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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Controversy Of Sexual Violence In The University Setting: Are College Athletes Given A Lighter Sentence Due To Their “Status”, Emma Weber Apr 2019

The Controversy Of Sexual Violence In The University Setting: Are College Athletes Given A Lighter Sentence Due To Their “Status”, Emma Weber

Honors College Theses

The following paper investigates sexual violence on university campuses. It discusses the role of the Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 along with a Dear Colleague Letter enacted by the United States’ federal government to all public institutions regarding how to respond when complaints and allegations of sexual violence are made. The paper addresses the statistics and common misconceptions surrounding sexual violence on college campuses before focusing specifically on student-athletes’ involvement in sexually violent crimes. It then looks into three highly publicized cases where student-athletes are the alleged perpetrators of sexual violence. The three cases analyzed are: the ...


Barriers, Motivations, And Preferences For Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults, Neha P. Gothe, Bradley J. Kendall Nov 2016

Barriers, Motivations, And Preferences For Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults, Neha P. Gothe, Bradley J. Kendall

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20). Questions posed to each focus group targeted ...


Social Goals In Urban Physical Education: Relationships With Effort And Disruptive Behavior, Alex C. Garn, Nate Mccaughtry, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman Oct 2011

Social Goals In Urban Physical Education: Relationships With Effort And Disruptive Behavior, Alex C. Garn, Nate Mccaughtry, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from three urban schools. Findings from correlation and structural equa- tion modeling analyses revealed that social responsibility goals had a positive relationship with effort and an inverse relationship with disruptive behavior. Social status goals demonstrated a positive relationship with disruptive behavior and no relationship with effort. Social recognition goal results were mixed, as they had ...


Psychosocial Aspects Of Physical Activity And Fitness In Special-Population, Minority Middle School Children, Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate Mccaughtry, Anne S. Murphy, Sara Flory, Kimberlydawn Wisdom Jan 2011

Psychosocial Aspects Of Physical Activity And Fitness In Special-Population, Minority Middle School Children, Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate Mccaughtry, Anne S. Murphy, Sara Flory, Kimberlydawn Wisdom

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Special-population research predicting physical activity (PA) and fitness with minority middle school children from at-risk environments is rare. Hence, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of important social cognitive and environment-based measures to predict PA and fitness with children with developmental delay, cognitive, and emotional impairments. Children (N = 89, ages 11-15) completed questionnaires assessing social cognitive and environment-based constructs, self report PA, and completed fitness testing. Correlational results supported some hypotheses. The descriptive and correlational results also indicated commonalities with similar research on non special-population minority middle school children from at-risk environments.


Validation Of The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument: An Application Of The Korean Version, Yun Seok Choi, Minhee Seo, David Scott, Jeffrey J. Martin Mar 2010

Validation Of The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument: An Application Of The Korean Version, Yun Seok Choi, Minhee Seo, David Scott, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) based on the Competing Values Framework (CVF). More specially, cultural equivalence between the Korean version and the original English version of the OCAI was evaluated using 39 bilingual Koreans. Next, a field test was conducted to examine scale reliability and construct validity of the Korean version of the OCAI using 133 organizational members from the Korean Professional Baseball League (KPBL). The findings indicate that the Korean version was successfully translated, items maintained the same meaning of the original ...


Motivational Profiles And Their Associations With Achievement Outcomes, Bo Shen, Nate Mccaughtry, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman Oct 2009

Motivational Profiles And Their Associations With Achievement Outcomes, Bo Shen, Nate Mccaughtry, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

With the belief that theoretical integration in motivation may help us better understand motivational behavior, we designed this study to explore adolescents’ motivational profiles and their associations with knowledge acquisition, leisure-time exercise behaviors, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Middle school students from a large urban inner-city school district (N = 603, ages 12–14) completed questionnaires assessing motivational constructs and leisure-time exercise behavior. Knowledge and cardiorespiratory fitness were also assessed with a knowledge test and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test, respectively. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, we found that students’ motivation in physical education could be explained from a multi-theoretical perspective ...


