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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Student-Athlete Success: An Examination Of Parenting, Grit, Academic Success, And Mental Health Outcomes, Jackson Howard Aug 2020

Student-Athlete Success: An Examination Of Parenting, Grit, Academic Success, And Mental Health Outcomes, Jackson Howard

Dissertations

Factors such as poor adjustment, substance misuse, and mental health concerns have been found to be detrimental to college student success. Considering this, researchers have focused on investigating protective factors, which may enhance performance in higher education. Specifically, non-cognitive traits, such as grit, or an ability to maintain determination and passion for long-term goals in the face of adversity, and positive parenting strategies, such as psychological autonomy granting, have been tied to positive outcomes for college students in higher education. Conversely, overparenting behaviors and negative outcomes, such as burnout, have been found to be damaging to student success. Student-athletes are ...


Kinesthetic Language: A Dialect Of Kinesics, Terrill Suzanne Corletto Jun 2020

Kinesthetic Language: A Dialect Of Kinesics, Terrill Suzanne Corletto

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Human communication requires the disciplines regarding physical fitness, codified language, and the performing arts to overlap, and exist symbiotically. Within the realm of artistic performance, the three disciplines working together deliver a deliberate message in a way unique to performing artists. The general tendency to compartmentalize sports, communication, and the performing arts into their pigeonhole categories of Kinesiology, Linguistics, and Theatre Arts is impractical, particularly for performing artists simply because all of the disciplines are mutually dependent in the context of all kinesthetic communications.

The purpose of this paper is to define and discuss several concepts and the ways in ...


Athletes With Mental Health Illnesses, Trenton Allmang Jun 2020

Athletes With Mental Health Illnesses, Trenton Allmang

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The focus for this research study is to understand the development of mental health symptoms that result from sports engagement. Participating in sports for several years within different developmental stages of human life can increase the probability of identity conflict and mental distress. This study addresses the risk factors that contribute to the development of mental health illnesses from former athletes’ perspectives through qualitative research. The study includes former male and female participants ages 18 and older as well as their family members, friends, sports stakeholders, sports officials, coaches, social workers, and athletic training staff. This study was conducted from ...


An Investigation Of Athletic Buoyancy In Adult Recreational And Sport Club Athletes, Jackie Rae Victoriano Calhoun May 2020

An Investigation Of Athletic Buoyancy In Adult Recreational And Sport Club Athletes, Jackie Rae Victoriano Calhoun

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Athletic buoyancy is the ability of an athlete to effectively handle the daily setbacks and challenges they face during training and competition. Although buoyancy has received ample research in the academic domain, a dearth of information exists regarding buoyancy in the athletic domain. Therefore, the overall purpose of this dissertation was to investigate athletic buoyancy’s independent contribution to sport psychology while also exploring antecedents and outcomes in adult athletes.

Study 1 compared athletic buoyancy to other cognate constructs, or similar constructs, to determine their conceptual boundaries. A one-time, online questionnaire was distributed to 294 recreational athletes (M age = 42 ...


Legends Of Sport: Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias, Murphy Francis Mcintyre May 2020

Legends Of Sport: Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias, Murphy Francis Mcintyre

2020 Symposium Posters

This is a poster project I completed for my Sport and Culture class here at Eastern Washington University. Before starting this assignment, I had never heard the name Babe Didrikson. After finishing the project, I can tell you that Babe Didrikson is one of the greatest athletes of all time. This poster goes over most of her major accomplishments, a little bit about her early life, and it dives into the cultural significance of Babe's life work. She was one of the fiercest competitors to have ever lived. Babe was a pioneer for women's sports and her dominance ...


