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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Understanding Database Reconstruction Attacks On Public Data, Simson L. Garfinkel, John M. Abowd, Christian Martindale Jan 2018

Understanding Database Reconstruction Attacks On Public Data, Simson L. Garfinkel, John M. Abowd, Christian Martindale

Labor Dynamics Institute

In 2020 the U.S. Census Bureau will conduct the Constitutionally mandated decennial Census of Population and Housing. Because a census involves collecting large amounts of private data under the promise of confidentiality, traditionally statistics are published only at high levels of aggregation. Published statistical tables are vulnerable to DRAs (database reconstruction attacks), in which the underlying microdata is recovered merely by finding a set of microdata that is consistent with the published statistical tabulations. A DRA can be performed by using the tables to create a set of mathematical constraints and then solving the resulting set of simultaneous equations ...


Reversing Inequality, Combatting Climate Change: A Climate Jobs Program For New York State, J. Mijin Cha, Lara Skinner Jun 2017

Reversing Inequality, Combatting Climate Change: A Climate Jobs Program For New York State, J. Mijin Cha, Lara Skinner

Research Studies and Reports

[Excerpt] Economic inequality in New York is rising. Currently, the state has the second highest level of economic inequality in the country. Unequal job growth across the state and stagnant wages in several sectors are two of the main contributors to rising inequality. While the state overall has seen several years of employment growth, there are stronger employment gains in New York City than in other parts of the state still suffering from job losses and stagnant employment levels. Additionally, in many sectors, such as construction and manufacturing, wages are not increasing at the same pace as inflation, leaving many ...


Achieving Access: Professional Movements And The Politics Of Health Universalism, Joseph Harris Jan 2017

Achieving Access: Professional Movements And The Politics Of Health Universalism, Joseph Harris

Book Samples

[Excerpt] This book examines efforts to expand access to health care and AIDS medicine in Thailand, Brazil, and South Africa. Although these countries are geographi­cally far apart, they share many similarities as newly industrializing countries engaged in processes of democratic opening. Scholars have often suggested that expansionary social policy is the product of left-wing parties and labor unions or bottom-up people’s movements. From a strictly rational perspective, that these groups would be at the forefront of such change makes perfect sense. After all, expanding access to health care and medicine would seem to be in their interest, and ...


New York City Collective Bargaining Law: 50 Years (1967-2017), Office Of Collective Bargaining Jan 2017

New York City Collective Bargaining Law: 50 Years (1967-2017), Office Of Collective Bargaining

Monographs

[Excerpt] The NYCCBL was preceded by a tumultuous period of employee organization and labor unrest that culminated in 1965, when the City’s Welfare Department workers held a month-long strike. During that strike, unions were fined, union officials were arrested and jailed, and employees received termination notices. The 1965 strike, its negotiated resolution, and the support of Mayors Robert F. Wagner and John V. Lindsay, helped to lay the groundwork for a structure and procedure to govern public sector collective bargaining. The hard work and commitment of neutrals and representatives of labor and management resulted in the Tripartite Agreement, which ...


How Local Stakeholders Are Implementing The Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals Program, Els De Graauw, Shannon Gleeson Jul 2016

How Local Stakeholders Are Implementing The Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals Program, Els De Graauw, Shannon Gleeson

Policy & Issue Briefs

In June 2012, President Obama instituted the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, which suspended deportations and authorized work permits for an estimated 1.76 million eligible young undocumented immigrants. As one of the most significant recent shifts in policy, this executive immigration action has been hotly contested. Conservatives decry it as presidential overreach, while immigrant advocates say it does too little to stop deportations. Broader congressional solutions have been elusive and the U.S. Supreme Court has blocked a 2014 policy that would have protected more undocumented immigrants, including the parents of U.S. citizens and legal permanent residents ...


An Institutional Examination Of The Local Implementation Of The Daca Program, Els De Graauw, Shannon Gleeson Apr 2016

An Institutional Examination Of The Local Implementation Of The Daca Program, Els De Graauw, Shannon Gleeson

Working Papers

In June 2012, President Barack Obama created the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program to offer qualified young undocumented immigrants a two-year renewable stay of deportation and the ability to apply for a work permit. DACA is a federal administrative directive, not a congressional law, and unlike the last major legalization program in 1986, no federal resources have been allocated for its implementation. The case of DACA thus raises questions about how new rights granted by executive prosecutorial discretion are actually implemented in local communities and how they are experienced by the intended beneficiaries in different localities. More specifically ...