Motivational Factors Influencing Sport Spectator Involvement At Ncaa Division Ii Basketball Games, Yun Seok Choi, Jeffrey J. Martin, Meungguk Park, Taeho Yoh Oct 2009

Motivational Factors Influencing Sport Spectator Involvement At Ncaa Division Ii Basketball Games, Yun Seok Choi, Jeffrey J. Martin, Meungguk Park, Taeho Yoh

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to investigate the motivational factors affecting sport spectator involvement using 304 spectators from NCAA Division II men's and women's basketball games. Two aspects (behavioral and socio-psychological) of sport spectator involvement were examined. The results revealed that spectators at intercollegiate basketball games had a higher level of socio-psychological involvement than behavioral involvement. A series of multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the affects of sociomotivational factors (perceived value, fan identification, involvement opportunity, and reference groups) on sport spectator involvement. Fan identification, involvement opportunity, and reference groups were identified as influential factors that ...


Organizational Culture And Job Satisfaction In Korean Professional Baseball Organizations, Yun Seok Choi, Jeffrey J. Martin, Meungguk Park Dec 2008

Organizational Culture And Job Satisfaction In Korean Professional Baseball Organizations, Yun Seok Choi, Jeffrey J. Martin, Meungguk Park

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of organizational culture and investigate a link between organizational culture and job satisfaction in the Korean Professional Baseball League (KPBL). The findings of the present study revealed that the baseball clubs in the KPBL tended to emphasize a market culture. The results of this study also suggest that the clan culture has a significant influence on overall employee job satisfaction and satisfaction with co-workers, supervision and personal growth. Given the importance of a conceptual relation between organizational culture and job satisfaction in effectively managing sport organizations, implications and suggestions for ...


Parental Influences On Adolescent Girl's Goal Orientations, Perceived Competence, Sport Friendship Quality, And Enjoyment, Carla L. Paiffy, Jeffrey J. Martin Apr 2008

Parental Influences On Adolescent Girl's Goal Orientations, Perceived Competence, Sport Friendship Quality, And Enjoyment, Carla L. Paiffy, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among critical sport psychosocial perceptions of fathers (N=84), mothers (N=84), and daughters (N=84) in the same family (N=252). Athlete participants were young female soccer players ranging in age from 9 to 14 years. A canonical correlation analysis revealed a significant overall multivariate relationship (Wilks's λ = .485, p<.0001) and one significant function emerged (Rc = .64). The loadings suggested that athlete's perceptions of both mother and father created task involving and worry conducive climates all contributed to the multivariate relationship, predicting athlete's perceived competence, sport friendship quality, and task ...


The Effectiveness Of Mentoring-Based Professional Development On Physical Education Teachers' Pedometer And Computer Efficacy And Anxiety, Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate Mccaughtry, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Donetta Cothran, Roberta Faust Jan 2008

The Effectiveness Of Mentoring-Based Professional Development On Physical Education Teachers' Pedometer And Computer Efficacy And Anxiety, Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate Mccaughtry, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Donetta Cothran, Roberta Faust

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of mentoring-based professional development on physical education teachers' efficacy. Experienced mentor teachers were paired (n = 15) with inexperienced protégé teachers (n = 15) at the beginning of a yearlong intervention study. It was hypothesized that teachers would increase their efficacy to use pedometers and computers to enhance instruction, and reduce their computer anxiety. Repeated-measures ANOVAs for mentors and protégés revealed a variety of significant main effects. We found increases in computer and pedometer efficacy. A second set of repeated-measures ANOVAs based on mentors', protégés', and control groups' scores revealed a significant ...