Cardiovascular And Stride Frequency Differences During Land And Aquatic Treadmill Walking, Jessica Burton, Sarah Duffey, Amber Hammonds, Anna Leduc, Rachel Shumate, John Coons, Ryan T. Conners May 2020

Cardiovascular And Stride Frequency Differences During Land And Aquatic Treadmill Walking, Jessica Burton, Sarah Duffey, Amber Hammonds, Anna Leduc, Rachel Shumate, John Coons, Ryan T. Conners

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This study examined heart rate (HR) and stride frequency (SF) values of 30 college-aged males and females during dry-land (DL) and aquatic walking (AW). Aquatic walking trials were completed in an underwater treadmill with the water depth at waist level; the water temperature (31℃ ± 0.1℃) and room temperature (26.6℃ ± 0.1℃) were maintained at thermoneutral levels throughout the study. During each walking condition, HR and SF were recorded at treadmill speeds of 1 mph, 2 mph, and 3 mph. Participants were instructed to walk with their hands at their sides swinging as they would when walking on dry-land ...


Features Of Acceleration And Angular Velocity Using Thigh Imus During Walking In Water, Koichi Kaneda, Yuji Ohgi, Mark Mckean, Brendan Burkett May 2020

Features Of Acceleration And Angular Velocity Using Thigh Imus During Walking In Water, Koichi Kaneda, Yuji Ohgi, Mark Mckean, Brendan Burkett

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ten participants were assessed while walking in water and on land with wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to the right thigh. Longitudinal acceleration, anterior-posterior acceleration, and frontal axis angular velocity were measured at 100 Hz, matched with video analysis sampled at 25 Hz during the walking trials. The longitudinal acceleration showed almost 1 g from initial heel contact to 70% of one cycle, and the anterior-posterior acceleration showed a sinusoidal pattern, synchronizing the approximate posture of the thigh in water. The frontal axis angular velocity fluctuated less while walking in water compared with on land, because thigh motion speed ...


The Ocean Lifeguard Intervention Continuum: A Cognitive Aid For Surf Lifeguard Education, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Shane Scoggins, Paul Andrus, Jack A. Futoran May 2020

The Ocean Lifeguard Intervention Continuum: A Cognitive Aid For Surf Lifeguard Education, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Shane Scoggins, Paul Andrus, Jack A. Futoran

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ocean lifeguards are constantly engaged in beach risk analysis, required to efficiently evaluate a variety of environmental and other factors quickly in order to triage and prioritize who needs help. Teaching these skills is a challenge for introductory training programs. We sought to improve new lifeguards’ understanding of the interaction of various risk components in the beach environment and aid decision-making related to when a lifeguard should intervene in a situation. We developed a two-part cognitive aid for introductory ocean lifeguard education depicting individual and interacting elements of a beach goer’s risk of drowning or injury and the process ...


Kids Don’T Float…And Their Parents Don’T Either: Using A Family-Centered Approach In Alaska’S Kids Don’T Float Program, Michelle E. E. Bauer, Audrey R. Giles, Justina Marianayagam, Kelli M. Toth May 2020

Kids Don’T Float…And Their Parents Don’T Either: Using A Family-Centered Approach In Alaska’S Kids Don’T Float Program, Michelle E. E. Bauer, Audrey R. Giles, Justina Marianayagam, Kelli M. Toth

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The goal of this experiential report is to outline the adoption of a family-centered Kids Don’t Float approach. We conducted a critical synthesis of information to reflect the expansion of the Kids Don’t Float program into a more family-centered approach. The critical synthesis provided insights into why we should adopt this approach, how it was implemented, and how it influenced drowning incidents compared to the previously used child-centered approach. The adoption of a family-centered approach may contribute to reducing drowning incidents by targeting parents, providing safety information to families, and promoting parental modelling of life jackets. Program evaluators ...


Factors Impacting Swimming Participation And Competence: A Qualitative Report, Todd E. Layne, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer Renee Pharr, Richard L. Irwin May 2020

Factors Impacting Swimming Participation And Competence: A Qualitative Report, Todd E. Layne, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer Renee Pharr, Richard L. Irwin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Drowning continues to be a major cause of death for children, especially among minority groups. USA Swimming commissioned studies in 2008 and 2010 to look at swimming ability or inability, an associated drowning variable. The 2010 study showed alarming high percentages regarding insufficient swimming skill for many demographic groups. The current study’s purpose was to provide further analysis of variables which emerged from 2010 study and how these variables are affecting all US populations. Focus group interviews accomplished in three regionally diverse US cities asked participants (3=fathers; 12=mothers) about their personal history with swimming, perceptions concerning swimming ...


