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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Dietary Adherence And Cognitive Performance In Older Adults By Nativity Status: Results From The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (Nhanes), 2011–2014, Md Towfiqul Alam, Elizabeth Vásquez, Jennifer L. Etnier, Sandra Echeverria Feb 2024

Dietary Adherence And Cognitive Performance In Older Adults By Nativity Status: Results From The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey (Nhanes), 2011–2014, Md Towfiqul Alam, Elizabeth Vásquez, Jennifer L. Etnier, Sandra Echeverria

Department of Health Sciences - Faculty Scholarship

Although adherence to dietary guidelines is associated with better cognitive performance, there may be differences by nativity status. This study aimed to investigate the association between adherence to the healthy eating index (HEI) and cognitive performance (CP) among United States (US)-born and foreign-born older adults (60+ years). Data were obtained from the 2011–2014 NHANES (n = 3065). Dietary adherence was assessed with HEI quintiles. CP (adequate vs. low) was examined using word listing (CERAD), animal naming (AFT), and the digit symbol substitution test (DSST). Weighted multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine associations. The US-born participants in higher dietary quintiles …


Análisis Sociolingüístico De Una Hispanohablante En Harrisonburg, Virginia/Sociolinguistic Analysis Of A Spanish Speaker In Harrisonburg, Virginia, Tessa Adams Feb 2024

Análisis Sociolingüístico De Una Hispanohablante En Harrisonburg, Virginia/Sociolinguistic Analysis Of A Spanish Speaker In Harrisonburg, Virginia, Tessa Adams

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

Los patrones dialectales de hispanohablantes nativos quienes saben inglés como un idioma segundo han sido un foco para académicos lingüísticos por mucho tiempo. El estudio presente compara las experiencias de una hispanohablante nativo biligüe de Harrisonburg, Virginia, con patrones de voz que son común en otras investigaciones más amplias. Utilizando un formato de entrevista estructurado y un análisis hecho como en un caso práctico, la escritora muestra que que los rasgos lingüísticos de “Mirabel” alinea con aspetos claves de escolaridad existente mientras probando como una excepción a otras tendencias establecidas.

The dialectical patterns of native Spanish speakers who know English …


“He’S In Jail Now And I Don’T Feel Bad”: Analyzing Sureties’ Decisions To Report Bail Violations, Rachel Schumann, Carolyn Yule Jan 2024

“He’S In Jail Now And I Don’T Feel Bad”: Analyzing Sureties’ Decisions To Report Bail Violations, Rachel Schumann, Carolyn Yule

International Journal on Responsibility

The control, supervision, and rehabilitation of criminalized people often falls on the shoulders of non-state agents and organizations. Surety bail releases are a clear embodiment of this trend, as the courts call upon relatives, friends, and employers to supervise the pre-conviction activity of people accused of a crime. According to the law, sureties must report all bail violations to the police; the resulting diffusion of responsibility is said to increase the penal state’s power and control over criminal justice-involved individuals while minimizing reputational risks. Yet how sureties carry out this role in the community remains unexplored. Using data from 36 …


Volume 6, Issue 1 (2023) Criminal Justice Agents And Responsibility, Colleen Berryessa, Elizabeth Griffiths, Kaitlen Hubbard, Deena A. Isom, Kateryna Kaplun, Hiuxuan Li, Siyu Liu, Esther Nir, Heather L. Scheuerman, Rachel Schumann, Sandy Xie, Carolyn Yule Dec 2023

Volume 6, Issue 1 (2023) Criminal Justice Agents And Responsibility, Colleen Berryessa, Elizabeth Griffiths, Kaitlen Hubbard, Deena A. Isom, Kateryna Kaplun, Hiuxuan Li, Siyu Liu, Esther Nir, Heather L. Scheuerman, Rachel Schumann, Sandy Xie, Carolyn Yule

International Journal on Responsibility

This special issue of the International Journal on Responsibility (IJR) advances scholarship on the various ways responsibility infuses the roles of criminal justice agents. As the inaugural issue of my tenure as Editor-in-Chief, Volume 6 deepens our understanding of responsibility in the context of the criminal justice system, thereby fulfilling IJR’s aim and scope. Specifically, the articles highlight issues of responsibility within each component of the criminal justice system: police, courts, and corrections.


