines research on mentoring American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth. The review is organized around four questions: 1. What is the effectiveness of mentoring for American Indian and Alaska Native youth? 2. What factors influence the effectiveness of mentoring for American Indian and Alaska Native youth? 3. What pathways are most important in linking mentoring to outcomes for American Indian and Alaska Native youth? 4. To what extent have mentoring initiatives for American Indian and Alaska Native youth reached and engaged the youth, been implemented with high quality, and been adopted and sustained?


Breaking Down Gesture And Action In Mental Rotation: Understanding The Components Of Movement That Promote Learning, Elizabeth M. Wakefield-Connell, Alana E. Foley, Raedy Ping, Julia N. Villarreal, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Susan C. Levine May 2019

Breaking Down Gesture And Action In Mental Rotation: Understanding The Components Of Movement That Promote Learning, Elizabeth M. Wakefield-Connell, Alana E. Foley, Raedy Ping, Julia N. Villarreal, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Susan C. Levine

Psychology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Past research has shown that children’s mental rotation skills are malleable and can be improved through action experience—physically rotating objects—or gesture experience—showing how objects could rotate (e.g., Frick, Ferrara, & Newcombe, 2013; Goldin-Meadow et al., 2012; Levine, Goldin-Meadow, Carlson, & Hemani-Lopez, 2018). These two types of movements both involve rotation, but differ on a number of components. Here, we break down action and gesture into components—feeling an object during rotation, using a grasping handshape during rotation, tracing the trajectory of rotation, and seeing the outcome of rotation—and ask, in two studies, how training children on a mental ...


Sexualized Labour In Digital Culture: Instagram Influencers, Porn Chic And The Monetization Of Attention, Jenna M. Drenten, Lauren Gurrieri, Meagan Tyler Apr 2019

Sexualized Labour In Digital Culture: Instagram Influencers, Porn Chic And The Monetization Of Attention, Jenna M. Drenten, Lauren Gurrieri, Meagan Tyler

School of Business: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The rise of digital technologies and social media platforms has been linked to changing forms of work, as well as the mainstreaming of pornography and a ‘porn chic’ aesthetic. This article examines some of the ways in which these themes coalesce, and interrogates the conceptual boundaries of sexualized labour, extending beyond traditional organizational settings and into Web 2.0. The study explores performances of sexualized labour on social media by analysing visual and textual content from 172 female influencers on Instagram. This article contributes to the literature on sexualized labour in three ways. First, by demonstrating how sexualized labour is ...


An Education In Sexuality & Sociality: Heteronormativity On Campus, Jason K. Wallace Apr 2019

An Education In Sexuality & Sociality: Heteronormativity On Campus, Jason K. Wallace

Journal of Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs

In An Education in Sexuality & Sociality: Heteronormativity on Campus, Dr. Frank Karioris discusses the role of universities in creating sexed and gendered relationships and hierarchies within society. Through his ethnographic study, Dr. Karioris explores homosociality and challenges heteronormativity on college campuses. This book review provides an overview of this work along with critique and implication for higher education.


Noncombatant Immunity And The Ethics Of Blockade, Robert Mayer Apr 2019

Noncombatant Immunity And The Ethics Of Blockade, Robert Mayer

Political Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This paper counters Michael Walzer’s argument against tight blockades. It shows that the interdiction of food shipments need not violate the principle of noncombatant immunity. Whether it is morally permissible to impose a strict blockade depends on the circumstances of the target state. The more self-sufficient a country is, the more acceptable it should be for a belligerent to cut the enemy’s external lines of supply. The Allied blockade of Germany during the First World War illustrates the argument. Fault in this case should be assigned to the German government for the loss of civilian lives.