Precarity And Agency Through A Migration Lens, Marcel Paret, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2016

Precarity And Agency Through A Migration Lens, Marcel Paret, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

This special issue leverages the migrant experience to better understand precarity and agency in the contemporary world. By way of introduction, we examine the broader bodies of literature on precarity and agency, relate them to research on migration, and link them to the contributions in the special issue. Laying a foundation for further research, we illuminate three approaches to study the precarity-migration-agency nexus: an industry-specific approach, a sending country/deportee approach, and a collective action approach. We conclude with a critical analysis of freedom and national borders, considering the 'open borders' movement, postnational citizenship, and opposition to marketization.


Narratives Of Deservingness And The Institutional Youth Of Immigrant Workers, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2015

Narratives Of Deservingness And The Institutional Youth Of Immigrant Workers, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

This article speaks to the special issue’s goal of disrupting the deserving/undeserving immigrant narrative by critically examining eligibility criteria available under two arenas of relief for undocumented immigrants: 1) the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provides temporary deportation relief and work authorization for young adults who meet an educational requirement and other criteria, and 2) current and proposed pathways to legal status for those unauthorized immigrants who come forward to denounce workplace injustice, among other crimes. For each of these categories of “deserving migrants,” I illuminate the exclusionary nature each of these requirements, which ...


Workplace Wellness Programs: Are They Part Of The Answer To The U.S.’S Growing Healthcare Crisis?, Maria C. Grillo Dec 2014

Workplace Wellness Programs: Are They Part Of The Answer To The U.S.’S Growing Healthcare Crisis?, Maria C. Grillo

Cornell HR Review

[Excerpt] Of the $2.8 trillion that the United States has spent on healthcare in recent years, the majority of it (75%) is spent treating chronic disease. Chronic disease is “a long-standing condition that can be controlled but not cured… It is the leading cause of death and disability in the U.S., which is 1.7 million lives each year.” To make matters worse, chronic disease indicators in the U.S. have been on the increase recently. And, even though chronic disease is commonly thought to be more prevalent among the elderly, in the past 10 years, it has ...


The Effects Of The Affordable Care Act On Large Employers And The Impact On The Human Resources Function, Maksim Spivak Dec 2014

The Effects Of The Affordable Care Act On Large Employers And The Impact On The Human Resources Function, Maksim Spivak

Cornell HR Review

[Excerpt] The purpose of this paper is to explore how Fortune 500 companies have been affected by the passing of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). More importantly, this paper will explore what strategies companies have adopted, and what the legislation means to the following stakeholders: company boards, executives, managers, employees, the Human Resource function, and the Benefits staff.


When Does Marketisation Lead To Privatisation? Profit-Making In English Health Services After The 2012 Health And Social Care Act, Nick Krachler, Ian Greer Sep 2014

When Does Marketisation Lead To Privatisation? Profit-Making In English Health Services After The 2012 Health And Social Care Act, Nick Krachler, Ian Greer

Articles and Chapters

Governments world-wide have attempted to use market mechanisms and privatisation to increase the quality and/or reduce the cost of healthcare. England’s Health and Social Care Act 2012 is an attempt to promote privatisation through marketisation in the National Health Service (NHS). While the health policy literature tends to assume that privatisation follows from private-sector entry points, we argue that this is more likely if firms expect to make a profit. This paper examines the link between privatisation and marketisation in England drawing on 32 semi-structured interviews with private-sector and public-sector respondents, campaigners, and other experts conducted 6-10 months ...


