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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Endnotes, Issue 25.3, Cisr Jmu Jun 2022

Endnotes, Issue 25.3, Cisr Jmu

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


No Pockets, Jody Condit Fagan Jun 2022

No Pockets, Jody Condit Fagan

Libraries

No abstract provided.


A Note From The Interim Director, Suzanne Fiederlein Jun 2022

A Note From The Interim Director, Suzanne Fiederlein

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


Ukraine: Coordinating The Reponse, Greg Crowther Jun 2022

Ukraine: Coordinating The Reponse, Greg Crowther

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The war in Ukraine has seen the use of ground and aerial weapons on a scale not seen in Europe for decades, causing immense devastation and human suffering. And the legacy of explosive hazards since the onset of the war, in the form of unexploded ordnance, landmines, and cluster munitions, will take decades to address. It’s a legacy that will kill and injure civilians long after the conflict has ended. This is not just a problem for the future, however but a challenge for the present: explosive ordnance risks civilian lives, hampers efforts to deliver emergency humanitarian aid, and ...


The Recovery Of Human Remains In Weapon-Contaminated Settings: Towards Guidance For The Mine Action Community, Lou Maresca, Chris Poole, Jane Taylor, Phd Jun 2022

The Recovery Of Human Remains In Weapon-Contaminated Settings: Towards Guidance For The Mine Action Community, Lou Maresca, Chris Poole, Jane Taylor, Phd

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Mine action and forensic services are critical elements in the response to humanitarian needs during and after armed conflict. Mine action operators will work to identify, mark, and eventually clear areas contaminated with landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW). Forensic specialists and other related experts will be operational in the search for missing persons and the management of the dead by locating, recovering, and helping to identify human remains, while ensuring maximum protection, dignity of the deceased, and attention to their families.[1] These professions can often intersect in situations where human remains and explosive hazards are both present.


Missed Opportunities: A Chance To Develop Synergy Between Humanitarian Mine Action And Humanitarian Forensic Action, Patrick Nowak Jun 2022

Missed Opportunities: A Chance To Develop Synergy Between Humanitarian Mine Action And Humanitarian Forensic Action, Patrick Nowak

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

This article aims to identify the opportunities for synergy that exist globally between humanitarian mine action (HMA) and humanitarian forensic action (HFA) through the lens of their specific objectives. Moreover, it recommends how best to leverage existing touchpoints and establish networks between the two disciplines; explores the access and placement that can enhance both mine action and forensic objectives; shows how subject-matter experts currently remain underutilized in explosive mitigation missions and human remains recovery operations; and indicates how to remedy that through combined efforts.


Tnmac's Victim Assistance Activities: The Mental Health Aspect Of Survivors And Hma Personnel, Reykhan Muminova, Md, Phd, Muhabbat Ibrohimzoda, Phd Jun 2022

Tnmac's Victim Assistance Activities: The Mental Health Aspect Of Survivors And Hma Personnel, Reykhan Muminova, Md, Phd, Muhabbat Ibrohimzoda, Phd

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Tajikistan, a State Party to the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC) since 1 April 2000, contains a significant number of landmine victims and survivors. The Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC) is using the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) Core for its data collection and reporting, including information on persons killed or injured by mines as well as their needs and challenges. This information is disaggregated by gender, age, and disability. Since 1992, the total number of casualties resulting from accidents with landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) is 885 (535 survivors; 350 fatalities).


Environmental Soil Sampling And Analysis: Application In Supporting Sustainable Land Use Practices In Areas Impacted By Explosive Ordnance, Bui Doan Bach, Kimberly Mccosker, Linsey Cottrell Jun 2022

Environmental Soil Sampling And Analysis: Application In Supporting Sustainable Land Use Practices In Areas Impacted By Explosive Ordnance, Bui Doan Bach, Kimberly Mccosker, Linsey Cottrell

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Assessing the humanitarian impact of explosive ordnance (EO) has been an integral part of the land release process for decades. However, rarely have environmental aspects been included, despite the fact that EO can impact the environment in several ways, adding to the overall humanitarian impact of the use of explosives.