Gender East And West: Transnational Gender Theory And Global Marketing Research, Katherine Sredl Feb 2019

Gender East And West: Transnational Gender Theory And Global Marketing Research, Katherine Sredl

School of Business: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Much of the prior scholarly research on global gender and marketing tends to focus on development. The post-socialist space does not fit neatly into this paradigm, given the diversity of its legacy of ideology, industrialization, feminist thought, and the post-socialist experience of privatization, democratization, European Union expansion, and, in some cases, war. This chapter uses the history of feminist thought in Yugoslavia and Croatia to highlight the contribution the post-socialist space brings to global gender and marketing research: questioning the role of the state in securing rights and questioning assumptions about individualism in a neoliberal era. I argue for an ...


Applying An Ethics Of Care To Internet Research: Gamergate And Digital Humanities, Todd Suomela, Florence Chee, Bettina Berendt, Geoffrey Rockwell Feb 2019

Applying An Ethics Of Care To Internet Research: Gamergate And Digital Humanities, Todd Suomela, Florence Chee, Bettina Berendt, Geoffrey Rockwell

School of Communication: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article examines key ethical issues that are continuing to emerge from the task of archiving data scraped from online sources such as social media sites, blogs, and forums, particularly pertaining to online harassment and hostile groups. Given the proliferation of digital social data, an understanding of ethics and data stewardship that evolves alongside the shifting landscape of digital societies is indeed essential.

Our study involves a primary research archive that is comprised of data scraped from our project concerning the case study of Gamergate, which involved numerous instances of hate speech in various online communities. Doing this type of ...


Different Domains Of Physical Activity: The Role Of Leisure, Housework/Care Work, And Paid Work In Socioeconomic Differences In Reported Physical Activity, Dana Garbarski, Rachel Cusatis Jan 2019

Different Domains Of Physical Activity: The Role Of Leisure, Housework/Care Work, And Paid Work In Socioeconomic Differences In Reported Physical Activity, Dana Garbarski, Rachel Cusatis

Sociology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Inequality in socioeconomic status (SES)—education, income, and occupation—may further exacerbate the health gap between the “haves” and “have nots” by shaping health behaviors such as physical activity. For example, those in higher socioeconomic positions are consistently found to engage in more physical activity according to public health reports that focus on leisure activity. However, previous research investigating the role of SES in shaping engagement in housework, childcare, and paid work suggests different opportunities for physical activity. This discrepancy in how researchers ask questions about physical activity and the pathways people take to healthy activity raises the question: Do ...


Hiring Faculty For The Mission Of Private Universities, John P. Pelissero Jan 2019

Hiring Faculty For The Mission Of Private Universities, John P. Pelissero

Political Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Video Gaming As A Gendered Pursuit, Jenna M. Drenten, Robert L. Harrison, Nicholas J. Pendarvis Jan 2019

Video Gaming As A Gendered Pursuit, Jenna M. Drenten, Robert L. Harrison, Nicholas J. Pendarvis

School of Business: Faculty Publications and Other Works

As video game technology has evolved, so too has the gendered nature of the video gaming subculture. This chapter characterizes the broad cultural context of gaming and the shifting social patterns of gendered game play. By reviewing existing research at the intersection of gender, gaming, and consumption, we identify three primary research opportunities to build upon existing research: understanding consumers’ lived experiences in the gendered gaming subculture, exploring the gendered gaming marketplace (e.g., shopping, advertising), and investigating the systemic, structural, and cultural underpinnings of gaming. Existing research in the field is not exhaustive nor complete; rather, opportunities for research ...


The Impact Of The Cook County State’S Attorney’S Office Deferred Prosecution Program, Christine George, John Orwat, Don Stemen, Jennifer Cossyleon, Whitney Key Jan 2019

The Impact Of The Cook County State’S Attorney’S Office Deferred Prosecution Program, Christine George, John Orwat, Don Stemen, Jennifer Cossyleon, Whitney Key

Criminal Justice & Criminology: Faculty Publications & Other Works

This paper analyzes the impact of the Cook County State’s Attorney’s Office Deferred Prosecution Program (DPP) on participation outcome patterns and compares recidivism rates between a sample of DPP participants (695) and a comparison group (991) of defendants found guilty through traditional adjudication from February 28, 2011 and December 5, 2012 with recidivism rates through June 6, 2014. Binary logistic and cox proportional regressions were utilized to evaluate the program. No statistically significant difference in re-arrest rates was found for a sample of DPP participants and a comparison group of defendants found guilty through traditional adjudication. However, DPP ...


