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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Understanding The Influence Of Childhood Experiences On The Development Of Female Sexual Perpetrators Against Underage Individuals, Cassandra Marie Hershman Jan 2021

Understanding The Influence Of Childhood Experiences On The Development Of Female Sexual Perpetrators Against Underage Individuals, Cassandra Marie Hershman

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Females who are perpetrators of sexual offenses are an understudied population. Due to societies’ failure to recognize that female perpetrators exist and to recognize their abuse when it occurs, sexual abuse completed by females often goes unreported. As a result, females engaging in sexual offenses, particularly pedophilia, is seen as a rare occurrence. However, research suggests that the actual rate of female pedophilic behavior is occurring at a rate three-four times higher than what is actually reported (Cortoni, Babchishin, & Rat, 2017). This study used anonymous data from 2,828 adult females in the IRB approved study [127810-11] Effects of Recalled ...


The Cycle Of Violence And Its Effect On Revictimization, Shelby Stevens Jan 2021

The Cycle Of Violence And Its Effect On Revictimization, Shelby Stevens

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This thesis proposes a study that examines the link between child abuse and victimization as an adult in an abusive relationship. In using experience from an internship at a domestic violence shelter combined with a literature review with studies that have analyzed similar concepts, this study is proposed to take place across the state of Ohio. The rates of domestic violence and child abuse will be collected to determine if child abuse makes revictimization more likely later in life.


The Youthful Pandemic, Brook Sahlemariam Dec 2020

The Youthful Pandemic, Brook Sahlemariam

Nursing | Senior Theses

This paper attempts to examine the neurological, physical, and societal effects of e-cigarette use among youth and young-adults in North America. Furthermore, the paper investigates the parallels between e-cigarette users, tobacco users, and dual users in regard to behavioral patterns, reasons for use, and age of initiation.


Beyond Social Disorganization Theory: The Influence Of Multiple Structural Determinants Of Crime On An Urban Community, Rodney C. Boyd Aug 2020

Beyond Social Disorganization Theory: The Influence Of Multiple Structural Determinants Of Crime On An Urban Community, Rodney C. Boyd

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This correlational, explanatory, cross-sectional study explains the influence of neighborhoods’ structural determinants on the rate of violent crimes in New York City’s communities. Guided by the theoretical foundation of social disorganization theory, the variables in this study included the economically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic heterogeneity, residential instability/mobility, and the level of educational attainment. The statistical analysis in this study included correlational matrix and simultaneous multiple regression model (ordinary least squares). The study consisted of 59 New York City community districts (encompassing the City’s population of 8,622,698 residents) and included the violent crime rates for 2017. The ...


The 23: Racial And Other Demographic Differences In The Assignment Of Risk Factors For Individuals Found Not Guilty By Reason Of Insanity In Virginia, Dominique Raquel Blanchette Aug 2020

The 23: Racial And Other Demographic Differences In The Assignment Of Risk Factors For Individuals Found Not Guilty By Reason Of Insanity In Virginia, Dominique Raquel Blanchette

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) acquittees uniquely walk the line of involvement in both the criminal justice and mental health systems, both of which have literature indicating the presence of underlying racial biases related to practices and outcomes. The current study examined 366 forensic charts from an inpatient psychiatric hospital in Virginia to examine potential differences in the number of risk factors assigned for NGRI acquittees based on a variety of demographic variables. Information about demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and criminal history was recorded and analyzed. It was hypothesized that younger age, male gender, a psychotic diagnosis, violent ...


Cultural Homelessness, Self-Esteem, And Skin Color Satisfaction Among Latinxs, Josephine M. Almanzar Jul 2020

Cultural Homelessness, Self-Esteem, And Skin Color Satisfaction Among Latinxs, Josephine M. Almanzar

Dissertations

This study explored feelings of cultural homelessness, self-esteem, and skin color satisfaction among Latinxs. A close interest was placed in examining responses of participants who identified as racially Black or Afro-Latinx. Through an electronic survey, the study aimed to answer the four research questions: (1) Is there a correlation between cultural homelessness, self-esteem, and skin color satisfaction; (2) Do participants of different self-perceived skin colors differ in self-esteem, cultural homelessness, and skin color satisfaction; (3) Does age moderate the relationship between self-perceived skin color and self-esteem; and (4) Does age moderate the relationship between self-perceived skin color and cultural homelessness ...