Teachers' Perspectives On The Use Of Pedometers As Instructional Technology In Physical Education: A Cautionary Tale, Nate Mccaughtry, Kimberly L. Oliver, Suzanna Rocco Dillon, Jeffrey J. Martin Jan 2008

Teachers' Perspectives On The Use Of Pedometers As Instructional Technology In Physical Education: A Cautionary Tale, Nate Mccaughtry, Kimberly L. Oliver, Suzanna Rocco Dillon, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

We used cognitive developmental theory to examine teachers' perspectives on the use of pedometers in physical education. Twenty-six elementary physical education teachers participating in long-term professional development were observed and interviewed twice over 6 months as they learned to incorporate pedometers into their teaching. Data were analyzed via constant comparison. The teachers reported four significant shifts in their thinking and values regarding pedometers. First, at the beginning, the teachers predicted they would encounter few implementation challenges that they would not be able to overcome, but, after prolonged use, they voiced several limitations to implementing pedometers in physical education. Second, they ...


Psychosocial Aspects Of Youth Disability Sport, Jeffrey J. Martin Jan 2006

Psychosocial Aspects Of Youth Disability Sport, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Psychosocial aspects of participation in youth disability sport were examined using social-cognitive theory and the sport commitment model. An international sample of athletes with disabilities (N = 112) reported high levels of sport commitment and sport enjoyment, perceived physical ability, and sport friendship quality. They perceived their parents to provide moderately strong levels of encouragement of their sport participation. Correlational analyses indicated moderate to strong relationships among sport commitment, sport enjoyment, and perceived physical ability. Sport commitment, parental encouragement, and sport friendship quality were only somewhat related. Regression analyses indicated that enjoyment was a significant predictor (i.e., 43% of the ...


The Theory Of Planned Behavior: Predicting Physical Activity And Cardiorespiratory Fitness In African American Children, Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Nate Mccaughtry, Donetta Cothran, Joe Dake, Gail Frances Fahoome Oct 2005

The Theory Of Planned Behavior: Predicting Physical Activity And Cardiorespiratory Fitness In African American Children, Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Nate Mccaughtry, Donetta Cothran, Joe Dake, Gail Frances Fahoome

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the ability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict African American children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness. Children (N = 548, ages 9–12) completed questionnaires assessing the TPB constructs and MVPA and then had their cardiorespiratory fitness assessed with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Commonly used Structural Equation Modeling fit indices suggested the model was an adequate representation for the relationships within the data. However, results also suggested an extended model which was examined and supported. Tests of direct paths from subjective ...


A Social Cognitive Perspective Of Physical-Activity-Related Behavior In Physical Education, Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna Jul 2005

A Social Cognitive Perspective Of Physical-Activity-Related Behavior In Physical Education, Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of the current study was to examine student and teacher physical-activity-related behavior using the theory of planned behavior and self-efficacy theory. Although teachers reported an overwhelmingly positive attitude toward teaching physical activity lessons to promote fitness development, they only devoted 4% of their class time to actually demonstrating and promoting fitness. Students were quite sedentary during class spending 61% of class time sitting, standing, or lying down. Using hierarchical regression analyses, teachers' attitudes toward teaching physically active physical education classes accounted for 50% of the variance in teachers' intention. Teachers who demonstrated/promoted fitness and who limited their ...


Student Physical Activity Patterns: Grade, Gender, And Activity Influences, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Jeffrey J. Martin, Qin Lai, Amy Kliber, Brett Reed Jul 2003

Student Physical Activity Patterns: Grade, Gender, And Activity Influences, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Jeffrey J. Martin, Qin Lai, Amy Kliber, Brett Reed

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to determine how physical education students' cardiovascular responses as determined by mean heart rate, standard deviation of heart rate, and percentage of time in target heart rate zone varied according to student characteristics. Participants were 505 students in Grades 3 through 12. The Polar Accurex Plus heart rate telemetry system was used to measure the physiological load on the cardiovascular system. Three-way ANOVA results suggested that heart rate patterns in physical education varied according to gender, grade, and activity. For example, secondary school girls were more active in individual activities while secondary school boys ...