Exploring The Loss And Disenfranchised Grief Of Animal Care Workers., Benjamin Marton, Teresa Kilbane, Holly Nelson-Becker Jan 2019

Exploring The Loss And Disenfranchised Grief Of Animal Care Workers., Benjamin Marton, Teresa Kilbane, Holly Nelson-Becker

Social Work: School of Social Work Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article explores the psychological distress of Animal Care Workers (ACWs), and the disenfranchisement of this distress through mixed methods study conducted as an online survey. In all, 139 participants responded about their experiences as an ACW, related psychological distress, and the systemic disenfranchisement of distress. Findings indicate that nearly half of ACWs experienced symptoms of depression in the previous month. Over 66% indicated it was difficult to cope. Limited support often resulted in a disenfranchized loss. Implications suggest ACW distress and disenfranchisement related to animals they serve is similar to that of individuals who lose animal companions.


Commentary: Mediation And Moderation: An Historical Progress Report, Grayson Holmbeck Jan 2019

Commentary: Mediation And Moderation: An Historical Progress Report, Grayson Holmbeck

Psychology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


Development And Validation Of The Japanese Version Of The Savoring Beliefs Inventory (Sbi-J)., Atsushi Kawakubo, Fred B. Bryant, Erika Miyakawa, Takashi Oguchi Jan 2019

Development And Validation Of The Japanese Version Of The Savoring Beliefs Inventory (Sbi-J)., Atsushi Kawakubo, Fred B. Bryant, Erika Miyakawa, Takashi Oguchi

Psychology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Savoring is defined as people’s capacity to attend to positive experiences and to regulate positive feelings in response to positive events. The purpose of this study was to develop a Japanese adaptation of the Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI-J). The SBI is a self-report measure designed to assess individuals’ beliefs about their ability to savor positive experience within three temporal orientations involving future-focused anticipation of upcoming positive events, present-focused savoring of ongoing positive moments, and past-focused reminiscence about positive memories. After back-translating the SBI, we used an Internet survey to administer the instrument, along with a set of validational criterion ...


Consumer Competence Strategies, Spiritually Inspired Core Values And Locus Of Control: What Are The Links?, Gabriella Spinelli, Holly Nelson-Becker, Roberta Ligossi Jan 2019

Consumer Competence Strategies, Spiritually Inspired Core Values And Locus Of Control: What Are The Links?, Gabriella Spinelli, Holly Nelson-Becker, Roberta Ligossi

Social Work: School of Social Work Faculty Publications and Other Works

Ethical consumption has increased as a result of a more pressing environmental agenda, allowing consumers to assert their core values through marketplace decisions. The progressive secularisation of society has opened a gap on how religion and spirituality, defined in this paper as constructs that underpin core values, affect individuals through their consumption choices. An exploratory approach was taken in this research to investigate how consumers negotiate their daily shopping habits, whether they align with or diverge from their religious or secular core values, and whether an internal or external locus of control (LoC) was demonstrated. This qualitative study used the ...


Religion And Progressive Politics In The United States, Ruth Braunstein, Todd N. Fuist, Rhys Williams Dec 2018

Religion And Progressive Politics In The United States, Ruth Braunstein, Todd N. Fuist, Rhys Williams

Sociology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

In recent decades, scholars interested in the role of religion in American public life have largely focused on the Christian Right or the role of religion in civic life. Compared to these extensive literatures, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of religion in liberal/progressive politics. Progressive religious voices are more widespread and more racially, socioeconomically, and religiously diverse than is typically recognized. Moreover, while these actors seek influence within the most visible political realms of elections and policymaking, they also focus on shaping the cultural identities, narratives, and discourses that undergird democratic life. This article offers ...


