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Articles 1 - 30 of 42

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Gender Differences And Social Judgements Of Face Masks, Katherine Link, Daphne J. Jackson, Jessica M. Criddle, Jana Hackathorn Nov 2020

Gender Differences And Social Judgements Of Face Masks, Katherine Link, Daphne J. Jackson, Jessica M. Criddle, Jana Hackathorn

Scholars Week

This study seeks to investigate whether face masks influence social judgements of first impressions. Ratings of trustworthiness in strangers has been linked to smiling and facial features. With the Coronavirus pandemic still running rampant in today’s society it has become a social norm to wear a face mask out in public. Due to the fact that a facemask obscures half of an individual’s face, it is expected that the presence of a face mask will influence first impressions. Additionally, gender differences have also been associated with social judgments, in that females are often perceived more positively (e.g ...


(S)He Said What Behind My Back: The Negative Effects Of Gossip, Hillary Copeland Nov 2020

(S)He Said What Behind My Back: The Negative Effects Of Gossip, Hillary Copeland

Scholars Week

Gossip can be defined as communication within a social context directed towards the evaluation of absent others (Foster, 2004), and likely evolved as an advantage for our ancestors to build social bonds and maintain group stability (Dunbar, 2004). The ubiquitous nature of gossip suggests significant influences on group dynamics, particularly when associated with factors related to social functions, such as influence, friendship, information, or entertainment (Foster, 2004; Peters et al., 2017; Wu et al., 2016). The current study examined the effects of gossip on the evaluations of absent targets. Undergraduate participants (N = 128) were presented with short biographies describing each ...


Can I Hit Your Juul? Nicotine Motives & Accessibility In College Students, Ashlen Grubbs Nov 2020

Can I Hit Your Juul? Nicotine Motives & Accessibility In College Students, Ashlen Grubbs

Scholars Week

The purpose of this project was to examine the associations between nicotine dependency, motives, and the impact of new laws on college student nicotine patterns. Motives for smoking can also be analyzed through categorizing motives into primary and secondary motives (Piasecki, et. al., 2011). Primary motives are reasons such as habit, tolerance, cravings, and loss of control (Piasecki, et. el., 2011). All motives for smoking have been shown to have a positive correlation with nicotine dependence except smoking to lose weight and for socialization (McEwen, et. al., 2008). Yet conflicting research by Aloise-Young, Grant, and Hansen (1994) indicates that smoking ...


Face Masks And Ambiguity In Expressions: A Barrier To Social Affiliation?, Jessica Criddle, Daphne J. Jackson, Katherine D. Link Nov 2020

Face Masks And Ambiguity In Expressions: A Barrier To Social Affiliation?, Jessica Criddle, Daphne J. Jackson, Katherine D. Link

Scholars Week

First impressions are a key component of the formation of social relationships. Facial expressions and facial features inform impressions leading to social affiliation, such as trustworthiness. The usage of face masks, common with the incidence of COVID-19, veils features giving information on trustworthiness, attractiveness, and other factors informing social impressions. Existing literature shows ambiguity in expressions and in social situations can make individuals less trusting of others. This is prevalent in those intolerant of uncertainty or with a high need for closure, which is the need to find answers in ambiguous situations. Together, these findings suggest that ambiguity of facial ...


Am I Laughing At What You're Laughing At?: The Relationship Between Humor And Empathy, Connor Brown Nov 2020

Am I Laughing At What You're Laughing At?: The Relationship Between Humor And Empathy, Connor Brown

Scholars Week

How and when does someone decide to tell a joke? The current study is focused primarily on examining the relationship between using humor to communicate and empathy. It was hypothesized that there will be a positive correlation between using humor to communicate and empathy. This furthers previous research which has only commonly looked at enjoying humor as it correlates to empathy (Hampes, 2001; 2010). The current study was administered as an online survey to undergraduate participants (N = 70), and measured using communicative humor, and empathy, as well as other individual difference traits such as openness and conscientiousness. Results of a ...