Understanding Indigenous And Non-Indigenous Perspectives Of Reconciliation: A Case Study, Kaitlyn Watson Jun 2020

Understanding Indigenous And Non-Indigenous Perspectives Of Reconciliation: A Case Study, Kaitlyn Watson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Reconciliation in the Canadian context is difficult to define (Graeme & Mandawe, 2017; Martin, 2009), but is often linked to the residential school system (Chrisjohn & Wasacase, 2011; Nagy, 2012). This instrumental case study examines how reconciliation is understood and activated among a group of educators and community members involved with a professional learning event held in Southern Ontario inspired by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Employing narrative inquiry, and informed by decolonizing methodologies, seven event organizers, four presenters, and five attendees participated in conversational interviews. Two main themes were uncovered from the interview data. The first, reconciliation is difficult, includes consideration of the ...


Pregnancy In Peril: The Impact Of Conflict On Antenatal Care And Skilled Birth Attendant Utilization In The Democratic Republic Of The Congo And Burundi, Bianca R. Ziegler Jun 2020

Pregnancy In Peril: The Impact Of Conflict On Antenatal Care And Skilled Birth Attendant Utilization In The Democratic Republic Of The Congo And Burundi, Bianca R. Ziegler

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As of 2019, over two billion people globally reside in conflict-affected areas, and as a result, face negative health implications. Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are among those countries classified as fragile and conflict-affected situations, resulting in disproportionally high maternal mortality rates. Grounded in Andersen’s Model of Healthcare Utilization, this thesis employed multivariate binary logistic regressions to examine factors which influence antenatal care and skilled birth attendant usage in these two countries. Findings indicate that women living in high conflict regions were significantly less likely than those in low conflict regions to have their first antenatal ...


Post-Birth Marriage, White-Hispanic Families, And Child Academic Achievement, Sadie Andrews Slighting Jun 2020

Post-Birth Marriage, White-Hispanic Families, And Child Academic Achievement, Sadie Andrews Slighting

Theses and Dissertations

Over the past decade, policymakers have promoted marriage as a pathway to improve child outcomes in single-parent households. However, previous research on single mothers who later married in the United States has failed to examine how the structural advantages and disadvantages of race influence post-birth marriages and the advantage they may confer. I investigate how white advantage—the human- and social-capital benefits that come from being a white individual—acts as a resource distributed differently across three couple configurations. I predict that having access to white advantage via a white parent will improve child academic achievement. Using the US Early ...


Baby On The Way, Sex Gone Away? A Dyadic Investigation Of Sexual Satisfaction In Pregnancy, David Brent Allsop Jun 2020

Baby On The Way, Sex Gone Away? A Dyadic Investigation Of Sexual Satisfaction In Pregnancy, David Brent Allsop

Theses and Dissertations

Research indicates that having high sexual satisfaction during pregnancy is difficult for couples. This negative trend is important considering that low sexual satisfaction can negatively affect both relationship satisfaction, psychological health, and child outcomes. However, there is evidence that this trend does not apply to all and different groups of couples exist in terms of their sexual satisfaction in pregnancy. Guided by family systems theory and the biopsychosocial model, the current study explored if different subsets of couples, composed of pregnant wives and husbands, exist in terms of their sexual satisfaction during pregnancy and what factors distinguish potential subsets. Using ...


Developmental Predictors Of Adolescent Alcohol Intake: A Nonhuman Primate Model, Elizabeth Katherine Wood Jun 2020

Developmental Predictors Of Adolescent Alcohol Intake: A Nonhuman Primate Model, Elizabeth Katherine Wood

Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol abuse is one of the costliest human health problems in the United States. Studies assessing the etiology of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in adulthood suggest that these disorders are predicted by trait-like differences, such as low or impaired central serotonin or temperamental anxiety. Few studies, however, have assessed neonatal, infant, and adolescent characteristics that lead to alcohol abuse in adolescence. Given that the expression of AUDs is rooted in biological processes, the set of studies presented in this work investigate the early origins of excessive alcohol use in adolescence, with an overall goal of identifying risk factors that may ...


How Receiving And Providing Relational Compensators And Religious Expectations Influence Religious Experiences, Elisabeth R. Kimball Jun 2020

How Receiving And Providing Relational Compensators And Religious Expectations Influence Religious Experiences, Elisabeth R. Kimball

Theses and Dissertations

Much research has been done on the concept of why people remain religious, formulating Rational Choice Theory. This involves the idea of compensators and religious expectations. In addition, other research and subsequent theories go into the duality of religious expectations and relational compensators—these relational compensators include love, support, forgiveness, and kindness from others. However, research has rarely explicitly explored what reportedly encourages individuals to stay in religious institutions despite religious demands. Through qualitative interviews with 198 highly religious families, this study analyzed the various expectations and demands individuals and families encounter, as well as the relational blessings they report ...