The Development Of A Physical Education Teachers' Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Instrument, Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna Apr 2003

The Development Of A Physical Education Teachers' Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Instrument, Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

In the present investigation a questionnaire was developed to assess physical education teachers' self-efficacy for teaching classes in which their students were engaged in high levels of physical activity (i.e., at least 50% of class time). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in the development of a 16-item, 4-factor, multidimensional physical education teachers' physical activity self-efficacy scale (PETPAS) that produced reliable and valid scores. The Student factor reflected teachers' efficacy for managing students who didn't enjoy or value physical activity. The Time factor was indicative of teachers' efficacy when they didn't have enough time to teach. The ...


Training And Performance Self-Efficacy, Affect, And Performance In Wheelchair Road Racers, Jeffrey J. Martin Oct 2002

Training And Performance Self-Efficacy, Affect, And Performance In Wheelchair Road Racers, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

In the current study, social cognitive theory was examined with athletes with disabilities. More specifically, hierarchical and self-regulatory performance self-efficacy, self-regulatory training self-efficacy, outcome confidence, and affect were examined with wheelchair road racers (N = 51). In accordance with social cognitive theory, moderate to strong significant relationships among 3 types of self-efficacy and outcome confidence were found (rs = .41 - .78). All forms of self-efficacy and positive affect (rs = .39 - .56) were also related providing additional support to social cognitive theory and the important relationships among training and performance related efficacy and affect in sport.


Friendship Quality In Youth Disability Sport: Perceptions Of A Best Friend, Jeffrey J. Martin, Kerry Smith Oct 2002

Friendship Quality In Youth Disability Sport: Perceptions Of A Best Friend, Jeffrey J. Martin, Kerry Smith

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of the current investigation was to examine friendship quality with a best friend in youth disability sport with an international sample of moderately experienced athletes with disabilities ages 9 to 18 years. Participants were 85 males and 65 females from four countries who competed in track and field and swimming. Data were collected with the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (Weiss & Smith, 1999). An exploratory factor analyses indicated that participants viewed their friendship quality with a best friend in disability sport as having both positive and negative dimensions. The latter focused exclusively on conflict experiences. Females reported stronger perceptions of the benefits of their friendships than males did; whereas no gender differences occurred in perceptions of the negative aspects to friendships. Item analyses indicated that females scored higher than males on questions reflecting loyalty, providing intimacy, self-esteem, supportiveness, having things in common, and playing together.


Determinants Of Teachers' Intentions To Teach Physically Active Physical Education Classes, Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Robert C. Eklund, Brett Reed Apr 2001

Determinants Of Teachers' Intentions To Teach Physically Active Physical Education Classes, Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Robert C. Eklund, Brett Reed

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theories of reasoned action, planned behavior, and self-efficacy, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy. Using hierarchical regression analyses, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported by accounting for 65% of the variance in intention due to the main effects of attitude and ...


A Model Of Stress And Burnout In Male High School Athletic Directors, Jeffrey J. Martin, Betty Kelley, Robert C. Eklund Jul 1999

A Model Of Stress And Burnout In Male High School Athletic Directors, Jeffrey J. Martin, Betty Kelley, Robert C. Eklund

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

No abstract provided.


Stress And Burnout In Female High School Athletic Directors, Jeffrey J. Martin, Betty Kelley, Candice Dias Apr 1999

Stress And Burnout In Female High School Athletic Directors, Jeffrey J. Martin, Betty Kelley, Candice Dias

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

In the current study we examined the relationships between stress predictors, stress, and burnout in female high school athletic directors (N = 52). Significant negative correlations between stress and hardiness and between stress and number of social support providers were found. Significant positive correlations between stress and time concerns, personnel concerns, and program success (e.g., winning) subscales of the athletic directing issues scale were also found. Subjects high in hardiness and with adequate social support networks, who also reported few athletic directing issues, were likely to report minimal stress. Significant positive correlations also indicated that stress was related to the ...


