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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Igniting A New Legacy: 
The Olympics And Sustainable Development At The Tokyo Olympic Games, Alena Ulrichova May 2019

Igniting A New Legacy: 
The Olympics And Sustainable Development At The Tokyo Olympic Games, Alena Ulrichova

Master's Projects and Capstones

With a decreasing number of cities bidding to host and organize the Olympic Games, we see that various places find the prospect of embarking on this mega-event project less appealing and lucrative then in the past. Moreover, in looking at the history of the Games, we recognize a troubling pattern: money is often spent irresponsibly and does not bring any benefits to citizens even though their tax payments and state lottery contribution are used as main source for funding the Olympics. In order to shift this trend, the movement towards the global call for sustainability—as presented mainly by the ...


Major League Impact: A Comparative Analysis Of Youth Programs Within Major League Baseball Club Charities, Hayley Walker May 2019

Major League Impact: A Comparative Analysis Of Youth Programs Within Major League Baseball Club Charities, Hayley Walker

Master's Projects and Capstones

As one of the most common structured activities for youth, sport provides numerous opportunities for children to learn to lead healthy, active lifestyles. Additionally, the popularity of sport among young people makes it an effective platform for Positive Youth Development (PYD). However, merely participating in sport does not guarantee that youth will develop positive character traits or acquire important life skills. For that reason, nonprofit organizations that offer sport-based youth development programs must have targeted approaches to facilitating opportunities for learning and growth. This study focuses on the methods of youth programming utilized by the charitable affiliates of five professional ...


Confederation Of African Football, Michael Goldman, Mlondi Mashinini Jan 2019

Confederation Of African Football, Michael Goldman, Mlondi Mashinini

Sport Management

Representatives of Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan, and South Africa officially established the Confederation of African Football (CAF, or the Confederation Africaine de Football) on February 8, 1957, in Khartoum, Sudan. During the subsequent 60-year development of Africa’s administrative and controlling body, CAF grew into the biggest of the six continental federations of FIFA. By 2018, CAF counted 56 associations as full or associate members, representing over 25% of FIFA’s 211 associations, although no African team had reached the semi-final stage of the men’s FIFA World Cup as yet.

This chapter documents the business and management research related to ...


Assessment Of Hrv After Maximal Exercise In Trained Postmenopausal Women, Julia Orri, E. M. Hughes, D. G. Mistry, A. Scala Jul 2018

Assessment Of Hrv After Maximal Exercise In Trained Postmenopausal Women, Julia Orri, E. M. Hughes, D. G. Mistry, A. Scala

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Increased parasympathetic tone achieved with endurance training may provide cardioprotection after menopause. To compare heart rate variability (HRV) from rest through maximal exercise and recovery in trained postmenopausal women. Thirtysix postmenopausal women who self-reported training at either moderate (MOD; 3-5.9 METS; 58.9±4.4 year) or vigorous (VIG; >6 METS; 59.7±5.2 year) intensities participated. HRV was measured for 5 min in the supine position, in the last minute of the VO2max test and after 2 min of active recovery. HRV in MOD and VIG was compared using a factorial ANOVA with repeated measures on time ...


The Effect Of Movement Variability On Putting Proficiency During The Golf Putting Stroke, Ashley K. Richardson, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Gerwyn Hughes Jan 2018

The Effect Of Movement Variability On Putting Proficiency During The Golf Putting Stroke, Ashley K. Richardson, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Gerwyn Hughes

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Movement variability has been considered important to execute golf swing yet is comparatively unexplored regarding the golf putt. Movement variability could potentially be important considering the small margins of error between successful and a missed putt. The aim of this study was to assess whether variability of body segment rotations influence putting performance (ball kinematic measures). Eight golfers (handicap range 0-10) performed a 3.2 metre level putt wearing retro-reflective markers which were tracked using a three-dimensional motion analysis system sampling at 120 Hz. Ball roll kinematics were recorded using Quintic Ball Roll launch monitor. Movement (segment) variability was calculated ...