Impacting The Community Through Knitting, Ashley Guenther Jun 2020

Impacting The Community Through Knitting, Ashley Guenther

Honors Projects

The purpose of this project is to address the needs of my community. Specifically, it addresses the need that homeless people in Toledo have for winter apparel. I decided to fill this need through hand knitted items; this paper details the organization of the collection and distribution process of said items. It also describes the various problems I encountered when completing my project, most notably the disinterest of those I reached out to, and my attempts to overcome these issues. Although part of these attempts include more than one restructuring of my project, I am still able to fulfill my ...


An Analysis Of The Parental Structure And Involvement On Subsequent Delinquency, Bosco Villavicencio Jr Jun 2020

An Analysis Of The Parental Structure And Involvement On Subsequent Delinquency, Bosco Villavicencio Jr

Student Theses

This thesis examines how parental involvement and family structure relate to the prevalence of juvenile delinquency. To answer the research question, the current study used a large sample of 12th grade youth (n=1,272) from the Monitoring the Future project which includes measures on parental involvement, household structure, academic abilities, and risky behavior and delinquent behavior. The results of this secondary analysis showed a significant association between parental-child involvement measures and the delinquent outcomes examined; drinking, suspension, and skipping school. This study emphasizes the need to consider that the impact of household structure as well as that of ...


A Screenplay For Bystander Intervention For Sexual Harassment Scenarios For College Students, Shanti Herzog Jun 2020

A Screenplay For Bystander Intervention For Sexual Harassment Scenarios For College Students, Shanti Herzog

Journalism

This project was developed to describe the drafting of a screenplay for an interactive, virtual reality sexual harassment training module for students of the California Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo. The research began with the examination of the prevalent and persisting issue of sexual harassment within college campus communities, and how to present college students with the tools to intervene as bystanders, thus encouraging them to intervene when encountering sexual harassment scenarios. The resulting screenplay was written to provide college students at Cal Poly with strategies to identify and take action when encountering sexual harassment, especially in small group gatherings ...


Evidence Based Practices At A New York City Youth Justice Services Organization, Betsy Delissa Cespedes Jun 2020

Evidence Based Practices At A New York City Youth Justice Services Organization, Betsy Delissa Cespedes

Student Theses

There has been a national push to establish evidence-based juvenile criminal justice policies and practices that are focused on reducing the risk of recidivism for juvenile offenses. The reason for this push is rooted in the growing recidivism rates of juvenile offenders in the United States (Weber, Umpierre, & Bikchik, 2018). More than half of all juveniles who are on probation nationwide are rearrested, indicating that each juvenile offender faces equal likelihood of reoffending or not (Weber et al., 2018). Further, approximately 66% of juvenile offenders, or nearly seven out of 10 offenders, are rearrested within two years of their first ...


Work–Family Conflict In Low-Income Households, Maritza G. Hiciano Ramos Jun 2020

Work–Family Conflict In Low-Income Households, Maritza G. Hiciano Ramos

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The United States is the only country not offering paid parental leave. Paid leave is left at the discretion of employers and only a few states offer Paid Family Leave benefits. The FMLA was established to protect workers from losing their jobs in case they needed to care for an elderly person or for their children. However, since value is not placed in family structures there has not been much development in that area. The FMLA fails to account for the grand majority of people in the U.S., especially those of lower socioeconomic status. Moreover, the vast inequalities that ...


21st Century Policing: Building Trust And Communication, Tyler Merritt Schilling Jun 2020

21st Century Policing: Building Trust And Communication, Tyler Merritt Schilling

Social Sciences

My Senior Project was inspired by my desire to become a law enforcement officer and was framed with President Obama’s 21st Century Task Force Report on Policing. I provide an overview of the literature on 21st Policing, focusing on Pillar I: Building Trust and Legitimacy. In collaboration with another senior, we hosted a Community Policing Town Hall Forum to address students’ concerns about policing on campus, in SLO, and in other cities across the country. Survey data was collected before and after the event to gauge students’ attitudes towards police and to see how they evaluated the ...