Emotions & Satisfaction: Does Emotional Contagion Make The Heart Grow Fonder?, Morgan Brewington Mar 2020

Emotions & Satisfaction: Does Emotional Contagion Make The Heart Grow Fonder?, Morgan Brewington

Scholars Week

Existing research identifies strong links between empathy within couples and relationship quality, often helping to cope with difficult life events (Levesque et al., 2014). Similarly, emotional contagion is the process of mirroring the expressions and affect of others, but going further to adopt the emotions that were mimicked (Doherty, 1997). Some research identifies a positive relationship between contagious emotions and relationship quality but impacts of empathy and emotional contagion in relation to sexual and relational satisfaction are yet to be investigated (Mazzuca et al., 2019). The interpersonal theory of depression includes the contagion of negative affect, by which depressed individuals ...


Adapting Implicit Stereotype Expectation Through Perspective Distancing, Cheyenne Perez Jan 2020

Adapting Implicit Stereotype Expectation Through Perspective Distancing, Cheyenne Perez

Capstone Showcase

Investigated within this study is how stereotype expectations might be affected when violated or reinforced, and how distancing the self from the expectation via a different perspective can allow for recognition that it can be wrong and even changed. This research is motivated by an interest in how stereotype expectations develop throughout life and experiences, and how the tendency to defend them when challenged can hinder understanding of other views. In a real world setting, placing a person in a distanced perspective could allow for change in their personal expectations and become less prejudiced/more accepting. Within the lab setting ...


The Fear Of Reinjury And Motivational Influences Contributing To An Athlete's Return To Sport, Erica Moyer Jan 2020

The Fear Of Reinjury And Motivational Influences Contributing To An Athlete's Return To Sport, Erica Moyer

Capstone Showcase

ERICA MOYER

The Fear of Reinjury and Motivational Influences Contributing to an Athlete’s Return to Sport

Recovery from injury can be a difficult and lengthy process both physically and psychologically. Research that exists on the subject on injury recovery and return to sport mainly focuses on the importance of physical recovery, while discounting the psychological side. Fear of reinjury and motivation are two psychological concepts that contribute to an injured athlete’s decision of whether or not to return to sport. These factors are prominent during the recovery phase, up until and including a return to athletic competition. Self-determination ...


Father's Profession Predicts Academic Outcomes For Women In Stem, Christopher Bach, Bettina Casad Jan 2020

Father's Profession Predicts Academic Outcomes For Women In Stem, Christopher Bach, Bettina Casad

Undergraduate Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Being Labeled Smart By Friends: Burden Or Benefit?, Lauren Feldman, Isaac Abrams, Charlotte Bernot, Alexa Delmonte, Deegan Miller Apr 2019

The Effects Of Being Labeled Smart By Friends: Burden Or Benefit?, Lauren Feldman, Isaac Abrams, Charlotte Bernot, Alexa Delmonte, Deegan Miller

Psychology Presentations

No abstract provided.


Children’S Evaluations Of Excluding An In-Group Member Who Help An Out-Group, Janel Cuevas, Lily Samiee, Makeda Mayes, Annabelle Farina, Santiago Gonzalez, Ariel Kasoff, Sabrina Ortiz, Aline Hitti Dr. Apr 2019

Children’S Evaluations Of Excluding An In-Group Member Who Help An Out-Group, Janel Cuevas, Lily Samiee, Makeda Mayes, Annabelle Farina, Santiago Gonzalez, Ariel Kasoff, Sabrina Ortiz, Aline Hitti Dr.

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

What factors contribute to children’s exclusion of in-group members? Past research indicates that children and adolescents are often not willing to exclude in-group members, but might be more willing if in-group members challenged moral group norms (Hitti, Mulvey, Rutland, Abrams, & Killen, 2013). Additionally, it has been found that while children are more likely to help an in-group member but are willing to help an out-group member if they are in need (Sierksma, Thijs, and Verkuyten, 2015). Less is known about exclusion of in-group members who help out-groups in ways that come at a cost to one’s own group. The current study examined evaluations of excluding an in-group member who helps an out-group equally, a little, and a lot when the in-group had varying levels of need for a necessary resource

This study examined 174 responses from children (4th graders) and adolescents (8th graders) (M = 11.10, SD = 1.94), using three vignettes in which each group had varying levels of need for water: 1) both groups need the same, 2) in-group needs more water, and 3) out-group needs more water. Each participant received a scenario in which an in-group member either helped the out-group by distributing found water in ways such that he/she: 1) helped each group equally; 2) helped the out-group less than the in-group; and 3) helped the out-group more than the in-group. Three linear regression model were analyzed, for each need level, with approval of exclusion (“How okay or not okay do you think it is that the group decides that they do not want Sam in the group anymore?”, 1 = Really Not Okay ...