Do Judges Understand Technology? How Attorneys And Advocates View Judicial Responsibility In Cyberstalking And Cyberharassment Cases, Kateryna Kaplun Dec 2023

Do Judges Understand Technology? How Attorneys And Advocates View Judicial Responsibility In Cyberstalking And Cyberharassment Cases, Kateryna Kaplun

International Journal on Responsibility

As new technologies emerge and are increasingly used to commit interpersonal cybercrimes like cyberstalking and cyberharassment, the legal system lags in assisting victims in obtaining justice in these types of experiences. This qualitative research study explores how attorney and advocate interviewees from Illinois, New Jersey, and New York view judges’ responsibility to the law in cyberstalking and cyberharassment cases. This study finds three themes: judges’ lack of understanding of technology and its harms, discretion, and law on the books versus law in action as important factors and frameworks that contribute to why judges do not consider the importance of technology …


The Influence Of Prior Legal Background On Judicial Sentencing Considerations, Esther Nir, Siyu Liu Dec 2023

The Influence Of Prior Legal Background On Judicial Sentencing Considerations, Esther Nir, Siyu Liu

International Journal on Responsibility

State court judges are influenced by a myriad of factors during criminal case processing. To study the influence of prior legal background on judicial decision-making at sentencing, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews of 39 trial court judges presiding over criminal cases in a Northeastern U.S. state. We find that judges are influenced by their former legal experiences and most judges are cognizant of this influence. While certain sentencing considerations are prioritized for almost all judges (e.g., criminal history, seriousness of the offense), prioritization and processing of many other sentencing criteria are correlated with prior legal background. Former defense attorneys tend …


Distinguishing High-Quality Audio: The Unique Contribution Of Bit-Depth Resolution?, Benjamin Stone Dec 2023

Distinguishing High-Quality Audio: The Unique Contribution Of Bit-Depth Resolution?, Benjamin Stone

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Individuals are capable of discerning high- and low-quality digital audio, but the current evidence tends to confound sampling rate and bit depth (see Mizumachi et al., 2014). When bit-depth is constant, higher sampling rates can be discerned (Oohashi et al., 2000). It likewise has been argued that 16- and 24-bit audio can be distinguished when sampling rate is constant (Kanetada et al., 2013). The present study aimed to evaluate bit-depth-related perceptual ability using simplified tone stimuli in order to determine at which point from 8- to 24-bit that further increases in bit-depth resolution are no longer perceptually beneficial. Potential contributions …


Exploring The Use Of Time Delay As A Pragmatic Cue In Text Messaging, Nicklas Phillips Dec 2023

Exploring The Use Of Time Delay As A Pragmatic Cue In Text Messaging, Nicklas Phillips

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Text messaging is often used as a stand-in for face to face communication. While texting mimics the rapid back and forth, turn taking nature of oral conversation, it lacks many of the pragmatic cues conversationalists ordinarily rely on to establish common ground and inform their understanding of sometimes nonliteral meaning conveyed to them. To get around this hurdle, texters have developed sets of textisms. These are specific cues that can be used to make up for the lack of pragmatic information in the texting environment. Examples include emoji, emoticons, and punctuation. This is an experimental study exploring whether time can …


Is Racial Diversity Important When Applying To Jmu Pa Program?, Gaelyn E Young, Deonte J. Hope Dec 2023

Is Racial Diversity Important When Applying To Jmu Pa Program?, Gaelyn E Young, Deonte J. Hope

Physician Assistant Capstones, 2020-current

The Physician Assistant profession is predominantly female and Caucasian. In order to increase the diversity of the profession at the level of the workforce, it is necessary to examine PA programs' role as the entryway into the profession. To that end, this evaluation aimed at surveying current and future PA students at James Madison University to understand whether racial diversity of both the program's cohort and/or its faculty was a factor in their decision to apply and/or attend the school.


Jmu Libraries Magazine: Volume 2, Jenne M. Klotz Dec 2023

Jmu Libraries Magazine: Volume 2, Jenne M. Klotz

Libraries

Volume 2 of the biennial JMU Libraries magazine, highlighting services, events, awards of the JMU Libraries.


Exploring Artist Residencies For Academic Libraries, Jenne M. Klotz Dec 2023

Exploring Artist Residencies For Academic Libraries, Jenne M. Klotz

Libraries

This white paper describes the results of a research leave that explored artist residencies and considered their potential in academic libraries.