"Obstinate, Impertinent, Ill-Conditioned": Child Labor, Exploitation And Xenophobia In The British Home Children Movement, Hannah Lauren Palma Jun 2020

"Obstinate, Impertinent, Ill-Conditioned": Child Labor, Exploitation And Xenophobia In The British Home Children Movement, Hannah Lauren Palma

History

An examination of the British Home Children program as a movement rooted in child labor, misguided philanthropy, and the exploitation of poor child immigrants.


Display Significance At Planes Of Fame Air Museum, Callie Ann Maloney Jun 2020

Display Significance At Planes Of Fame Air Museum, Callie Ann Maloney

Social Sciences

History museums record and memorialize deeply affecting historical events. They offer opportunities to enhance and build on the history taught. Displayed artifacts and memorabilia can narrate significant stories from the past and provide an educational background. This paper is about the Planes of Fame Air Museum and the focus is on ways that they have significantly memorialized their collection of rare warbirds. I begin by providing background information about the founder and how his visions led him to building a successful aviation museum. The vision of Planes of Fame is to preserve aviation history through the restoration and flying of ...


Social Workers Fostering Higher Education Within Foster Youth, Magally Villarreal, Danahly Contreras Reyes Jun 2020

Social Workers Fostering Higher Education Within Foster Youth, Magally Villarreal, Danahly Contreras Reyes

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The following research study examines foster youth and higher education, specifically focusing on the roles social workers do or might play in helping foster youth pursue higher education. The literature suggests that child welfare agencies have implemented programs for foster youth to be able pursue a higher education and for social workers to assist with the process, to improve foster youths’ educational outcomes. However, there continues to be a gap between foster youths’ aspirations and achievements.

This study uses a qualitative design, using in-depth interviews with social workers in Southern California. A snowball sampling method was used to recruit participants ...


La Mera Verdad: Exploring Immigrant Latino Fatherhood, Jessica Martinez Jun 2020

La Mera Verdad: Exploring Immigrant Latino Fatherhood, Jessica Martinez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to gain a better understanding of the current experiences of immigrant Latino fathers and their families in Southern California, and to examine the barriers and facilitators that impacted their paternal involvement. The literature suggests that father-absence diminishes the ability of a child to thrive in life and yet immigrant Latino fathers are more at risk of all the factors that lead to father-absence, such as poverty and other added stressors. Likewise, these fathers have been noted to experience a lack of fathering in their childhood, which speaks on generational trauma creating the father wound ...


Shadow Standards And The Logic Of Costs: Care, Stewardship, And Data In U.S. Community Health, Margarite J. Whitten Jun 2020

Shadow Standards And The Logic Of Costs: Care, Stewardship, And Data In U.S. Community Health, Margarite J. Whitten

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines the delegation of responsibility for providing health care to particular categories of marginalized populations in the United States in the absence of a uniform and universal health care system. It explores how the U.S. federal government governs patient populations at a distance by mandating that healthcare providers collect, produce, and report on patient data. Drawing from eighteen months of ethnographic research in Massachusetts clinics for the homeless and the frail elderly between 2014-2015, I argue that when marginalized patients are unable to satisfy the neoliberal ideal of self-governance to maintain their health in cost-effective ways, providers ...


Learning To Fail? Student Experiences In Remedial Mathematics In Community Colleges, Margaret P. Fay Jun 2020

Learning To Fail? Student Experiences In Remedial Mathematics In Community Colleges, Margaret P. Fay

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Referral to remedial coursework in mathematics is a significant barrier to degree attainment for community college students, which in turn has serious consequences for their employment and earning prospects. Students are placed into remediation when they are deemed unprepared to engage in college-level coursework, most often based on a score on a placement test. Nationally, 59% of community college students are placed into remedial math courses. Of these, only 49% complete remediation and gain access to college-level coursework. Because a college-level math course is often a degree requirement, many students who fail to complete remedial math courses are forced to ...


Living In A World Of “Stop, Question And Frisk” And “Trespass Enforcement”: Black And Latinx Youth Engaging In Police Reform In New York City, Jeanene Lee Barrett Jun 2020

Living In A World Of “Stop, Question And Frisk” And “Trespass Enforcement”: Black And Latinx Youth Engaging In Police Reform In New York City, Jeanene Lee Barrett

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Although much has been written about youths’ experiences with police encounters in general, little qualitative research has been conducted into the SQF and housing trespass enforcement experiences of Black and Latinx youth in NYC. Additionally, there is little research that uses the voice of Black and Latinx youth to envision interactions with NYPD that could improve police-community relations. The present study, using a purposively sampled sub-set of 20 transcripts from a larger focus group process, examined the lived experience of Black and Latinx youth between the ages of 13 – 25, with a focus on stop-question-frisk (SQF) and housing trespass enforcement ...