Emilia Daijah Intersectional Humor Spsp 2019-4.Pptx, Daijah Jones, Emilia F. Meza Apr 2019

Emilia Daijah Intersectional Humor Spsp 2019-4.Pptx, Daijah Jones, Emilia F. Meza

Daijah Jones

Humor is a major part of our interactions with other people. Despite humor’s simple purpose to amuse, there are several cognitive processes at work when trying to understand it. When looking at disparaging humor, prejudiced norm theory suggests disparaging humor creates an atmosphere where prejudice is deemed more acceptable, which then leads to more tolerance for discrimination.  Our research examined people’s perceptions of intersectional (i.e., relating to racial and gender) stereotype-based humor using starter pack memes. Starter packs are a collection of stereotypic images meant to identify and define a group.We manipulated the identity targeted by ...


Quantitative Research Projects In Psychology, Tabitha Joyner, Keely Dugan, Sarah Johnson Apr 2019

Quantitative Research Projects In Psychology, Tabitha Joyner, Keely Dugan, Sarah Johnson

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Students will present their quantitative research from the 2018-2019 academic year.


The Relationship Between The Accessibility Of Political Attitudes And Voting Behavior, Alison I. Young Apr 2019

The Relationship Between The Accessibility Of Political Attitudes And Voting Behavior, Alison I. Young

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Eighty-five Olivet students (57 women) participated for extra credit in a study focused on the relationship between the accessibility of one's attitudes toward political parties (Democrats vs. Republicans) and political decisions (e.g., likelihood to vote for a given candidate). Participants viewed a series of Democrat-related (e.g., left-leaning, liberal) and Republican-related (e.g., right-leaning, conservative) terms piloted for political orientation. For each, they were asked to indicate as quickly and accurately as possible whether they liked or disliked it. The speed of their response served as a measure of attitude accessibility. Participants then completed a series of questions ...


Emilia Daijah Intersectional Humor Spsp 2019-4.Pptx, Daijah Jones, Emilia F. Meza Mar 2019

Emilia Daijah Intersectional Humor Spsp 2019-4.Pptx, Daijah Jones, Emilia F. Meza

Daijah Jones

Humor is a major part of our interactions with other people. Despite humor’s simple purpose to amuse, there are several cognitive processes at work when trying to understand it. When looking at disparaging humor, prejudiced norm theory suggests disparaging humor creates an atmosphere where prejudice is deemed more acceptable, which then leads to more tolerance for discrimination.  Our research examined people’s perceptions of intersectional (i.e., relating to racial and gender) stereotype-based humor using starter pack memes. Starter packs are a collection of stereotypic images meant to identify and define a group.We manipulated the identity targeted by ...


Loneliness In Students' Own Words, Stephanie Burris, Benjamin Sargent Mar 2019

Loneliness In Students' Own Words, Stephanie Burris, Benjamin Sargent

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Loneliness has been shown to have detrimental effects to both physical and mental health. A 2017 survey of Pepperdine undergraduates found 69% of student felt lonely, compared to the national average of 64%. This study sought to understand loneliness through students' own words. Focus groups, divided by gender, were conducted and participants were asked to discuss their experiences of loneliness at Pepperdine. Additionally, participants were asked to create a list of words that come to mind to describe loneliness. Data from the focus groups were analyzed by identifying key themes and sub-themes and quotes from the participants were coded and ...


Forgotten Children & Bonds That Heal: The Critical Nature Of Attachment, August Ashbaker Mar 2019

Forgotten Children & Bonds That Heal: The Critical Nature Of Attachment, August Ashbaker

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

Human attachment is one of the most critical factors in proper neurological and physiological development. Attachment is built through the mutuality of emotional impact, as well as the regular reception of physical touch. Infants and children who have been deprived of these vital necessities through the lacking initiatives of their caregivers—through neglect—display visible signs of its physiological, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral impact. Research has found neglect to be the highest risk factor for permanent damage to brain development in comparison to other forms of complex trauma (i.e. chronic caregiver interpersonal trauma in childhood); it is also the ...