Mind Over Matter: The Obstacles And Importance Of Providing Psychological Care To Collegiate Athletes, Elizabeth Wayne May 2020

Mind Over Matter: The Obstacles And Importance Of Providing Psychological Care To Collegiate Athletes, Elizabeth Wayne

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

In the collegiate athletic world, there has been an increasing emphasis on the mental health of student-athletes, but what is being done to enhance the mental well being of this newfound vulnerable population? We are seeking to understand the student-athlete perception of counseling services compared to the psycho-social help they receive in the athletic training room and from the support staff there. Many athletes go to the training room to help with their physical and mental ailments. This research will address the need for the athletic department at Duquesne to consider hiring a full-time sports psychologist or clinical psychologist.

The ...


Promising Practices For Boating Safety Initiatives That Target Indigenous Peoples In New Zealand, Australia, The United States Of America, And Canada, Mitchell Crozier, Audrey R. Giles May 2020

Promising Practices For Boating Safety Initiatives That Target Indigenous Peoples In New Zealand, Australia, The United States Of America, And Canada, Mitchell Crozier, Audrey R. Giles

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Boating-related incidents are responsible for a significant number of the drowning fatalities that occur within Indigenous communities in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, and Canada. The aim of this paper was to identify promising practices for boating safety initiatives that target Indigenous peoples within these countries and evaluate past and ongoing boating safety initiatives delivered to/with Indigenous peoples within these countries to suggest the ways in which they – or programs that follow them - may be more effective. Based upon evidence from previous research, boating safety initiatives that target Indigenous peoples in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, and Canada should ...


Examining Minority Youth Swimmers’ Versus Non-Swimmers’ Perceptions Of Swimming Involvement, Timothy M. Dasinger, Laura L. Brown, Ashton J. Sawyers May 2020

Examining Minority Youth Swimmers’ Versus Non-Swimmers’ Perceptions Of Swimming Involvement, Timothy M. Dasinger, Laura L. Brown, Ashton J. Sawyers

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Drowning is one of the leading causes of death in youth, especially among minority populations (Gilchrest & Parker, 2014). According to the World Health Organization (2014), every hour of every day approximately 42 people lose their lives to drowning. Additionally, African-Americans are 14 times more likely to drown in a pool than other racial or ethnic group members (Waller & Norwood, 2011). The purpose of this study was to examine survey results between swimming and non-swimming minority youth participants. Forty African American students between the ages of 5-17 from an after-school program completed the Swimming Involvement Survey. Results indicated that swimmers, independent ...


Exploring New Jersey High School Athletic Trainers' Experience And Perceptions Associated With A Multifaceted Approach To Concussion Management, James Stavitz May 2020

Exploring New Jersey High School Athletic Trainers' Experience And Perceptions Associated With A Multifaceted Approach To Concussion Management, James Stavitz

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Background: Concussions are a subset of mild traumatic brain injuries that have become a serious concern for high school athletes. An estimated 1.3 million sport- and recreation-related concussions occur in high school athletes each year in the United States. The actual incidence of sport-related concussions in U.S. high school athletes may be significantly higher, however, because this population under-reports concussions at an estimated rate of 50 percent.

Athletic Trainers (ATC’s) are licensed healthcare professionals and have one of the strongest lobby's in the United States. This lobby is known as the National Athletic Trainers’ Association or ...


The Partial Immersion Aquatic Approach Using Adjustable Weight Bearing To Improve Posture And Sitting Balance Adaptation For Children With Severe Cerebral Palsy, Niv Shelef May 2020

The Partial Immersion Aquatic Approach Using Adjustable Weight Bearing To Improve Posture And Sitting Balance Adaptation For Children With Severe Cerebral Palsy, Niv Shelef

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The innovative ‟Partial Immersion” Aquatic Therapy Approach was developed to enhance balance and posture during sitting adaptation for children with severe cerebral palsy who exhibit deficiency in those skills on land. Stable balance during sitting posture is one of the preconditions for hands function in activities of daily living. Aquatic skills learned during aquatic therapy were then transferred to a land environment. Therapy included the use of a treatment chair that enabled adjustable weight bearing in a series of 30 mm steps. A mixed-methods design employing a multiple case study approach (n=5) including quantitative and qualitative methods investigated the ...