Which Activities Count? Using Experimental Data To Understand Conceptualizations Of Physical Activity, Rachel Cusatis, Dana Garbarski Dec 2018

Which Activities Count? Using Experimental Data To Understand Conceptualizations Of Physical Activity, Rachel Cusatis, Dana Garbarski

Sociology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

US health surveys consistently report that men and those with higher socioeconomic status (SES) engage in more physical activity than women and lower SES counterparts, using questions that ask about physical activity during leisure time. However, social characteristics such as gender and SES shape understandings of and access to leisure-based physical activity as well as other domains where healthy activity is available – namely house work, care work, and paid work. Thus, the physical activity of US adults may look different when what counts as physical activity expands beyond leisure activity.

The current study uses Amazon’s Mechanical Turk platform to ...


Local Strategies For Economic Survival In Touristically Volatile Times: An Indonesian Case Study Of Microvendors, Gendered Cultural Practices, And Resilience, Kathleen M. Adams Nov 2018

Local Strategies For Economic Survival In Touristically Volatile Times: An Indonesian Case Study Of Microvendors, Gendered Cultural Practices, And Resilience, Kathleen M. Adams

Anthropology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

This article utilizes a qualitative ethnographic approach to examine the economic survival strategies pursued by Indonesian souvenir artisans and handicraft microvendors in touristically turbulent times. Resilience-oriented approaches have offered promising frameworks for understanding regions', destinations', and communities' capacities to adjust and adapt to challenges: this article complements these broader approaches by offering a fine-grained analysis of individual strategies for finding creative solutions to the economic challenges thrust upon them. My approach melds a constructivist approach accentuating local peoples' creative responses with gender-aware and practice-oriented approaches. These findings draw from data collected over three decades of ethnographic research in the Toraja ...


Addressing Environmental Gentrification: Improving Environmental Health For Children And Youth Without Displacement, Tania Schusler, Amy Krings Nov 2018

Addressing Environmental Gentrification: Improving Environmental Health For Children And Youth Without Displacement, Tania Schusler, Amy Krings

Center for the Human Rights of Children

This research brief aims to consider how community members and policies might improve environmental amenities within contaminated communities without displacing existing residents. To this end, we will first introduce a concept known as environmental gentrification. We will then summarize some of the existing literature that explores the relationships between urban greening and brownfield redevelopment projects in relation to gentrification. Brownfields refer to properties where the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant may complicate the property’s expansion, redevelopment, or reuse (https://www.epa.gov/brownfields/overview-brownfields- program). Our review of literature indicates that the degree ...


What Happens When Insurers Make The Insurance Laws? State Legislative Agendas And The Occupational Makeup Of Government, Eric Hansen, Nicholas Carnes, Virginia Gray Nov 2018

What Happens When Insurers Make The Insurance Laws? State Legislative Agendas And The Occupational Makeup Of Government, Eric Hansen, Nicholas Carnes, Virginia Gray

Political Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Do the occupational backgrounds of politicians affect the government’s agenda? Businesses have long thought so. The first occupational data on state legislators were collected by the Insurance Information Institute, an interest group representing major insurance companies. In this paper, we test one potential motive for these kinds of efforts: the idea that the occupational makeup of governments affects the agendas they pursue, an argument that has been largely neglected in research on politicians’ occupational backgrounds. We focus here on the insurance industry. Using original data, we find that state legislatures with more former insurers consider fewer bills regulating insurance ...