Full Gait Cycle Analysis Of Lower Limb And Trunk Kinematics During Walking In Participants With And Without Ankle Instability, Lynsey Northeast, Charlotte N. Gautrey, Lindsay Bottoms, Gerwyn Hughes, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Andrew Greenhalgh Jan 2018

Full Gait Cycle Analysis Of Lower Limb And Trunk Kinematics During Walking In Participants With And Without Ankle Instability, Lynsey Northeast, Charlotte N. Gautrey, Lindsay Bottoms, Gerwyn Hughes, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Andrew Greenhalgh

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Background: Chronic ankle instability (CAI) has previously been linked to altered lower limb kinematics and muscle activation characteristics during walking, though little research has been performed analysing the full time-series across the stance and swing phases of gait. Research Question: The aim of this study was to compare trunk and lower limb kinematics and muscle activity between those with chronic ankle instability and healthy controls. Methods: Kinematics and muscle activity were measured in 18 (14 males, 4 females) healthy controls (age 22.4 ± 3.6 years, height 177.8 ± 7.6 cm, mass 70.4 ± 11.9 kg, UK shoe ...


Corruption And Soccer In Africa: Empirical Evidence On The Determinants Of Association Soccer Success In The Continent, Mustafa Zahid Jan 2018

Corruption And Soccer In Africa: Empirical Evidence On The Determinants Of Association Soccer Success In The Continent, Mustafa Zahid

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Despite the popularity of soccer in Africa, African teams tend to underperform in international competitions such as the World Cup relative to European and South American teams. Studies have been conducted on what determines performance in international soccer. These studies stress the importance of wealth, talent pool, and soccer culture on determining performance. However, these studies focus more generally on the entire world, and, in some instances, omit African nations due to a lack of data. Additionally, the focus on a wide sample of the world results in the omission of some potentially crucial variables in relation to Africa, specifically ...


The Relationship Between Sports Sponsorship And Corporate Financial Returns In South Africa, Michael Goldman, Julian Blake, Sonja Fourie Jan 2018

The Relationship Between Sports Sponsorship And Corporate Financial Returns In South Africa, Michael Goldman, Julian Blake, Sonja Fourie

Sport Management

Purpose

Sponsorship is a major contributor to income in the South African sports arena, and is a critical component allowing sports unions to remain financially viable and sustainable. Sports sponsoring companies, however, have long questioned the financial returns generated from these ventures. The purpose of this paper is to understand whether financial returns of companies with sports sponsorship in South Africa are significantly different to those without. This research was conducted on Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) listed companies that sponsored sport consistently between 2000 and 2015 for a period of two years. A quantitative methodology was employed whereby share price ...


Is Vigorous Exercise Training Superior To Moderate For Cvd Risk After Menopause?, Julia Orri, E. M. Hughes, D. G. Mistry, A. Scala Jul 2017

Is Vigorous Exercise Training Superior To Moderate For Cvd Risk After Menopause?, Julia Orri, E. M. Hughes, D. G. Mistry, A. Scala

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Postmenopausal women have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease through many factors, such as a sedentary lifestyle and reduced heart rate variability (HRV). Endurance training improves coronary risk but the role of exercise intensity is unclear. The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of moderate versus vigorous exercise on cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women. Thirty-six postmenopausal women who self-reported training at moderate (3–5.9 METS; n = 18; age 58.9 ± 4.4yr) or vigorous intensities ( > 6 METS; n = 18; age 59.7 ± 5.2yr) participated. C-reactive protein (CRP), HRV, VO2max, and stress (Perceived Stress ...


Teaching A Human Rights Education Through Youth Athletics, Jacob J. Beaman May 2017

Teaching A Human Rights Education Through Youth Athletics, Jacob J. Beaman

Master's Projects and Capstones

Throughout my research and work in education I realized there is often a disconnect between schooling and students especially in low-income areas. It can be incredibly difficult to feel confident at school when the curriculum is not relatable to your experiences and life. In this paper I explore how an athletic program can be used to teach a Human Rights Education to fill in the gaps the traditional school day may not provide. I used a Human Rights Education framework with the teacher/coach as a facilitator and a Critical Race Theory lens examining intersectionality, counter-story telling, and interest convergence ...