Predictors Of Social Physique Anxiety In Adolescent Swimmers With Physical Disabilities, Jeffrey J. Martin Jan 1999

Predictors Of Social Physique Anxiety In Adolescent Swimmers With Physical Disabilities, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose was to examine predictors of social physique anxiety (SPA) in adolescent swimmers with physical disabilities. Participants were 57 swimmers (27 females, 30 males, ages 16-19, M = 16.2) with various physical disabilities. A three-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in SPA between countries and among disabilities but not gender. Stepwise multiple regression results indicated that self-esteem and the self-identity subscale of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) were the best predictors of SPA but that gender, country, and type of disability were not significant.


Predictors Of Social Physique Anxiety In Elite Female Youth Athletes, Jeffrey J. Martin, Hermann J. Engels, John C. Wirth, Kari L. Smith Mar 1997

Predictors Of Social Physique Anxiety In Elite Female Youth Athletes, Jeffrey J. Martin, Hermann J. Engels, John C. Wirth, Kari L. Smith

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of social physique anxiety (SPA). SPA, self-esteem, body-esteem, public body consciousness (PBC) and percent body fat (%BF) were assessed with elite female youth athletes (N = 68) competing in either figure skating, soccer or gymnastics. Stepwise multiple regression analyses, controlling for BF%, accounted for 59% of the variance in SPA. Self-esteem entered first, and BF%, followed by body-esteem and PBC. The psychological variables accounted for 57% of the variance with self-esteem contributing the most (R square change = 45%). Contrary to previous research, BF% did not significantly contribute to SPA. Additionally, a MANOVA ...


Factor Structure Of The Athletic Identity Measurement Scale With Athletes With Disabilities, Jeffrey J. Martin, Robert C. Eklund, Carol Adams Mushett Jan 1997

Factor Structure Of The Athletic Identity Measurement Scale With Athletes With Disabilities, Jeffrey J. Martin, Robert C. Eklund, Carol Adams Mushett

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Individuals who perceive themselves as "athletes" are thought to have self-schemas composed of, in part, an athletic identity (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993). The recent development of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) has allowed sport psychology researchers to assess athletic identity. Research with adolescent athletes with disabilities has suggested that the AIMS is composed of 4 factors (Martin, Mushett, & Eklund, 1994). The purpose of the current study was to further examine the psychometric properties of the AIMS. Seventy-eight international swimmers (34 females, 44 males) with disabilities, ranging in age from 12 to 44 (M = 23.4 years), participated in ...


Competitive Orientations And Motives Of Adult Sport And Exercise Participants, Diane L. Gill, Lavon Williams, Deborah A. Dowd, Christina M. Beaudoin, Jeffrey J. Martin Dec 1996

Competitive Orientations And Motives Of Adult Sport And Exercise Participants, Diane L. Gill, Lavon Williams, Deborah A. Dowd, Christina M. Beaudoin, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Participants in four different adult sport and exercise programs (running club, exercise classes, cardiac rehabilitation program, senior games) completed measures of competitive orientation and participation motivation. Our samples were older and more diverse than samples of previous research, and their competitive orientations and motives were similarly diverse. Multivariate analyses revealed gender and sample differences. Males were higher than females on competitiveness and win orientation, and runners were less win-oriented than other groups, but overall, all groups were similar to previous college-age samples in competitive orientation. Groups varied on specific motives, with females rating fitness, flexibility, affiliation, and appearance higher than ...


Social Support Mechanisms Among Athletes With Disabilities, Jeffrey J. Martin, Carol Adams Mushett Jan 1996

Social Support Mechanisms Among Athletes With Disabilities, Jeffrey J. Martin, Carol Adams Mushett

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this investigation was to describe social support mechanisms of swimmers with disabilities and examine relationships among social support, self-efficacy, and athletic satisfaction. Results indicated that athletes felt satisfied with the social support they received. Mothers and friends provided primary support in a variety of areas requiring non-sport-related knowledge. Additionally, there were important secondary sources of support in areas requiring sport-specific knowledge. Coaches were primary sources of support in areas that required sport expertise. Fathers were also important sources of secondary support in areas that required both sport expertise and nonsport expertise. Correlational results suggested that athletes who ...