Mine Action And The Reintegration Of Former Combatants: Expanding The Debate, Laurie Druelle, Henrique Garbino, Eric Mellado Åhlin Jun 2022

Mine Action And The Reintegration Of Former Combatants: Expanding The Debate, Laurie Druelle, Henrique Garbino, Eric Mellado Åhlin

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In the last decades, humanitarian mine action (HMA) and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR)2 processes have increasingly been recognized as essential to paving the way for sustainable development thanks to their contributions towards human security, livelihood, and access to services. The integration between the two processes, however, has not yet been fully addressed in the literature or practice. This paper seeks to identify areas where DDR and HMA intersect and, supported by anecdotal evidence, suggest a conceptual framework for future research and implementation. Most importantly, we hope to widen the debate on the potentially synergic relationship between HMA and ...


Mine Action In Afghanistan And Tajikistan: Challenges And Opportunities, Markus Schindler Jun 2022

Mine Action In Afghanistan And Tajikistan: Challenges And Opportunities, Markus Schindler

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Rugged mountains, challenging road conditions, ongoing security concerns, and a fluctuating donor landscape present a wide range of obstacles to mine clearance efforts in Afghanistan and neighboring Tajikistan. The Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) first entered the region in 2001 in the wake of the US-led invasion of Afghanistan. Since then, the mine action sectors in both countries have seen significant progress and growth. FSD has been part of this process since its early days through its country programs in Tajikistan and Afghanistan, engaging in a variety of mine action activities including clearance (manual, mechanical, and with mine detection ...


National Capacity Building For Humanitarian Mine Action Activities In Iraq, Mark Wilkinson Phd Jun 2022

National Capacity Building For Humanitarian Mine Action Activities In Iraq, Mark Wilkinson Phd

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In the last two years, the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) Iraq has conducted detailed research into its management and delivery of improvised explosive device (IED) clearance activities. Some of this research has already been published, providing a more detailed insight into how operational efficiency and effectiveness can be developed from models and tools derived from on-the-ground evidence. Much of this research has been shown to have real-world application. The purpose of this research has actually been quite simple: show that when methodologically sound observation and analysis are contextualized within an operational mine action environment there can be clear ...


New Conventional Eod And Iedd Competency Standards For Mine Action: Notes On T&Ep 0930, 0931, And Imas 0930, Roly Evans, Dan Perkins Jun 2022

New Conventional Eod And Iedd Competency Standards For Mine Action: Notes On T&Ep 0930, 0931, And Imas 0930, Roly Evans, Dan Perkins

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In February 2022, the International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) Review Board approved a fully revised Test and Evaluation Protocol (T&EP) 09.30 explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) Competency Standards. It also approved amendments to the accompanying IMAS 09.30 (subject to the approval of the IMAS Steering Group and Inter Agency Coordination Group) and the T&EP 09.31 IEDD Competency Standards. The approval marked the culmination of sustained work over four years since 2018 to update not only conventional EOD competencies but to add improvised explosive device disposal (IEDD) competencies suitable for mine action rather than traditional security tasks ...


Proof: How Tir Imaging Can Locate Buried Cluster Munitions In The Iraqi Desert, John Fardoulis, Xavier Depreytere, Jonathon Guthrie Jun 2022

Proof: How Tir Imaging Can Locate Buried Cluster Munitions In The Iraqi Desert, John Fardoulis, Xavier Depreytere, Jonathon Guthrie

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In this article, we follow on from our previous work published in The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction that proved how buried thirty-year-old legacy anti-personnel and anti-tank landmines could be located using thermal infrared (TIR) sensors in the Sahara Desert, northern Chad.1 This time, the emphasis is on proving how the location of buried submunitions from cluster munition strikes in the desert of southern Iraq can be identified using TIR sensors.