The Effect Of Dimple Error On The Horizontal Launch Angle And Side Spin Of The Golf Ball During Putting, Ashley K. Richardson, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Gerwyn Hughes Jan 2017

The Effect Of Dimple Error On The Horizontal Launch Angle And Side Spin Of The Golf Ball During Putting, Ashley K. Richardson, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Gerwyn Hughes

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

This study aimed to examine the effect of the impact point on the golf ball on the horizontal launch angle and side spin during putting with a mechanical putting arm and human participants. Putts of 3.2 m were completed with a mechanical putting arm (four putter-ball combinations, total of 160 trials). The centre of the dimple pattern (centroid) was located and the following variables were measured; distance and angle of the impact point from the centroid and surface area of the impact zone. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify whether impact variables had significant associations with ball roll ...


Concacaf Strategic Repositioning: Rebuilding Trust In The ‘Beautiful Game’, Michael Goldman, Aaron Burks, Nola Agha Jan 2017

Concacaf Strategic Repositioning: Rebuilding Trust In The ‘Beautiful Game’, Michael Goldman, Aaron Burks, Nola Agha

Sport Management

This case presents the strategic repositioning challenge faced by the Confederation of North American, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF) after a period of leadership and strategy instability. It reports the allegations and findings of misconduct, and discusses the steps taken by the new leadership to define a new mission and strategy.


Determining Fair Market Value For Duke’S Sporting Goods Store, Michael Goldman, Daniel A. Rascher Jan 2017

Determining Fair Market Value For Duke’S Sporting Goods Store, Michael Goldman, Daniel A. Rascher

Sport Management

Shelley Valdez is a recent finance team hire at Duke’s Sporting Goods Store. She has 1 week to identify, gather, and analyze relevant information to calculate the financial value of the business, using the income and market approaches. She has also been asked to consider Duke’s liquidation value, and comment on the strategic options these calculations point to, before a board meeting of the owners next week.


Exploring Masculinity For A Healthy Campus Culture, Jason M. Gant Aug 2016

Exploring Masculinity For A Healthy Campus Culture, Jason M. Gant

Master's Projects and Capstones

1 in 5 female students is and will be sexually assaulted in college. This is a public health issue as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexual violence (SV) is a significant problem in the United States. SV refers to sexual activity when consent is not obtained or not given freely. Anyone can experience SV, but most victims are female. The person responsible for the violence is typically male and usually someone the victim is familiar with. The person can be, but is not limited to, a friend, coworker, neighbor, family member and even classmate. Boys ...


When For-Profit Companies Evaluate Potential Nonprofit Partners Focused On Youth Development, What Is The Role Of Symbolic Brand Association In That Evaluation?, Eric Fischer May 2016

When For-Profit Companies Evaluate Potential Nonprofit Partners Focused On Youth Development, What Is The Role Of Symbolic Brand Association In That Evaluation?, Eric Fischer

Master's Projects and Capstones

Literature suggests that, “symbolic associations refer to the abstract cognitions that translate the values of the organization, personality traits associated with the brand and even emotions” (Michaelidou, Micevski, & Cadogan, 2015, p. 1658). Here, in order to measure the value of clear and powerful symbolic brand associations for nonprofits as they seek corporate support, commercial managers evaluated the symbolic brand associations of five nonprofit organizations devoted to youth development through sport. This type of commercial-nonprofit linkage warranted analysis due to the association benefits offered by both sport and youth. Professionals in this sector, standard literature from both commercial and nonprofit sectors ...


The Effect Of Arm Position On Lower Extremity Kinematics During A Single Limb Drop Landing: A Preliminary Study, C. Masters, J. Johnstone, Gerwyn Hughes Jan 2016

The Effect Of Arm Position On Lower Extremity Kinematics During A Single Limb Drop Landing: A Preliminary Study, C. Masters, J. Johnstone, Gerwyn Hughes

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur most commonly during non-contact situations, such as landing from a jump. Arm position has been shown to affect the loading of the lower extremity and therefore alter the potential injury risk. This study aimed to investigate the effect of arm position on lower extremity kinematics during single limb drop landings. Eight recreational American football players performed single limb drop landings on their preferential limb in four different conditions; (1) control (arms free); (2) arms to landing limb side; (3) arms in front of body; and (4) arms away from landing limb side. Kinematics of ...