Addressing Environmental Gentrification: Improving Environmental Health For Children And Youth Without Displacement, Tania Schusler, Amy Krings Nov 2018

Addressing Environmental Gentrification: Improving Environmental Health For Children And Youth Without Displacement, Tania Schusler, Amy Krings

Social Work: School of Social Work Faculty Publications and Other Works

Historically, low income communities and communities of color have borne the brunt of environmental pollution with limited access to environmental amenities. This has arisen, in part, due to marginalized communities’ lack of access and influence in environmental decision making, as well as legacies of racial and ethnic housing segregation (Cole & Foster, 2001). Environmental justice concerns include the disproportionate placement and inequitable regulation of polluting facilities in areas populated by people who are poor and/or racial minorities (Bryant, 1995: Bullard, 1993; Mohai & Bryant, 1992; Lavelle & Coyle, 1992). The inequitable distribution of environmental pollution is especially problematic for children’s wellbeing, because characteristics of the physical environment influence children’s development (Evans, 2006; McLeod, 2017). Children living in poverty experience greater exposure to environmental toxins, noise, poor quality housing, inadequate green space, and other environmental factors that adversely affect psychosocial and physical development (Evans, 2004).


Black Student Leaders’ Race-Conscious Engagement: Contextualizing Racial Ideology In The Current Era Of Resistance, Veronica A. Jones Oct 2018

Black Student Leaders’ Race-Conscious Engagement: Contextualizing Racial Ideology In The Current Era Of Resistance, Veronica A. Jones

Journal of Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs

Black youth of the current generation are creating new definitions of engagement that vary from the nostalgic reverence to the activism of Black student leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. Because today’s student leaders are engaged in navigating predominantly White institution (PWI) norms, this research sought to contextualize the racial attitudes of Black student leaders through race-conscious engagement. While some Black students may not function under an activist label, they are nevertheless committed to social change and realize their involvement through a salient Black identity. Racial ideology survey items from the multidimensional inventory of Black identity (MIBI) which operationalizes ...


Navigating The Unknown: Experiences Of International Graduate Students From Muslim-Majority Countries In The Current Political Climate, Juanita Ariza, Madison Motoyasu, Holly Lustig, Ree M. Palmer, Benjamin Stalvey, Donna To Oct 2018

Navigating The Unknown: Experiences Of International Graduate Students From Muslim-Majority Countries In The Current Political Climate, Juanita Ariza, Madison Motoyasu, Holly Lustig, Ree M. Palmer, Benjamin Stalvey, Donna To

Journal of Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs

The United States was built upon oppression, colonization, slavery, and exclusionary policies. Today, our current policies and laws create and maintain acts of oppression through forms of discrimination, exploitation, and marginalization. Most recently, the Executive Order 13769 (2017) was created to intentionally restrict the travel of non-citizens, visitors, and residents from seven Muslim-majority countries. This study shares the experiences of 9 international graduate students from Muslim-majority countries in the current sociopolitical environments at a midwestern Predominantly White Institution (PWI) in the U.S. The study asks the question, “How do international graduate students conceptualize their sense of belonging on their ...


Trump And An Anti-Immigrant Climate: Implications For Latinx Undergraduates, Jeremy D. Franklin, Rudy Medina Oct 2018

Trump And An Anti-Immigrant Climate: Implications For Latinx Undergraduates, Jeremy D. Franklin, Rudy Medina

Journal of Critical Scholarship on Higher Education and Student Affairs

Historically minoritized students regularly report hostile campus climates and cultures, but the election of Donald J. Trump and the rise of conservative guest speakers on campuses have contributed to greater unrest. Using campus climate and culture literature as a framework, this paper investigates the impact of anti-Latinx rhetoric and race/ethnic unconscious policies on Latinx undergraduates. Findings from focus groups highlight eight themes: 1) Power of Political Rhetoric and Trump, 2) Coded Language, 3) Unsafe Academic Spaces, 4) Racialization of Immigration as a Latinx/Chicanx Issue, 5) Burnout, Stress, and Racial Battle Fatigue, 6) Balancing Academic Commitments and Social Activism ...