Swimming Past The Pandemic: Importance Of Evidence-Based Science, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D. May 2020

Swimming Past The Pandemic: Importance Of Evidence-Based Science, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Swimming Past the Pandemic - URL included


"You Play Like A Girl": How Alternative Conceptualizations Of Sexism Impact Attitudes Toward Women In Professional Sports, Kate Wigod May 2020

"You Play Like A Girl": How Alternative Conceptualizations Of Sexism Impact Attitudes Toward Women In Professional Sports, Kate Wigod

Honors Theses

This thesis examines whether alternative conceptualizations of sexism impact attitudes towards women in professional sports. Specifically, this thesis focuses on the United States Women’s National Soccer Team (USWNT), who sued their governing body in 2018 on the bases of unequal treatment and pay. The choice to focus on this particular team is because these women generate more revenue and outperform the United States Men’s National Soccer Team; two factors that are normally used to justify why female athletes should not be paid equally. To measure sexist attitudes, a survey of 74 questions was administered through Lucid and served ...


The Effects Of Acute Exercise And Psychological Stress On Episodic Memory, Lauren Koehler May 2020

The Effects Of Acute Exercise And Psychological Stress On Episodic Memory, Lauren Koehler

Honors Theses

Research has suggested that exercise has an effect on memory function. Studies have also shown that exercise mitigates the effects of stress. The relationship between exercise and stress in regard to memory function is noteworthy. There has been little research on this relationship in young adults. This thesis discusses the effects of acute exercise on the episodic memory of young adults when they are exposed to a psychosocial stressor. The results of the research study show that acute aerobic exercise before memory encoding or consolidation was not associated with memory function after exposure to a stressor. Future research in this ...


Swim Instruction For Individuals With Developmental Coordination Disorder, Susan J. Grosse May 2020

Swim Instruction For Individuals With Developmental Coordination Disorder, Susan J. Grosse

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Almost every swim teacher has encountered an individual who had difficulty learning to swim, whose movements appeared dissimilar from peers, or who needed to repeat swim course instructional levels many times. That individual might have had difficulty with sport activities, handwriting, and been clumsy in gross and fine motor tasks. Difficulty with coordination and control of movement may suggest a diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Individuals experiencing DCD may feel left out, inadequate, unhappy, frustrated, and embarrassed by his or her ineptness. These feelings may result in an individual withdrawing or refusing to join in and participate in physical ...


Staff Training In Aquatics For Individuals With Disabilities: The Quest, Susan J. Grosse May 2020

Staff Training In Aquatics For Individuals With Disabilities: The Quest, Susan J. Grosse

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Trained instructors in general programs have the ability and resources to initiate and follow through with developing water safe individuals who are capable swimmers. Specific staff training to prepare individuals to facilitate aquatic participation for individuals with disabilities is currently extremely limited. The purpose of this article is to examine the barriers to specialized staff training in aquatics for individuals with disabilities, to suggest necessary staff training content, and to propose topics for further research in the area of staff training. Seeking development of quality staff training programs for those working in aquatics for individuals with disabilities is the quest.


Evaluation And Development Of Salem Generation Games, Adam Parise, Shane O'Neill, Carl Beatrice Jr, Khalill Benguche, Shawn Calabro, Marcus Carvalho, Jaden Castillo, Matthew Cesare, Madison Cifra, Ron Colman, Dom Deluca, Alicia Gibney, Brett Graziano, Jake Hibbert, Justin Hicks, Noah Hodgkins, Janard Jones, Matthew Legere, Brett Molea, Michael Negri, Chris O'Brien, Darren Sanderson, Patrick Sullivan, Joey Van Bragt, Sebastian Williams, Ben Darling, Harry Garofano, Joseph Morse, Angelo Pilato, Brayan Then, Domenic Tringale May 2020