The Effect Of Repetitive Ankle Perturbations On Muscle Reaction Time And Muscle Activity, Peter K. Thain, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Gerwyn Hughes Jan 2016

The Effect Of Repetitive Ankle Perturbations On Muscle Reaction Time And Muscle Activity, Peter K. Thain, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Gerwyn Hughes

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

The use of a tilt platform to simulate a lateral ankle sprain and record muscle reaction time is a well-established procedure. However, a potential caveat is that repetitive ankle perturbation may cause a natural attenuation of the reflex latency and amplitude. This is an important area to investigate as many researchers examine the effect of an intervention on muscle reaction time. Muscle reaction time, peak and average amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain (combined inversion and plantarflexion movement) were calculated in twenty-two physically active participants. The 40 perturbations were divided ...


Dislocation And Adjustment Of International Student-Athletes, Thiago Brito Lopes Dec 2015

Dislocation And Adjustment Of International Student-Athletes, Thiago Brito Lopes

Master's Theses

One reason that attracts international student-athletes to American universities could be the interest in earning high quality education with the possibility of playing high performance sports. However, when compared to other international students, differences are seen: Other foreign students who look for a degree in the US desire not only an international education, but also potentially staying in the country. The University of San Francisco, where a cosmopolitan city meets education, fits it best. At USF, 82 countries are represented, reaching a number of 1708 students. Approximately ¼ of the whole student population is international. The ratio with student-athletes is ...


The Connection Between Race And Called Strikes And Balls, Jeff Hamrick, John Rasp Jan 2015

The Connection Between Race And Called Strikes And Balls, Jeff Hamrick, John Rasp

Master of Science in Analytics (MSAN) Faculty Research

We investigate potential racial bias by Major League Baseball umpires. We do so in the context of the subjective decision as to whether a pitch is called a strike or a ball, using data from the 1989-2010 seasons. We find limited, and sometimes contradictory, evidence that umpires unduly favor or unjustly discriminate against players based on their race. Potential mitigating variables such as attendance, terminal pitch, the absolute score differential, and the presence of monitoring systems do not consistently interact with umpire/pitcher and umpire/hitter racial combinations. Most evidence that would first appear to support racially connected behaviors by ...


The Effects Of Bag Style On Muscle Activity Of The Trapezius, Erector Spinae And Latissimus Dorsi During Walking In Female University Students, R. Hardie, R. Haskew, J. Harris, Gerwyn Hughes Jan 2015

The Effects Of Bag Style On Muscle Activity Of The Trapezius, Erector Spinae And Latissimus Dorsi During Walking In Female University Students, R. Hardie, R. Haskew, J. Harris, Gerwyn Hughes

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Back pain is common in adolescents which has been associated with carrying a bag. However, there is little research examining the effects of bag style in female adolescents. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different bag conditions on muscle activity of the trapezius, erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles in female university students during walking. Twelve female university students walked on a treadmill for 5 minutes at 1.1 m/s during five conditions; control, 1 strapped rucksack, 2 strapped rucksack, ipsilateral shoulder strap and contralateral shoulder strap, each containing 10% bodyweight. Electromyography for the ...


Gender Difference In Lower Limb Muscle Activity During Landing And Rapid Change Of Direction, Gerwyn Hughes, N Dally Jan 2015

Gender Difference In Lower Limb Muscle Activity During Landing And Rapid Change Of Direction, Gerwyn Hughes, N Dally

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine gender differences in lower limb muscle activity during jump landing and rapid change of direction. Equipment and Methods: Surface electromyography (EMG) of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus were recorded for 10 male and 10 female basketball, volleyball or netball players performing five repetitions each of two tasks; 1) landing from a maximal height vertical jump and, 2) 45º rapid change of direction on their dominant leg. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to determine sex differences and paired samples t-tests were conducted to determine task differences in peak EMG ...