Injustice In The Field? A Look At Field Booking Arrests In A Southeastern City, Deena A. Isom, Kaitlen E. Hubbard, Hiuxuan Li Nov 2023

Injustice In The Field? A Look At Field Booking Arrests In A Southeastern City, Deena A. Isom, Kaitlen E. Hubbard, Hiuxuan Li

International Journal on Responsibility

Issuing citations in lieu of arrests, or field booking arrests, is touted as beneficial by reducing the costs for the criminal legal system; reducing the burdens placed on individuals by avoiding arrest records, possible pretrial detention, and financial obligations; bettering community relationships with officers; increasing officer safety and efficiency; and reducing jail overcrowding. Yet, there are still substantial concerns that the practice may be disproportionately utilized and lead to net-widening. Using data obtained from a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request, we assess a snapshot of field booking arrests in a Southeastern city. Specifically, we assess if there are racial …


Transgender And Gender Non-Conforming Leaders And Leadership: A Foundational And Integrative Review, Jody Condit Fagan Nov 2023

Transgender And Gender Non-Conforming Leaders And Leadership: A Foundational And Integrative Review, Jody Condit Fagan

Libraries

Gender and leadership research has traditionally employed a binary framework, overlooking the experiences of transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) leaders and forcing leaders of all genders and intersectional identities into a dichotomous frame. This paper reviewed interdisciplinary literature using a robust search strategy in three academic databases and Google Scholar, as well as across eight leadership studies journals. Sixteen sources involving 440 leaders’ experiences were found. The author conducted a thematic analysis to explore how TGNC leaders’ experiences challenge and advance leadership theories, deepen understanding of discrimination, and offer ways to support their emergence and success. TGNC leaders’ experiences bring …


Batch Cataloging At Jmu: A Framework And Four Projects, Rebecca B. French Nov 2023

Batch Cataloging At Jmu: A Framework And Four Projects, Rebecca B. French

Libraries

Many libraries have uncataloged collections or backlogs which could benefit from batch processing, but little guidance exists on how to conceptualize and plan such a project. I will share a framework I developed which categorizes types of batch cataloging projects and outlines the steps involved. I will also describe four projects we've done at JMU to illustrate how the framework can be applied to design a variety of metadata workflows.


Building A Library Renovation Website Using Public Relations Principles, Kristen S. Shuyler Oct 2023

Building A Library Renovation Website Using Public Relations Principles, Kristen S. Shuyler

Libraries

Learn how James Madison University Libraries built an award-winning library renovation website using core principles from the field of public relations (PR). Key features include an interactive visual timeline (created with an open-source tool), a collection of memories of the library, and FAQs based on actual user questions.


Ammunition Identification Guide For Ukraine: A Collaborative Project Amidst War (Ukrainian Edition), Lieutenant Perederii, Tony Salvo, Drew Prater Oct 2023

Ammunition Identification Guide For Ukraine: A Collaborative Project Amidst War (Ukrainian Edition), Lieutenant Perederii, Tony Salvo, Drew Prater

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Під час операцій зі знешкодження вибухонебезпечних предметів вміння ідентифікувати боєприпаси є надзвичайно важливим. Після ідентифікації боєприпасу стає відомим його заряд вибухової речовини/наповнювач та потенційні небезпеки, що у свою чергу уможливлює безпечне та контрольоване поводження із даним боєприпасом. Під час очищення Фаллуджі, Мосула і прилеглих територій в Іраку ми зіштовхнулися із залишеними вибухонебезпечними предметами (ЗВП) та вибухонебезпечними залишками війни (ВЗВ) з двадцяти трьох різних країн, що кинуло виклик навіть найзавзятішим вибухотехнікам. З огляду на це, було створено документ з ідентифікації боєприпасів на основі знайдених боєприпасів, найновіше видання якого містить понад 340 різних боєприпасів. Ті, хто старанно працює над знешкодженням вибухонебезпечних предметів …


Mine Action In Lebanon: Innovation, Learning, And Finishing The Job, Mark Wilkinson Phd Oct 2023

Mine Action In Lebanon: Innovation, Learning, And Finishing The Job, Mark Wilkinson Phd

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Lebanon is a country that has been severely affected by landmines, cluster bombs, and other explosive remnants of war (ERW) through decades of war and civil war. In many cases these legacies of war remain today, intertwined with the complex geopolitics of the region. Yet Lebanon is also a country that exemplifies excellence in mine action—from the strategic to the operational level.


Ammunition Identification Guide For Ukraine: A Collaborative Project Amidst War, Lieutenant Perederii, Tony Salvo, Drew Prater Oct 2023

Ammunition Identification Guide For Ukraine: A Collaborative Project Amidst War, Lieutenant Perederii, Tony Salvo, Drew Prater

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

To deal with such a large number of diverse munitions, the US-based nongovernmental organization (NGO) Bomb Techs Without Borders (BTWOB),[1] has co-published the Basic Identification of Ammunition in Ukraine[2] (https://ukr.bulletpicker.com/id-guides.html), which is in its fourth version and is available in Ukrainian and English. Initially, the guide was exclusively available in Ukrainian to cater to the target audience—Ukrainian security services, sappers, and EOD personnel. However, an English version of the 3.0 edition was subsequently published on 22 March 2023.