Integrating Humanitarian Mine Action And Humanitarian Forensic Action, Lauren Cobham, Nicholas Márquez-Grant, Mike Harris, Caroline Barker, César Sanabrina Medina, Javier Naranjo-Santana, Gareth Collett Jun 2022

Integrating Humanitarian Mine Action And Humanitarian Forensic Action, Lauren Cobham, Nicholas Márquez-Grant, Mike Harris, Caroline Barker, César Sanabrina Medina, Javier Naranjo-Santana, Gareth Collett

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Humanitarian mine action (HMA) and humanitarian forensic action (HFA) have had a global impact in recent decades. However, these two areas could work more closely together in view of some of the contexts in which they operate. Often when HMA operators clear explosive ordnance (EO) after conflict, they find human remains, especially in urban areas. When human remains are encountered, operators have responsibilities to ensure that they are dealt with appropriately. When both HMA and HFA actors are present, there is a need for an increased awareness and understanding of each other’s role. Human remains should be returned to ...


The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Issue 25.3, Cisr Jmu Jun 2022

The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Issue 25.3, Cisr Jmu

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

  • A Note from the Interim Director
  • UKRAINE: Coordinating the Response By Greg Crowther [ MAG (Mines Advisory Group) ]
  • The Recovery of Human Remains in Weapon-Contaminated Settings: Towards Guidance for the Mine Action Community By Lou Maresca, Chris Poole, and Jane Taylor, PhD [ International Committee of the Red Cross ] I
  • ntegrating Humanitarian Mine Action and Humanitarian Forensic Action By Lauren Cobham, Nicholas Márquez-Grant, and Mike Harris [ Cranfield Forensic Institute, Cranfield University ], Caroline Barker [ Independent Forensic Anthropologist and Archaeologist ], César Sanabria Medina, [ Biomedical Science Research Group, School of Medicine, University Antonio Nariño ], Javier Naranjo-Santana [ The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo ...


Learning Modalities And Mental Health During The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Literature Review, Abubakarr Jalloh, Annie D. Morgan May 2022

Learning Modalities And Mental Health During The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Literature Review, Abubakarr Jalloh, Annie D. Morgan

Virginia Journal of Public Health

Purpose: The study’s purpose was to explore how students were learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential mental health outcome(s) that different classroom learning modalities may have on kindergarten-12th grade school (i.e., K-12) students given that some of them were learning remotely or in-person, while others were doing some form of hybrid.

Methods: This study performed an extensive review of the literature, including health and educational sources from two government agencies, and three school districts in southwest Virginia. The target population for the literature review was K-12 students in the United States, with a focus ...


Social Determinants Of Diabetes In Hampton Roads, Virginia, Priyadarshini Pattath May 2022

Social Determinants Of Diabetes In Hampton Roads, Virginia, Priyadarshini Pattath

Virginia Journal of Public Health

Background: Recent research demonstrates the need to consider social and economic factors that are the determinants of diabetes along with individual factors. Although the average crude rate of diabetes in Virginia is 10.9%, some of the census tracts report a much higher rate. Neighborhoods in places like Norfolk, Newport News and Portsmouth in Virginia have a diabetes prevalence rate of around 25%. Using a multilevel approach for diabetes interventions will have a much better outcome as social determinants play a significant role in diabetes-related health disparities.

Method: Diabetes prevalence data in seven cities of Hampton Roads, Virginia was linked ...


Same-Gender Pathways To Parenthood, Sydney T. Inger Apr 2022

Same-Gender Pathways To Parenthood, Sydney T. Inger

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

LGBTQ+ individuals and couples who want children negotiate systemic inequalities in the United States of America. This literature review surveys America’s confusing legal map and the gaps in its enduring scholarly theories. The paper then examines the challenges that LGBTQ+ individuals and couples confront in working through the common pathways—same-gender adoption and fostering, in vitro fertilization, and surrogacy—to become parents. Dispersing information on the pathways will be a positive step towards breaking down the inequities for those in the LGBTQ+ community who want to start a family.