The Athletic Profile Of Fast Bowling In Cricket: A Review, James A. Johnstone, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Gerwyn Hughes, Tim Watson, Paul A. Ford, Andrew T. Garrett Jan 2014

The Athletic Profile Of Fast Bowling In Cricket: A Review, James A. Johnstone, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Gerwyn Hughes, Tim Watson, Paul A. Ford, Andrew T. Garrett

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Fast bowlers have a vital position in a cricket team and there is an increasing body of scientific literature that has reviewed this role over the last decade. Previous research has tended to focus on biomechanical analysis and injury prevention in performers. However, this paper aims to critically review the emerging contribution of physiological based literature linked to fast bowling in cricket and also highlight the current evidence related to simulated and competitive in-match performance. Furthermore, the review considers limitations with past research and possible avenues for future scientific investigation. It is clear with the advent of new applied mobile ...


A Review Of Recent Perspectives On Biomechanical Risk Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Gerwyn Hughes Jan 2014

A Review Of Recent Perspectives On Biomechanical Risk Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Gerwyn Hughes

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

There is considerable evidence to support a number of biomechanical risk factors associatiated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. This paper aimed to review these biomechanical risk factors and highlight future directions relating to them. Current perspectives investigating trunk position and relationships between strength, muscle activity and biomechanics during landing/cutting highlight the importance of increasing hamstring muscle force during dynamic movements through altering strength, muscle activity, muscle length and contraction velocity. In particular, increased trunk flexion during landing/cutting and greater hamstring strength are likely to increase hamstring muscle force during landing and cutting which have been associated ...


Field Based Reliability And Validity Of The Bioharness Multivariable Monitoring Device, James A. Johnstone, Paul A. Ford, Gerwyn Hughes, Tim Watson, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Andrew T. Garrett Jan 2012

Field Based Reliability And Validity Of The Bioharness Multivariable Monitoring Device, James A. Johnstone, Paul A. Ford, Gerwyn Hughes, Tim Watson, Andrew C.S. Mitchell, Andrew T. Garrett

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

The BioharnessTM device is designed for monitoring physiological variables in free-living situations but has only been proven to be reliable and valid in a laboratory environment. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the BioharnessTM using a field based protocol. Twenty healthy males participated. Heart rate (HR), breathing frequency (BF) and accelerometry (ACC) were assessed by simultaneous measurement of two BioharnessTM devices and a test-retest of a discontinuous incremental walk-jog-run protocol (4 – 11 km·h-1) completed in a sports hall. Adopted precision of measurement devices were; HR: Polar T31 (Polar Electro), BF: Spirometer (Cortex Metalyser), ACC ...


Center Of Pressure Excursion During The Golf Putting Stroke In Low, Mid And High Handicap Golfers, Ashley K. Richardson, Gerwyn Hughes, Andrew C.S. Mitchell Jan 2012

Center Of Pressure Excursion During The Golf Putting Stroke In Low, Mid And High Handicap Golfers, Ashley K. Richardson, Gerwyn Hughes, Andrew C.S. Mitchell

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Golf handicap is significantly correlated to putting performance with low handicap golfers (LH) demonstrating increased putting accuracy compared with high handicap golfers (HH). Smaller center of pressure excursion (CPE) during putting has been demonstrated by LH golfers, suggesting balance is important during successful putts. The aim of this study was to examine CPE in low, mid and high handicap golfers about the mediolateral axis (ML) and anteriorposterior axis (AP). Nineteen subjects participated in the study; subjects were split into LH, mid handicap and HH groups. Subjects completed five successful 2.5m putts, standing on an RS FootScan. The LH group ...