The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction Issue 27.3 (2023), Cisr Jmu Oct 2023

The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction Issue 27.3 (2023), Cisr Jmu

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


An Accessible Seeded Field For Humanitarian Mine Action Research, Jasper Baur, Gabriel Steinberg, John Frucci, Anthony Brinkley Oct 2023

An Accessible Seeded Field For Humanitarian Mine Action Research, Jasper Baur, Gabriel Steinberg, John Frucci, Anthony Brinkley

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The detection of buried and surface explosive remnants of war (ERW) is a critical task in the land release process.[1] The goal of this project is to create a long-term study site and benchmark to accelerate humanitarian mine action (HMA) research for the detection of buried ERW, including unexploded ordnance (UXO), landmines, and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). A crucial step in transitioning experimental detection techniques from the lab to the field is conducting rigorous field testing in a realistic and safe environment.[2],[3],[4] With most academic institutions lacking access to stockpiles of inert ERW to …


Empowering Host Nation Counter-Ied And Counter-Insurgency Efforts: Innovative Application Of Ordnance Recycling, Lynna Banach, Commodore Roy Vincent T. Trinidad, Captain Julien B. Dolor Oct 2023

Empowering Host Nation Counter-Ied And Counter-Insurgency Efforts: Innovative Application Of Ordnance Recycling, Lynna Banach, Commodore Roy Vincent T. Trinidad, Captain Julien B. Dolor

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

As the United States works to grow its defense partnership with the Philippines, the country continues to fight instability and insecurity amidst a lengthy battle against insurgent and terrorist groups.[i],[ii],[iii] As the overlap between urban areas and conflict zones increases, and with violent groups’ use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) against government forces, the danger to civilians escalates.[iv] This paper provides a deeper understanding of how the prevalence of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and the use of IEDs in the Philippines fuel the realities of insurgency and humanitarian danger in the country. Furthermore, using Golden …


Integrated Cooperation In Implementing Firearm Deactivation Capabilities: Bosnia And Herzegovina, Colonel Geir P. Novik Oct 2023

Integrated Cooperation In Implementing Firearm Deactivation Capabilities: Bosnia And Herzegovina, Colonel Geir P. Novik

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Many of the illegal firearms used for terrorist and criminal activities throughout Europe originate from the Balkan region and have previously been legally exported and sold as deactivated firearms. However, due to variations in the quality of deactivation standards and verification processes, many deactivated firearms can easily be reactivated into fully functional military weapons. To prevent the illegal reactivation of additional weapons, new guidelines regarding deactivation standards and techniques have been introduced, thus ensuring that deactivated firearms are rendered irreversibly inoperable. Within the framework of the European Union Force Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUFOR), a training program regarding the deactivation of …


Mag Emergency Response: Digital Explosive Ordnance Risk Education In Somalia, Robin Toal Oct 2023

Mag Emergency Response: Digital Explosive Ordnance Risk Education In Somalia, Robin Toal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

On 9 June 2023, a tragic accident involving unexploded ordnance (UXO) in Qoryoley town in the Lower Shabelle region of Somalia claimed the lives of twenty-seven civilians, including twenty-two children, and left fifty-three others injured. The tragedy was caused when several young children discovered a mortar round on the ground in an open playing field that they started to play with and consequently exploded. In response to the accident, Mines Advisory Group (MAG) mobilized both headquarters and Somalia based staff to develop a rapid response digital explosive ordnance risk education campaign (DEORE) using paid adverts targeting Meta (Facebook & Instagram) …


Department Of State's Quick Reaction Force: Twenty-Three Years Of Service, Charlie Holloway Oct 2023

Department Of State's Quick Reaction Force: Twenty-Three Years Of Service, Charlie Holloway

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

For the past twenty-three years, the United States has provided rapid responses to landmine and munitions/explosives related emergencies in some of the most vulnerable populations around the world. Initiated with a group from Mozambique, the Quick Reaction Demining Force (QRDF) was designed by the U.S. Department of State to rapidly respond to landmine emergencies. Presently, its response capacity has expanded to include experts in battle area clearance (BAC) and physical security and stockpile management (PSSM). These professionals volunteer for deployments on short notice to address emergencies globally. The Department of State Quick Reaction Force (QRF), managed by the Political/Military Bureau …