To Walk The Earth In Safety 21st Edition (Cy2021), U.S. Department Of State Apr 2022

To Walk The Earth In Safety 21st Edition (Cy2021), U.S. Department Of State

Global CWD Repository

The United States is committed to reducing these threats worldwide and is the leading financial supporter of CWD, providing more than $4.2 billion in assistance to more than 100 countries since 1993. This makes the United States the world’s single largest financial supporter of CWD. The Department of State, Department of Defense, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) work together with foreign governments, private companies, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to reduce excess SA/LW and conventional munitions stockpiles (including MANPADS), implement best practices for PSSM at conventional weapons storage sites, and carry out ...


The Flowerings Project: A Library In Transformation, Jody Condit Fagan, Joanne V. Gabbin, Bethany Nowviskie, Lauren K. Alleyne, Aaron Noland Mar 2022

The Flowerings Project: A Library In Transformation, Jody Condit Fagan, Joanne V. Gabbin, Bethany Nowviskie, Lauren K. Alleyne, Aaron Noland

Libraries

This final report from the JMU Libraries and Furious Flower Poetry Center to the Mellon Foundation describes in detail the activities undertaken as part of a 2020-2021 planning grant, “Furious Flowerings: Developing a Partnership Model for Digital Library Support of a Living Center for Black Poetry,” funded by the Mellon Foundation. The grant explored and developed a partnership model for integrated library support of a living, academic center for the arts with archival, scholarly, digital, educational, and performance components. Nine key areas were addressed, including three overarching areas: development of cultural competencies, exploring how an exemplar project can be used ...


Jmu Libraries Magazine, Jenne M. Klotz, Kristen S. Shuyler, Emily Blake Jan 2022

Jmu Libraries Magazine, Jenne M. Klotz, Kristen S. Shuyler, Emily Blake

Libraries

This magazine describes highlights from the JMU Libraries from 2020-2021.


More Alike Than Different: Student Perceptions Of Academic Librarians By Genders And Subject Areas, Elizabeth Price, Jody C. Fagan Dec 2021

More Alike Than Different: Student Perceptions Of Academic Librarians By Genders And Subject Areas, Elizabeth Price, Jody C. Fagan

Libraries

This study explored differences in how undergraduate students of different genders and academic disciplines perceived academic librarians at a U.S. public university. No evidence indicated differences between students identifying as male or female, and few statistically significant differences were found among four Subject Areas (Arts, Humanities + Social Sciences, Business, Health + Education, and STEM). Our results have implications for local practice though they are not generalizable to other institutions. Despite a lack of significant findings, librarians should continue to explore ways to measure how students of different disciplines perceive academic libraries and/or librarians as valuable to their academic success.


Multicultural Music Education: Preparedness, Perceptions, And Practice Among Virginia Elementary Music Educators, Benjamin Joel Luna Dec 2021

Multicultural Music Education: Preparedness, Perceptions, And Practice Among Virginia Elementary Music Educators, Benjamin Joel Luna

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Benjamin Joel Luna, M. M.

James Madison University, 2021

Supervisor: Lisa M. Maynard

The purpose of this study was to examine the Multicultural Music Education (MME) practices of established (i.e. more than three years of music teaching experience) Elementary Music Teachers in the state of Virginia by examining their responses to a series of survey questions specific to the topic. Participants (N=18) were all current Elementary Music Teachers in the state of Virginia with more than three years of experience.

Participants were asked to use Likert-scale ratings for the majority of the questions but were also given the ...


Endnotes, Cisr Jmu Dec 2021

Endnotes, Cisr Jmu

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


Unexplored Opportunities: Multi-Sector Strategies For Collaboration In Underwater Unexploded Ordnance Remediation, Chris Price Dec 2021

Unexplored Opportunities: Multi-Sector Strategies For Collaboration In Underwater Unexploded Ordnance Remediation, Chris Price

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Few global challenges are as ripe for multi-sector collaboration as underwater (UW) unexploded ordnance (UXO) remediation. Millions of metric tons of UXO are lying on and under the seabed corroding, decaying, and seeping toxic chemicals into the ecosystem—ultimately ending up in our food. Because most underwater UXO are from WWI and WWII, and given the corrosion rates of most metals from which ordnance is made, the inevitable problems with ordnance dumped, sunk, and fired into bodies of water (mostly in coastal regions) are catching up with us. The urgency is exacer-bated by biochemical changes in oceans due to climate ...