Applicant Reactions To Gendered Wording In Job Advertisements, Sahra Kaboli-Nejad, Eric Scheller, Carey Ryan Mar 2019

Applicant Reactions To Gendered Wording In Job Advertisements, Sahra Kaboli-Nejad, Eric Scheller, Carey Ryan

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Women account for only 28% of the STEM workforce (Neuhauser, 2014). One contributing factor may be gendered wording in advertisements (e.g., the use of more masculine wording in male-dominated fields). Masculine wording may discourage women from applying for male-dominated STEM careers. Research has shown, for example, that participants perceive there to be more men in occupations that use more masculine than feminine wording in their advertisements, resulting in women finding the jobs less appealing (Gaucher et al., 2011; Horvath & Sczesnya, 2016).

The present research examined whether gendered wording in an advertisement for a male-dominated STEM career affects perceptions of ...


(2018) Understanding People-Centered Intelligences, John D. Mayer Sep 2018

(2018) Understanding People-Centered Intelligences, John D. Mayer

UNH Personality Lab

No abstract provided.


Ego Development, Defense Mechanisms, And Adaption In Transgender And Gender Nonconforming Individuals, Jack Girardi Mar 2018

Ego Development, Defense Mechanisms, And Adaption In Transgender And Gender Nonconforming Individuals, Jack Girardi

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

This presentation talks about ego development, starting in early childhood, for transgender and gender nonconforming individuals and how that in turn manifests into defense mechanisms. These defense mechanisms are being misattributed to other factors as a result of societal stigmas that also play out in the immediate home, school community, and clinical atmospheres of the individual. Early psychoanalytic theories are used to explain the transgender and gender nonconforming individual's negative sense of self and low self-worth. This negative sense of self is then transformed into defense mechanisms which then have the power to destroy interpersonal relationships, career development, and ...


Assessing Bias Among Boston Monument Attendees, Allison Rodgers, Keren Tersooi Mar 2018

Assessing Bias Among Boston Monument Attendees, Allison Rodgers, Keren Tersooi

Lesley University Community of Scholars Day

Boston is a city, which is conflicted by the disparity between its liberal beliefs, as it is ranked the 5th most liberal city in the U.S, and the reality of its culture (Tausanovitch & Warshaw, 2013; Johnson, 2017). Studying Boston monuments, which are a large tourist attraction and significant financial revenue stream, can provide additional insight into the contributing factors surrounding Boston’s racist reputation (Southern Poverty Law Center, 2016; Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005; Franca & Monteiro, 2013; Scennell & Gifford, 2017; Gurler & Ozer, 2013). Relevant theories such as implicit bias, aversive racism, place attachment, compositional hierarchy, and the examination of inequity between two Boston historical trails will provide the ...


Hollywed: Product Placements In American Wedding Films, Charlotte A. Galamb Apr 2017

Hollywed: Product Placements In American Wedding Films, Charlotte A. Galamb

Student Scholar Showcase

My study examines wedding fashion product placement in feature films from 1989 to 2017. My research will provide a brief history of product placement as well as address expert’s understanding of the effectiveness of product placement. A study on fashions surrounding the year the film’s gown reached box offices will ask if films have a demonstrable impact on the wedding fashion industry.


Body Language In The Classroom: Effects Of Gesturing, Maia Rolfe Apr 2017

Body Language In The Classroom: Effects Of Gesturing, Maia Rolfe

Scholars Week

Body Language in the Classroom: Effects of Gesturing

This study was designed to give some insights into how body language could interact with teaching. This study tested if active gesturing (pointing) had an effect on the amount of a story that was remembered and on how likable someone who is presenting the story was perceived as being. Male and female participants watched a female presenter read a short story projected on a screen while either pointing to key words or not pointing. Then they wrote down as much of the story as they could remember and rated the likeability of ...


Colorblind Attitudes And Religious Fundamentalism As Predictors Of Racial And General Campus Climate Perceptions, Jeongbin (Jenny) Song, Cindy Miller-Perrin Mar 2017

Colorblind Attitudes And Religious Fundamentalism As Predictors Of Racial And General Campus Climate Perceptions, Jeongbin (Jenny) Song, Cindy Miller-Perrin

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

The present study aimed to understand the racial differences in perception of general and racial campus climate in college students, and investigate if colorblind attitudes and religious fundamentalism help explain these differences. A sample of 2,101 undergraduate students (MAGE=19.59, SDAGE= 2.33) attending a private, Christian college in Southern California served as participants in this correlational survey research. The sample consisted of 37.9% male (n=796), 62% female (n=1303), and 0.1% other (n= 2). The following racial/ethnic groups were represented in the sample: 3.4% Black (n= 72), 18.7% Asian ...