Asymmetric Information Under The Kafala Sponsorship System: Impacts On Foreign Domestic Workers’ Income And Employment Status In The Gcc Countries, Froilan T. Malit, George Naufal Aug 2014

Asymmetric Information Under The Kafala Sponsorship System: Impacts On Foreign Domestic Workers’ Income And Employment Status In The Gcc Countries, Froilan T. Malit, George Naufal

Working Papers

This paper examines the legal and policy implications of information asymmetry on foreign domestic workers employed under the Kafala sponsorship system in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Drawing from ethnographic and field-based observations in large GCC migrant destinations—including Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE)—we investigate the flow of information and market uncertainties between five key stakeholders: labor-receiving government, labor-sending government, recruitment agencies (subagents), sponsors (employers), and social networks. Several factors contribute to asymmetric information: the lack of bilateral labor agreements and government policy coordination, programs between and among government entities, the absence of labor law ...


Workers, Families, And Immigration Policies, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2014

Workers, Families, And Immigration Policies, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Unauthorized immigration to the US has a long and varied history shaped by a number of shifts in immigration policy. Of the global immigrant stock, 10–15 % is estimated to be undocumented (20–30 million; International Organization for Migration 2008). Today, undocumented immigrants comprise roughly 40 % of the immigrant flow to the US. Although immigrants often come to this country as a result of complex factors that were initiated or supported by the US—including free trade agreements and wars that devastated immigrants’ home countries and their national economies—once they become unauthorized, they find themselves in extremely vulnerable ...


Tax And Policy Implications Of Changes To Reporting Requirements For Construction Services, Brian F. Curran, Linda H. Donahue Dec 2013

Tax And Policy Implications Of Changes To Reporting Requirements For Construction Services, Brian F. Curran, Linda H. Donahue

Research Studies and Reports

[Excerpt] New York and other states could increase revenue and improve their tax systems by requiring information reporting for all payments by businesses for construction services, utilizing a form similar to the Federal form 1099. The state could also advance other important policy goals including an increase in the fairness of the tax system and a reduction of the misclassification of workers as independent contractors.


Helping The Growing Ranks Of Poor Immigrants Living In America’S Suburbs, Els De Graauw, Shannon Gleeson, Irene Bloemraad Oct 2013

Helping The Growing Ranks Of Poor Immigrants Living In America’S Suburbs, Els De Graauw, Shannon Gleeson, Irene Bloemraad

Policy & Issue Briefs

Ask Americans to draw a mental map of who lives where, and they will likely say that immigrants and the poor live in large cities such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco, while middle-class whites make their homes in the surrounding suburbs. But these mental maps are often inaccurate. Today, more poor people live in suburbs than in central cities, and more than half of all metropolitan-area immigrants reside in suburbs. Immigration, job growth, and residential choices are making our nation’s suburbs more economically and culturally diverse.

How are suburban leaders responding to disadvantaged immigrants in ...


Is U.S. Public Sector Labor Relations In The Midst Of A Transformation?, Harry C. Katz Oct 2013

Is U.S. Public Sector Labor Relations In The Midst Of A Transformation?, Harry C. Katz

Articles and Chapters

In this article the author assesses whether a fundamental transformation is underway in public sector (state and local government) labor relations in the United States by revisiting the arguments made by the author and Kochan and McKersie (1986) regarding the transformation of labor relations in the private sector. The author argues that the economic pressures that led to a transformation of private sector labor relations starting in the 1980s have not played a comparable role in recent developments in the public sector because of the political nature of labor relations in that sector. Other insights are drawn from a comparison ...


Funding Immigrant Organizations: Suburban Free Riding And Local Civic Presence, Els De Graauw, Shannon Gleeson, Irene Bloemraad Jul 2013

Funding Immigrant Organizations: Suburban Free Riding And Local Civic Presence, Els De Graauw, Shannon Gleeson, Irene Bloemraad

Articles and Chapters

The authors argue that taken-for-granted notions of deservingness and legitimacy among local government officials affect funding allocations for organizations serving disadvantaged immigrants, even in politically progressive places. Analysis of Community Development Block Grant data in the San Francisco Bay Area reveals significant inequality in grants making to immigrant organizations across central cities and suburbs. With data from 142 interviews and documentary evidence, the authors elaborate how a history of continuous migration builds norms of inclusion and civic capacity for public-private partnerships. They also identify the phenomenon of “suburban free riding” to explain how and why suburban officials rely on central ...