A Pressing Need: Decades Of Agreement, Few Results On Arms Record-Keeping, Philip Alpers Dec 2021

A Pressing Need: Decades Of Agreement, Few Results On Arms Record-Keeping, Philip Alpers

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Recent developments in computerized record-keeping for state-owned arms, ammunition, and explosives now offer simple, affordable solutions in the lowest-capacity environments. A global partnership between Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and the developers of ArmsTracker soft-ware promises to break a twenty-year logjam that, until now, has denied comprehensive, affordable weapon and ammunition record-keeping systems to states in greatest need.


Mechanical Equipment In Ied Clearance: Observations From Iraq, Pehr Lodhammar, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D. Dec 2021

Mechanical Equipment In Ied Clearance: Observations From Iraq, Pehr Lodhammar, Mark Wilkinson Ph.D.

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Mechanical equipment has been in the inventory of conventional military forces for the purposes of military engineering—including demining—since the Second World War. The integration of mechanical equipment into the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) Iraq clearance activities may have therefore seemed a natural evolution from what might be considered ‘conventional’ mine clearance, yet it brought with it a number of issues. First, the absence of any clear doctrine for the use of mechanical equipment in improvised explosive device (IED) clearance generated resistance and criticism from specialist IED clearance companies operating at that time in Iraq. It was ...


Hidden Crisis In Borno State, Sean Sutton Dec 2021

Hidden Crisis In Borno State, Sean Sutton

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

At the end of 2019, Nigeria reported a significant increase of landmine, explosive remnants of war (ERW), and improvised explosive device (IED) contamination in its states. In 2019 alone, a total of 239 known mine casualties were recorded in Nigeria. Although the exact amount of contamination in Nigeria today is unknown, the Landmine & Cluster Munition Monitor asserts that Borno is the most heavily affected state in the country. Due to mounting mine contamination and increasing pressure from non-state armed groups (NSAG), internally displaced persons (IDPs) and communities are unable to safely return to the region. Extensive landmine use by Boko ...


Barrier Analysis And Explosive Ordnance Risk Education, Kim Fletcher, India Mcgrath Dec 2021

Barrier Analysis And Explosive Ordnance Risk Education, Kim Fletcher, India Mcgrath

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In early 2020, The HALO Trust (HALO) in partnership with Al Ghad conducted a "barrier analysis" with youth in Mosul, Iraq to determine the constraints they faced in adopting safer behaviors related to explosive ordnance (EO). Through the barrier analysis, HALO and Al Ghad found that youth with lower perceived self-efficacy, beliefs that an EO accident would not likely result in severe consequences, and friends who encouraged unsafe behaviors were all more likely to engage in less safe behaviors than their counterparts were. The findings enabled HALO and Al Ghad to tailor their EORE messaging to these barriers in an ...


Tailoring Explosive Ordnance Risk Education: How Mag Addresses Gender/Cultural Sensitivities And Local Risk-Taking Behavior, Sebastian Kasack Dec 2021

Tailoring Explosive Ordnance Risk Education: How Mag Addresses Gender/Cultural Sensitivities And Local Risk-Taking Behavior, Sebastian Kasack

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The relevance of risk education is widely acknowledged as reflected in the Oslo Action Plan (OAP) with its distinct chapter on ‘Mine risk education and reduction’ and five explicit actions. Good risk education must be tailored. MAG’s experience delivering explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) in four-teen countries confirms the relevance of tailoring EORE to the local reality: to people’s risk taking behaviors, to the actual explosive ordnance (EO) threat, to seasonality, availability of people for risk education sessions, and approaches that re-spect gender and diversity and take conflict sensitivity into account.