Evaluation And Development Of Salem Generation Games, Adam Parise, Shane O'Neill, Carl Beatrice Jr, Khalill Benguche, Shawn Calabro, Marcus Carvalho, Jaden Castillo, Matthew Cesare, Madison Cifra, Ron Colman, Dom Deluca, Alicia Gibney, Brett Graziano, Jake Hibbert, Justin Hicks, Noah Hodgkins, Janard Jones, Matthew Legere, Brett Molea, Michael Negri, Chris O'Brien, Darren Sanderson, Patrick Sullivan, Joey Van Bragt, Sebastian Williams, Ben Darling, Harry Garofano, Joseph Morse, Angelo Pilato, Brayan Then, Domenic Tringale

Research Day

The objective of free mass-participation events hosted by Salem State University (SSU), i.e. the 2016 Wellness U Multisport Festival and the 2017, 2018, 2019 & 2020 Generation Games, was to involve SSU students studying sport and recreation management in the development and implementation of new sporting event solutions targeting these social concerns. The goal for the 2020 Generation Games was again to get many generations together for a day of fun and games. The Salem 2020 edition offered clinics as well as many other activities and sports. This presentation shares SSU’s experience in implementing the projects, while discussing implications ...


The Effect Of Plyometric Training On Collegiate Dancer's Jumping Abilities, Victoria Kelsen May 2020

The Effect Of Plyometric Training On Collegiate Dancer's Jumping Abilities, Victoria Kelsen

Research Day

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Plyometric training effects dancers’ vertical jump heights and broad jumps, compared to standard jump training activities normally done by dancers.

Methods: The six-week study included 14 collegiate leveled dancers, 9 of them (21.3±2.6 years old) completed the plyometric training program while 5 of them (21.5±2.2 years old) completed the dance training program. Each group met twice a week and participated in pretesting and post-testing. Three tests were used to assess the effects of training and included the squat jump, countermovement jump, and broad jump ...


The Influence Of Light Therapy On Recovery From Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, Brian Smith May 2020

The Influence Of Light Therapy On Recovery From Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, Brian Smith

Research Day

Introduction: Engaging in physical activity and exercise can result in muscle damage and soreness. When muscles lengthen under tension during eccentric contraction, which can happen during daily physical activities, it can cause exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). When you repeat those movements at a high intensity, intracellular muscle damage can occur leading to a 24 to 48-hour delay in the onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) (Choi, 2014). There have been products invented to enhance the recovery of DOMS created by EIMD. Light therapy (LT), in this case, is a non-invasive clinical technique commonly used to treat muscular injuries. The purpose of ...


Marketing The Sport Of Wrestling In The United States, Adam Parise, Shane O'Neill, Ron Colman, Michael Negri, Darren Sanderson, Sebastian Williams, Brett Graziano, Matthew Legere, Noah Hodgkins, Justin Hicks, Chris O'Brien, Khalill Benguche, Janard Jones, Alicia Gibney, Marcus Carvalho, Madison Cifra, Patrick Sullivan, Jake Hibbert, Jaden Castillo, Shawn Calabro, Brett Molea, Matthew Cesare, Joey Van Bragt, Carl Beatrice Jr, Danae Angiulo, Dom Deluca May 2020

Marketing The Sport Of Wrestling In The United States, Adam Parise, Shane O'Neill, Ron Colman, Michael Negri, Darren Sanderson, Sebastian Williams, Brett Graziano, Matthew Legere, Noah Hodgkins, Justin Hicks, Chris O'Brien, Khalill Benguche, Janard Jones, Alicia Gibney, Marcus Carvalho, Madison Cifra, Patrick Sullivan, Jake Hibbert, Jaden Castillo, Shawn Calabro, Brett Molea, Matthew Cesare, Joey Van Bragt, Carl Beatrice Jr, Danae Angiulo, Dom Deluca

Research Day

Referencing domestic and global practices, this study provides information on what might be implemented as best practices to advance the product, place, price and promotion of wrestling in the USA. The authors utilized the model of integrated elite and mass sport development from past research which formed the foundation for a questionnaire and interview schedule for US wrestling coaches and administrators to generate a snapshot of perceptions of the current sport system and possibilities for its further development and marketing.