Athletic Identity And Sport Orientation Of Adolescent Swimmers With Disabilities, Jeffrey J. Martin, Carol Adams Mushett, Kari L. Smith Apr 1995

Athletic Identity And Sport Orientation Of Adolescent Swimmers With Disabilities, Jeffrey J. Martin, Carol Adams Mushett, Kari L. Smith

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Measures of athletic identity and sport orientation, developed from self-schema theory, social role theory, and achievement motivation theory, were used to examine international adolescent swimmers with disabilities. The multidimensional Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993) was used to assess self-identity, social identity, exclusivity, and negative affectivity. The Sport Orientation Questionnaire (Gill & Deeter, 1988) measured competitiveness, win orientation, and goal orientation. Swimmers reported (a) a strong self-identity, (b) a moderate to strong social identity, (c) negative affectivity with lower levels of exclusivity, (d) strong competitiveness and goal orientation, and (e) moderate win orientation. Self-identity was correlated with competitiveness, suggesting that swimmers did not simply report an identification with an athletic role; they also reported a strong desire to attain competitive goals. Additionally, exclusivity was associated with negative affectivity, indicating that athletes without diversified self-schemas may be at risk for emotional problems when unable to compete. In general, the results indicated that these swimmers possess a strong athletic identity and that sport is important to them.


Book And Resource Reviews, Jeffrey J. Martin Jan 1995

Book And Resource Reviews, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Risk Taking: Performing Your Best During Critical Times (1993, 62 pp)
Concentration: Focus Your Mind, Power Your Game (1993, 61 pp)
Drive and Determination: Developing Your Inner Motivation (1993, 83 pp)
Visualization: The Master Skill in Mental Training (1992, 63 pp)

Marie Dalloway. Published by Optimal Performance Institute, Phoenix, AZ. (U.S. $14.95 ea / $49.95 set)


The Relationships Among Competitiveness, Age And Ability In Distance Runners, Robert C. Eklund, Jeffrey J. Martin, Alan L. Smith Dec 1994

The Relationships Among Competitiveness, Age And Ability In Distance Runners, Robert C. Eklund, Jeffrey J. Martin, Alan L. Smith

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to examine relationships suggested by general achievement motivation literature and the popular literature in sport using the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ). The current study examined if faster runners are more competitive than slower runners, if older athletes were less competitive than younger athletes, and if faster runners were more goal oriented than slower runners. Distance runners (n=80), ranging from 10 to 61 years old completed race packets containing a cover letter, consent forms, the SOQ and a demographic questionnaire. Runners averaged 32.9 years of age and reported levels of competitiveness and goal ...


A Comparison Of Competitive-Orientation Measures, Diane L. Gill, Betty C. Kelley, Jeffrey J. Martin, Christina M. Caruso Jul 1991

A Comparison Of Competitive-Orientation Measures, Diane L. Gill, Betty C. Kelley, Jeffrey J. Martin, Christina M. Caruso

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

We compared two sport-specific measures of competitive orientation, the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill & Deeter, 1988) and the Competitive Orientation Inventory (COI; Veasley, 1986), and an alternative 4-item version of the COI. Male and female athletes and nonathletes at two small colleges completed questionnaire packets. Competitive-orientation scores were similar to those reported in previous research. The 4-item measure correlated with the COI, and neither of those measures correlated with the SOQ. As in previous studies, males scored higher than females on SOQ competitiveness and win orientation, and athletes scored higher than nonathletes on all SOQ scores. Our results suggest that the SOQ and COI do not assess the ...