Reviving Old Mosul: 3d Modeling Aids Safe Clearance In Iraq, Erin Atkinson, Marc Dennehy, Craig Locke Oct 2023

Reviving Old Mosul: 3d Modeling Aids Safe Clearance In Iraq, Erin Atkinson, Marc Dennehy, Craig Locke

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Under the 2014–2017 Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) occupation, the Old City of Mosul, Iraq, served as a headquarters for the self-proclaimed caliphate. ISIS produced, stored, and transited money, modern munitions, weapons, and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) through the city's ancient stone streets. To approach the immense and technically challenging task of clearing the Old City efficiently, effectively, and safely—without compromising the city's rich cultural history—Tetra Tech created a 3D model using aerial photogrammetry to quantify and visualize the scope and scale of the project.


How Can Transformational Leadership Be Unbound From The Gender Binary Paradigm?, Jody Condit Fagan, Michelle Hamilton-Page Oct 2023

How Can Transformational Leadership Be Unbound From The Gender Binary Paradigm?, Jody Condit Fagan, Michelle Hamilton-Page

Libraries

Disrupting binary conceptions of gender could be one of the most needed paradigmatic shifts in leadership studies. Nonbinary leadership paradigms can liberate people of all genders from a framework that forces them to describe their leader behaviors as aligned with or transgressive of a binary gender. Academic leadership studies has generally focused on differences between men and women and discrimination against women, with trans and nonbinary gender identities notably absent. Traditional models of leadership need to be interrogated to see if they hold up under a nonbinary lens. In this presentation, we will examine two dimensions of the iconic model …


Approaches To Comics Stewardship: Making The Case For Academic Library Special Collections, Brian Flota, Kate Morris Oct 2023

Approaches To Comics Stewardship: Making The Case For Academic Library Special Collections, Brian Flota, Kate Morris

Libraries

No abstract provided.


Mixed Method Approach Towards The Life Of University Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Raihan Khan, Andrew White, Tony Jehi Sep 2023

Mixed Method Approach Towards The Life Of University Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Raihan Khan, Andrew White, Tony Jehi

Department of Health Sciences - Faculty Scholarship

Background

The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted the higher education system. This mixed-methods study aimed to assess COVID-19 fear, anxiety, and stress among Shenandoah Valley college students.

Methods

An online survey was fielded and completed by n=680 students. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 students.

Results

The mean participant age was 22.14±5.48 years, and primarily White (81.9%), women (80.4%), and undergraduate (78.0%) students. Approximately 41% were enrolled in health-related majors (41.4%). Women students had significantly higher anxiety, depression, and fear of contracting COVID-19 than men. Undergraduate students had significantly higher depression than graduate students. Qualitative analysis revealed several major themes: …


Climate Change Journalism In Pakistan: Ethical Deliberations, Muhammad Ittefaq, Shafiq Ahmad Kamboh, Ayesha Ashfaq Sep 2023

Climate Change Journalism In Pakistan: Ethical Deliberations, Muhammad Ittefaq, Shafiq Ahmad Kamboh, Ayesha Ashfaq

School of Communication Studies - Faculty Scholarship

In the 21st century, research on climate journalism has received exponential growth globally. However, the media’s ethical role in covering climate change has not sufficiently been explored enough. In this chapter, we provide a broad overview of climate change journalism in Pakistan, the role of stakeholders that are directly involved in this crisis, and further highlighted the need to follow the UNESCO-led ethical principles and deliberations by the local climate journalism. We conclude that though a great deal of attention has been paid by the local scholars and scientists to highlight different dimensions of climate emergency, however, the findings of …


Ethnic Newspaper Industry In Pakistan And Impacts Of Corporate Ownership, Shafiq Ahmad Kamboh, Muhammad Ittefaq, Awais Hamed Sep 2023

Ethnic Newspaper Industry In Pakistan And Impacts Of Corporate Ownership, Shafiq Ahmad Kamboh, Muhammad Ittefaq, Awais Hamed

School of Communication Studies - Faculty Scholarship

During the Indian independence movement, the Urdu-language ethnic newspapers played a significant role in instigating resistance against colonial authorities within local communities. However, later on, Urdu journalism underwent a transformation, shifting from the ‘advocate-journalist’ model to one dominated by corporate ownership in Pakistan. These commercial agents have faced criticism for using journalism as a shield for their other businesses, yet their presence has profoundly impacted current newspaper practices in various ways. Our case study of the Daily Express reveals that this newspaper, by implementing innovative journalism, technological advancements and efficient management practices, has influenced both preceding and subsequent Urdu dailies, …