An Analysis Of Women And Terrorism: Perpetrators, Victims, Both?, Elizabeth Lauren Miller Jun 2020

An Analysis Of Women And Terrorism: Perpetrators, Victims, Both?, Elizabeth Lauren Miller

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This paper will analyze women’s participation in terrorism under groups like al-Qaeda and the Islamic State. It will research the use of violence within terrorist organizations, perpetrated by female participants. What leads women to join groups like the Islamic State? There will be an analysis of the factors that attract women to joining terrorist organizations, in addition to the practices of recruitment that aid in their radicalization. There is a misconception that women who join the Islamic State lack education, which is seen as the sole reasoning for their radicalization or involvement. In reality, several reasons exist leading to ...


Reclaiming Indiana: The Politics Of Crisis Amid The Failures Of Liberal Capitalist Modernity, Chris Grove Jun 2020

Reclaiming Indiana: The Politics Of Crisis Amid The Failures Of Liberal Capitalist Modernity, Chris Grove

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This ethnography examines grassroots political responses to the economic crisis that began in 2008, foremost in the US Midwest, which arguably laid the groundwork both for the election of President Donald Trump and presidential candidacy of Senator Bernie Sanders. President Obama launched his $787 billion stimulus plan in Elkhart, Indiana, in early 2009. At the height of the crisis, unemployment skyrocketed from four to 20 percent in Elkhart, and it became central to struggles over the political direction of the US. With few safety nets, Elkhart residents struggled to meet their basic needs, creating conditions for political organizing on both ...


Factors Predicting Sustainability: A Correlational Study Of One Multi-Site Program, Meredith L. King Jensen Jun 2020

Factors Predicting Sustainability: A Correlational Study Of One Multi-Site Program, Meredith L. King Jensen

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Healthcare organizations invest significant economic, physical, and human resources to implement changes and expect sustained benefits for their investments in the long term. Yet, few studies have examined long-term sustainability and factors contributingto sustainability. The primary aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of sustainability and five factors (champions, leadership support, policy, resources, and training and education) that might predict long-term sustainability within the context of one Safe Patient Handling and Mobility (SPHM) program implemented in a large, nationwide system more than 7 years ago. The secondary aim was to examine the number of nursing staff injuries ...


Aesthetic Redemption: Psychedelia, Film, And Walter Benjamin’S Sensory Revolution, Alexander C. Redlins Jun 2020

Aesthetic Redemption: Psychedelia, Film, And Walter Benjamin’S Sensory Revolution, Alexander C. Redlins

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This inquiry examines the ways in which the psychedelic nature of film, as posited by Walter Benjamin, has the potential to precipitate class consciousness and lead to humanity’s emancipation from anaesthetizing capitalist forces. We first explore Benjamin’s relationship to, and understanding of, Marxist thought with a particular focus on György Lukács’ theory of reification and Marx’s fetish character of the commodity which Benjamin ultimately believes lead to an erosion of the human sensorium and the destruction of human nature. As such, we explore Benjamin’s revolutionary aesthetic theory which seeks the reversal of these erosive capitalist forces ...


Examining The Contextual Effects Of Racial Profiling, And The Long-Term Consequences Of Punitive Interventions: Testing Labeling Theory With The National Longitudinal Study Of Adolescent To Adult Health Data, Margrét Valdimarsdóttir Jun 2020

Examining The Contextual Effects Of Racial Profiling, And The Long-Term Consequences Of Punitive Interventions: Testing Labeling Theory With The National Longitudinal Study Of Adolescent To Adult Health Data, Margrét Valdimarsdóttir

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The overrepresentation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system has been well documented. More research has, however, been needed on levels of discrimination, particularly on potential biases in the earliest point of contact, such as police decisions to stop and arrest young people. Further, few studies have examined individual and neighborhood characteristics simultaneously, which has limited the understanding of citizens’ experiences with the police. Focusing on potential biases in the juvenile justice system is essential as recent studies indicate that most types of interventions have different negative consequences for the lives of young people, such as increasing the probability ...