The Influence Of Humorous Priming And Situation Type On Generation Of Malevolently Creative Ideas, Reo W. Newring Mar 2017

The Influence Of Humorous Priming And Situation Type On Generation Of Malevolently Creative Ideas, Reo W. Newring

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Creativity is usually considered a positive attribute, but what happens when creativity is used to generate a harmful product? Malevolent creativity (Cropley, Kaufman, & Cropley, 2008) refers to a clever, original product with negative valence, or intention to harm. The purpose of the current study was to examine predictors of malevolent creativity, expanding on existing knowledge and exploring a new area, specifically humor. Humorous primes were used to evoke malevolence, in the form of dialogues between two cartoon characters engaged in highly aggressive, moderately aggressive, self-defeating, or neutral exchanges. Subjects were then provided with a hypothetical situation (problem) and asked to ...


Volunteer Perceptions Of Upward And Downward Communication Facilitate Organizational Commitment, Kelly Prange Mar 2017

Volunteer Perceptions Of Upward And Downward Communication Facilitate Organizational Commitment, Kelly Prange

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Retaining productive volunteers is an essential issue nonprofit organizations face, as volunteers help extend the services of their target populations. The current study examined upward and downward communication and training as important volunteer management practices with respect to facilitating volunteer engagement and commitment. Using social exchange theory as a framework, the present study investigated the reasons why organizations should stress giving volunteers training and open communication and soliciting feedback from volunteers. Doing so may initiate a social exchange relationship in which volunteers receive training and communication from organizations and in turn become more engaged and committed to the organization. As ...


The Effects Of A Group Development Activity On Group Cohesion And Performance, Shannon Deyden, Cassie Karn, Morgan Perkey, David Foster May 2016

The Effects Of A Group Development Activity On Group Cohesion And Performance, Shannon Deyden, Cassie Karn, Morgan Perkey, David Foster

Academic Excellence Showcase Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Motivational Effects Of Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, And Perceived Choice, Charles N. Elliott Apr 2016

The Motivational Effects Of Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, And Perceived Choice, Charles N. Elliott

Symposium of Student Scholars

The present research explores relationships between intrinsic motivation, choice, autonomy, and self-efficacy. Intrinsically motivated individuals have increases in perceived choice, as well as self-efficacy while completing tasks autonomously. New research suggests the type of goal an individual sets effects their motivation for completing a task and their self-efficacious behavior while performing it. The present research manipulates goal orientation with either an approach-mastery goal or with an approach-performance goal manipulation. We predicted that mastery goals would lead to increases in achievement motivation and perceived choice, because of self-efficacy. Feedback was manipulated using informative slightly positive versus very positive conditions (Ryan, 1982 ...


Influence Of Authority On Attitude Change Due To Vicarious Dissonance, Kendrick Settler Jr. Apr 2016

Influence Of Authority On Attitude Change Due To Vicarious Dissonance, Kendrick Settler Jr.

Scholars Week

Recent research has suggested that watching others behave in an inconsistent or inappropriate manner can cause dissonance, particularly when one identified with the person behaving inappropriately (Norton, Cooper, Monin, & Hogg, 2003). To examine the differences is vicarious dissonance on attitude change, undergraduate students (N = 123) participated in an experiment, which consisted of a pre and post 24-item dissonance-relevant test (Elliot & Devine, 1988), to measure affect change, the participate was asked to write about either a friend or teacher they respected most, a pre and post Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale (Aron, Aron, & Smollan, 1992) 7-point Likert scale used ...


"Women On Women Aggression" Predictors Of A Belief In Double Standards, April D. Crabtree Apr 2016

"Women On Women Aggression" Predictors Of A Belief In Double Standards, April D. Crabtree

Scholars Week

"Woman on Woman Aggression": Predictors of Beliefs in Double Sex Standards

The presence of double standards is a topic that has been widely researched for the past several decades. Sexual double standards are based on the belief that sexual behaviors by women are viewed differently than when similar behaviors are exhibited by men. Early research stated that double standards were no longer much of an issue as seen in archival research by Crawford and Popp (2003). As they pulled research from previous decades, they concluded that double standards were not much of an issue in the 1970’s but resurfaced ...