Is Incorporation Of Unauthorized Immigrants Possible? Inclusion And Contingency For Nonstatus Migrants And Legal Immigrants, Maria Lorena Cook Jan 2013

Is Incorporation Of Unauthorized Immigrants Possible? Inclusion And Contingency For Nonstatus Migrants And Legal Immigrants, Maria Lorena Cook

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] What does inclusion for nonstatus migrants look like? How do we recognize and measure inclusion for this population? How might we model inclusion for nonstatus migrants? This essay addresses these questions, drawing primarily on empirical examples from the United States and Spain. Although Spain has become a country of immigration relatively recently, both countries have received large numbers of unauthorized immigrants, especially in the early part of the 2000s. These two countries also illustrate different means of inclusion for unauthorized migrants. During most of the 2000s opportunities for the “regularization” of unauthorized migrants have arguably been greater in Spain ...


The Career Of Vernon Briggs, Jr.: A Liberal Economist’S Struggle To Reduce Immigration, Jerry Kammer Sep 2012

The Career Of Vernon Briggs, Jr.: A Liberal Economist’S Struggle To Reduce Immigration, Jerry Kammer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] At the conclusion of Cornell’s spring semester in 2007, Briggs ended his 47 years of college teaching. As he retired, Cornell honored him with emeritus status. Since then, he has occasionally given public talks and written articles on the need for immigration reform. He says his work still draws motivation from a principle he left with his students at the end of the last lecture in each of his classes over his entire career: “The mode through which the impossible comes to pass is effort.”

That quote from Justice Oliver Wendell Homes was passed on to Briggs by ...


The Elusive Goal: The Quest For A Credible Immigration Policy, Vernon M. Briggs Jr Jan 2012

The Elusive Goal: The Quest For A Credible Immigration Policy, Vernon M. Briggs Jr

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The starting point for all immigration reform efforts must be making the immigration system enforceable. Nothing else makes sense. Otherwise, immigration policy is on a squirrel wheel going nowhere. Illegal immigrants will keep coming in defiance of its terms.


Illegal Immigration And The Dilemma Of American Unions, Vernon M. Briggs Jr Mar 2011

Illegal Immigration And The Dilemma Of American Unions, Vernon M. Briggs Jr

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Over its long and often turbulent evolution, the American labor movement has confronted few issues as persistently and as difficult has those related to subject of immigration. By definition, immigration affects the size of the labor force at any given time as well as its geographical distribution and skill composition. These vital influences, in turn, affect national, regional and local labor market conditions. Most immigrants directly join the labor force upon entering the country, as do eventually most of their family members. Hence, organized labor never has ignored immigration trends. As Samuel Gompers, one of the founders of the ...


Curriculum Vitae For Professor Briggs Jan 2010

Curriculum Vitae For Professor Briggs

Vernon M Briggs Jr

No abstract provided.


Immigration Policy In Free Societies: Are There Principles Involved Or Is It All Politics?, Vernon M. Briggs Dec 2009

Immigration Policy In Free Societies: Are There Principles Involved Or Is It All Politics?, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

Free societies with industrialized economies such as Canada and the United States are characterized by certain unique features. Among these is the fact that they both allow their citizens to come and go across their borders with few restrictions and they annually permit millions of non-citizens to travel, to conduct business, to visit, and to study in their countries with only minimal regulation. Both nations also allow some non-citizens to enter their countries and to work in competition with their citizen work-force for temporary periods under specific conditions. Furthermore, they regularly allow a generous number of non-citizens to immigrate or ...


Paved With Good Intentions: The Failure Of Passive Disability Policy In Canada, Rick August Apr 2009

Paved With Good Intentions: The Failure Of Passive Disability Policy In Canada, Rick August

GLADNET Collection

It is common in the disability community to speak of unfulfilled aspirations for full citizenship and participation in the mainstream of Canadian society. In Canada, as in much of the developed world, many adults with disabilities remain outside the mainstream, especially in regard to economic opportunities. Unfortunately, many of the disability policies currently pursued by Canadian governments are unlikely to improve this situation, and may in fact make it worse.

This paper offers a critical analysis of a common instrument of current disability policy, the passive cash benefit. I will focus, in particular, on the effects of passive transfers on ...