The Relationship Between Campus Recreation Facility Use And Retention For First-Time Undergraduate Students, Sera Janson Zegre, Rodney P. Hughes, Andrew M. Darling, Craig R. Decker May 2020

The Relationship Between Campus Recreation Facility Use And Retention For First-Time Undergraduate Students, Sera Janson Zegre, Rodney P. Hughes, Andrew M. Darling, Craig R. Decker

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

This study examines the relationship between campus recreation facility access and first-year retention of full-time, first-time undergraduate students at a public university for 2014–2015 through 2016–2017. Authors examine differences between facility users and nonusers by pairing facility swipe card data with student records. Statistical analysis includes logistic regression and matching approaches, controlling for student demographics, academic preparedness, academic goals, family characteristics, and various environmental factors. Results show a positive and significant relationship between recreation facility use and retention, including 7.1 to 8.4 percentage points higher retention for users versus nonusers, holding other variables constant. Subsample analysis ...


Pitching Change: Micro-Community Of Higher Learning, Christopher Chaphe May 2020

Pitching Change: Micro-Community Of Higher Learning, Christopher Chaphe

Bachelor of Architecture Theses - 5th Year

Being around sports growing up has given me some experiences that have shaped who I am today. Playing and watching sports is a common activity amongst my friends and family. These events spark engagement and camaraderie between us. The stadium in which these sports are played within are a key component to this engagement. They bring people together to enjoy and root on your favorite teams along side thousands of other fans.

Stadiums today are becoming a remarkable instrument to generate communal spirit besides marketing, recruiting and hosting games for universities. The iconic design of these stadiums has become more ...


Impact, Prevalence Of Cognitive Overload And Athlete Burnout: Division Ii Athletics, Luke Teague May 2020

Impact, Prevalence Of Cognitive Overload And Athlete Burnout: Division Ii Athletics, Luke Teague

Leadership Education Capstones

The purpose of this study is to explore how collegiate coaches and student athletes contribute to cognitive overload and athlete burnout.


A Phenomenological Approach On Communication Experiences Between Strength And Conditioning Coaches And Head Sport Coaches, Benjamin Charles, Ben Charles May 2020

A Phenomenological Approach On Communication Experiences Between Strength And Conditioning Coaches And Head Sport Coaches, Benjamin Charles, Ben Charles

Leadership Education Capstones

This study investigates communication experiences between Strength and Conditioning Coaches and Head Sport Coaches using a phenomenological approach. Sixteen Strength and Conditioning Coaches were surveyed, via Qualtrics, to obtain basic demographics and answer open-ended questions to understand communication experiences and strategies Strength and Conditioning Coaches use to have effective relationships, teamwork, and athletic performance with Head Sport Coaches. Participants were required to be currently working for a DI-DIII 4-year University in the United States, have at least 1-year of Strength and Conditioning experience, an accredit certification related to training athletes at the college level, and be at least 21 years ...


Influences Of Coach Leadership Related To Nutrition On Collegiate Student Athletes Dietary Choices, Maria Fruechte May 2020

Influences Of Coach Leadership Related To Nutrition On Collegiate Student Athletes Dietary Choices, Maria Fruechte

Leadership Education Capstones

The purpose of this study is to better understand how coach leadership related to nutritional information influences collegiate student athletes’ acquisition and application of nutrition. This will be followed up to consider how the information and expectations of coaches influences athletes’ knowledge and dietary choices.


Leadership Strategies: Developing Millennial Entrepreneurs For Start-Up Micro-Gyms, Esdeina Gonzalez May 2020

Leadership Strategies: Developing Millennial Entrepreneurs For Start-Up Micro-Gyms, Esdeina Gonzalez

Leadership Education Capstones

The purpose for this study is to explore the experiences of small business owner’s best practice strategies leading to successful business operations. Learning about these experiences will permit the millennial generation to understand what is needed for their business to start up their micro-gym. This study may be used as an introduction to millennial entrepreneurs for the survival of their own micro-gym setting a priority of importance in leadership development since research have explored the lack of development in the leadership area.