Bioharness Multivariable Monitoring Device. Part Ii: Reliability, James A. Johnstone, Paul A. Ford, Gerwyn Hughes, Tim Watson, Andrew T. Garrett Jan 2012

Bioharness Multivariable Monitoring Device. Part Ii: Reliability, James A. Johnstone, Paul A. Ford, Gerwyn Hughes, Tim Watson, Andrew T. Garrett

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

The BioharnessTM monitoring system may provide physiological information on human performance but the reliability of this data is fundamental for confidence in the equipment being used. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of each of the 5 BioharnessTM variables using a treadmill based protocol. 10 healthy males participated. A between and within subject design to assess the reliability of Heart rate (HR), Breathing Frequency (BF), Accelerometry (ACC) and Infra-red skin temperature (ST) was completed via a repeated, discontinuous, incremental treadmill protocol. Posture (P) was assessed by a tilt table, moved through 160o. Between subject data reported ...


Bioharness Multivariable Monitoring Device. Part I: Validity, James A. Johnstone, Paul A. Ford, Gerwyn Hughes, Tim Watson, Andrew T. Garrett Jan 2012

Bioharness Multivariable Monitoring Device. Part I: Validity, James A. Johnstone, Paul A. Ford, Gerwyn Hughes, Tim Watson, Andrew T. Garrett

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

The BioharnessTM monitoring system may provide physiological information on human performance but there is limited information on its validity. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of all 5 BioharnessTM variables using a laboratory based treadmill protocol. 22 healthy males participated. Heart rate (HR), Breathing Frequency (BF) and Accelerometry (ACC) precision were assessed during a discontinuous incremental (0- 12 km·h-1) treadmill protocol. Infra-red skin temperature (ST) was assessed during a 45 min-1 sub-maximal cycle ergometer test, completed twice, with environmental temperature controlled at 20 ±0.1 °C and 30 ± 0.1 °C. Posture (P) was assessed ...


Dynamic Variability Of Isometric Action Tremor In Precision Pinching, Tim Eakin, Waneen Spirduso, Karen Francis Jan 2012

Dynamic Variability Of Isometric Action Tremor In Precision Pinching, Tim Eakin, Waneen Spirduso, Karen Francis

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

Evolutionary development of isometric force impulse frequencies, power, and the directional concordance of changes in oscillatory tremor during performance of a two-digit force regulation task was examined. Analyses compared a patient group having tremor confounding volitional force regulation with a control group having no neuropathological diagnosis. Dependent variables for tremor varied temporally and spatially, both within individual trials and across trials, across individuals, across groups, and between digits. Particularly striking findings were magnitude increases during approaches to cue markers and shifts in the concordance phase from pinching toward rigid sway patterns as the magnitude increased. Magnitudes were significantly different among ...


Comparing Team Performance Of The English Premier League, Serie A, And La Liga For The 2008-2009 Season, Joel Oberstone Jan 2011

Comparing Team Performance Of The English Premier League, Serie A, And La Liga For The 2008-2009 Season, Joel Oberstone

Business Analytics and Information Systems

Three of the most celebrated football leagues in the world include the English Premier League (EPL), Italy’s Serie A, and Spain’s La Liga. To date, little football research has been conducted that attempts to determine why these leagues are so successful. What is it that the EPL, La Liga, and Serie A do that fosters such a high caliber of play, and what pitch factors, if any, either (1) contrast or (2) connect these prestigious leagues? The paucity of rigorous inquiry has not deterred popular speculation—common folklore has not waited for hard data. Experts rush to characterize ...


The Effects Of Opposition And Gender On Knee Kinematics And Ground Reaction Force During Landing From Volleyball Block Jumps, Gerwyn Hughes, James Watkins, Nick Owen Jan 2010

The Effects Of Opposition And Gender On Knee Kinematics And Ground Reaction Force During Landing From Volleyball Block Jumps, Gerwyn Hughes, James Watkins, Nick Owen

Kinesiology (Formerly Exercise and Sport Science)

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks 1) an unopposed and 2) an opposed volleyball block jump and landing. Knee kinematics were recorded by a 12 camera motion analysis system (120 Hz) and ground reaction force was recorded by a force platform (600 Hz) during landing. The results showed a significant effect for level of opposition in peak normalized GRF (p = .04), knee flexion at ground contact ...