The State Of U.S. Immigration Policy: The Quandary Of Economic Methodology And The Relevance Of Economic Research To Know, Vernon M. Briggs Apr 2009

The State Of U.S. Immigration Policy: The Quandary Of Economic Methodology And The Relevance Of Economic Research To Know, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] As the 21st Century commences, immigration has once again become a major source of the nation's labor force growth. The public policies that enable mass immigration to occur do more than simply increase the size of the nation's labor force; they also affect such key compositional matters as its human capital, demographics, and geographic attributes. Immigration policy, however, has more than just immediate economic consequences; it also helps to mold the nation's future as long-term citizenship obligations are usually involved.


Immigration Policy In Free Societies: Are There Principles Involved Or Is It All Politics?, Vernon M. Briggs Jan 2009

Immigration Policy In Free Societies: Are There Principles Involved Or Is It All Politics?, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Free societies with industrialized economies such as Canada and the United States are characterized by certain unique features. Among these is the fact that they both allow their citizens to come and go across their borders with few restrictions and they annually permit millions of noncitizens to travel, to conduct business, to visit, and to study in their countries with only minimal regulation. Both nations also allow some non-citizens to enter their countries and to work in competition with their citizen work-force for temporary periods under specific conditions. Furthermore, they regularly allow a generous number of non-citizens to immigrate ...


The Report Of The Commission On Immigration Reform (I.E. The Jordan Commission): A Beacon For Real Immigration Reform, Vernon M. Briggs Jan 2009

The Report Of The Commission On Immigration Reform (I.E. The Jordan Commission): A Beacon For Real Immigration Reform, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The immigration policy of the United States is steeped in legal complexities and is considered to be so politically combustible that most politicians are loathe to address the issue unless circumstances absolutely require them to act. In those instances when extant policies have become so incongruent with prevailing national interests that public pressure can no longer be ignored, the reform process has usually been preceded by the formation by Congress of a national commission or congressional panel to study the needs and to frame the appropriate policy responses before the professional politicians will touch the subject. Indeed, one would ...


Can A Tax Credit For Employment Growth In 2009 And 2010 Restore Animal Spirits And Help Jump Start The Economy?, John H. Bishop Dec 2008

Can A Tax Credit For Employment Growth In 2009 And 2010 Restore Animal Spirits And Help Jump Start The Economy?, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In the last three months employment declined by 1.2 million jobs and the number of part time workers who want but cannot find full-time work increased by 1.5 million. We are in a downward spiral that John Thain of Merrill Lynch predicts will be compared with 1929-33. Economists of all stripes (eg. Martin Feldstein, Larry Summers, Nouriel Roubini, Edmund Phelps, Paul Krugman, Brad Setzer) are recommending a massive temporary fiscal stimulus of 4 percent of GDP or more. Investments in infrastructure, renewable energy, and energy efficiency are preferred because they raise future productivity. Many worry, however, that ...


The Long Exception: Rethinking The Place Of The New Deal In American History, Jefferson Cowie, Nick Salvatore Oct 2008

The Long Exception: Rethinking The Place Of The New Deal In American History, Jefferson Cowie, Nick Salvatore

Articles and Chapters

"The Long Exception" examines the period from Franklin Roosevelt to the end of the twentieth century and argues that the New Deal was more of an historical aberration—a byproduct of the massive crisis of the Great Depression—than the linear triumph of the welfare state. The depth of the Depression undoubtedly forced the realignment of American politics and class relations for decades, but, it is argued, there is more continuity in American politics between the periods before the New Deal order and those after its decline than there is between the postwar era and the rest of American history ...


Immigration Policy: The Nations Most Fundamental Labor Law, Vernon M. Briggs Jr Feb 2008

Immigration Policy: The Nations Most Fundamental Labor Law, Vernon M. Briggs Jr

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Samuel Gompers (1925), founder of the American Federation of Labor and, historically speaking, America's most influential labor leader, wrote in his autobiography, "Immigration is, in its fundamental aspects, a labor problem" (p. 125). In most contemporary debates over immigration policy, this basic truism is forgotten. For no matter how immigrants enter the United States—as legal immigrants, illegal immigrants, refugees, asylum seekers, border commuters, or nonimmigrant workers on temporary visas—most have to work to support themselves, as do usually their spouses and, eventually, their children as well. Hence, immigration policies always have labor market consequences regardless of ...