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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Weathering State And Local Budget Storms: Fiscal Federalism With An Uncooperative Congress, David Gamage, Darien Shanske, Gladriel Shobe, Adam Thimmesch Dec 2022

Weathering State And Local Budget Storms: Fiscal Federalism With An Uncooperative Congress, David Gamage, Darien Shanske, Gladriel Shobe, Adam Thimmesch

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Throughout most of 2020, state and local governments faced severe budget crises as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased demand for state welfare services and rising state expenses related to controlling the spread of COVID-19 stretched state and local budgets to their breaking points. At the same time, layoffs, business closures, and social distancing measures reduced states’ primary sources of tax revenues. The traditional practice of American fiscal federalism is for the federal government to step in to provide aid during a national emergency of this magnitude, because state and local governments lack the federal government’s monetary and ...


First Responder Coping And Its Impact On Resilience, Ptsd Symptomology, And Hypervigilance, Bianca Bullock Sep 2022

First Responder Coping And Its Impact On Resilience, Ptsd Symptomology, And Hypervigilance, Bianca Bullock

Dissertations

The present study investigated coping strategies utilized by first responders and how those strategies relate to resilience, PTSD symptomology, and hypervigilance. The purpose of this study is to help provide more detailed information as to how first responders’ coping impacts their overall functioning. First responders (N = 181), including law enforcement officers, firefighters, paramedics, and emergency medical technicians, completed online surveys measuring whether engaged or disengaged coping strategies were used to manage stressful situations. Self-perceived resilience, PTSD symptoms, and hypervigilance were also measured. A one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the relationships between engaged versus disengaged coping ...


Time Dependent Orienteering Problem With Time Windows And Service Time Dependent Profits, M. Khodadadian, A. Divsalar, C. Verbeeck, Aldy Gunawan, P. Vansteenwegen Jul 2022

Time Dependent Orienteering Problem With Time Windows And Service Time Dependent Profits, M. Khodadadian, A. Divsalar, C. Verbeeck, Aldy Gunawan, P. Vansteenwegen

Research Collection School Of Computing and Information Systems

This paper addresses the time dependent orienteering problem with time windows and service time dependent profits (TDOPTW-STP). In the TDOPTW-STP, each vertex is assigned a minimum and a maximum service time and the profit collected at each vertex increases linearly with the service time. The goal is to maximize the total collected profit by determining a subset of vertices to be visited and assigning appropriate service time to each vertex, considering a given time budget and time windows. Moreover, travel times are dependent of the departure times. To solve this problem, a mixed integer linear model is formulated and a ...


Revisiting Gender Wage Gap In Egypt: Empirical Evidence Using 2018 Elmps Data, Waleed Zaghloul Jun 2022

Revisiting Gender Wage Gap In Egypt: Empirical Evidence Using 2018 Elmps Data, Waleed Zaghloul

Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies across the different countries suggested that the gender wage gap is not constant in terms of magnitude across the wage distribution adding to the fact that the average wage gap provides limited information on females’ relative position in the labor market. Employing the micro-level data from the Egyptian Labor Force Panel Survey (ELMPS) in 2018, this study investigates the gender wage gap in Egypt across the wage distribution. The quantile regression and the decomposition analysis results in a number of striking results in the Egyptian labor market. The first is that the gender wage gap is not constant ...


Nevada Job Gains/Losses, January 2020 - January 2022, Hira Ahmed, Joshua Padilla, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Jun 2022

Nevada Job Gains/Losses, January 2020 - January 2022, Hira Ahmed, Joshua Padilla, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Economic Development & Workforce

This fact sheet displays county-level job gains and losses for 17 counties in Nevada, as reported in the March 2022 The Daily Yonder article “Most Recent Jobs Data Shows Rural Employment Is Nearly Back to Pre-Pandemic Level.”


The Counterterrorist Myopia In Afghanistan, Yovani Edgar Chavez Rodriguez Jun 2022

The Counterterrorist Myopia In Afghanistan, Yovani Edgar Chavez Rodriguez

International Journal of Security Studies & Practice

Not applicable for IJoSS&P Practice and Perspectives articles.


Review Of Cannabis Use Among Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People, Julia Butt, Mandy Wilson, Jocelyn Jones, Simon Lenton Jun 2022

Review Of Cannabis Use Among Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander People, Julia Butt, Mandy Wilson, Jocelyn Jones, Simon Lenton

Journal of the Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet

The health effects of cannabis use may not always be seen as a high priority for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. However, the impact of cannabis use on physical and mental health can have significant consequences. It is known that the use of high potency cannabis has increased over the last two decades, with a corresponding increased risk to health. In particular, young people are at increased risk of experiencing harms to mental health. Physical harms to health include effects on the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, an increased risk of cancer, and in-utero effects from maternal use. The review ...


Layout Of Basic Research Based On Think Tank Double Helix Methodology, Jinbo Wan, Jian Jiao, Peng Du Jun 2022

Layout Of Basic Research Based On Think Tank Double Helix Methodology, Jinbo Wan, Jian Jiao, Peng Du

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The layout of basic research is a typical multi-stakeholder and multi-disciplinary comprehensive policy research, which is suitable to be guided by the think tank double helix methodology. Firstly, the study summarizes the "organization" and theoretical understanding of basic research layout. Secondly, based on MIPS logical hierarchy method and DIIS process fusion method, the study analyzes the fusion mechanism of "discipline layout" and "task layout" of basic research. Finally, the study puts forward the promotion strategies and measures of the future basic research layout from four aspects:system layout, discipline layout, task layout, and international layout.


Construction Of Digital Economy Monitoring And Evaluation System Based On High-Quality Development—Case Study Of Construction Of Beijing As Global Digital Economy Benchmark City, Yi Sun, Xinrui Li, Yongmiao Hong, Hong Sima, Yanli Zheng, Zhiying Liu, Kun Guo Jun 2022

Construction Of Digital Economy Monitoring And Evaluation System Based On High-Quality Development—Case Study Of Construction Of Beijing As Global Digital Economy Benchmark City, Yi Sun, Xinrui Li, Yongmiao Hong, Hong Sima, Yanli Zheng, Zhiying Liu, Kun Guo

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The digital economy has become the core force in leading economic development and building a new international pattern, and it is the key to achieving high-quality development. How to monitor and evaluate the development level of the digital economy has become an important issue in formulating industrial and regulatory policies for the digital economy reasonably, ensuring the healthy and orderly development of the digital economy, and thus stabilizing the national economic development. The value-added-based statistical system, which was born from the industrial economy, is constrained by data and methods, so it is difficult to accurately measure the level of development ...


Formulating Decade Action Plan For Green And Quality Development In Bohai Sea, Shicheng Wang, Shuguang Liu, Hongsheng Yang Jun 2022

Formulating Decade Action Plan For Green And Quality Development In Bohai Sea, Shicheng Wang, Shuguang Liu, Hongsheng Yang

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

As the only inland sea of China, Bohai Sea has been regarded as the integrated part of the national territorial space toward green and high-quality development in the new era. The comprehensive environmental treatment in Bohai Sea has achieved noticeable progress, but the problems remain. The trend of biological and ecological degradation of Bohai Sea has not been fundamentally curbed. Guided by President Xi Jinping thought on ecological civilization and on building a maritime community with a shared future, China should join into the Implementation Plan for the United Nations Decade of Marine Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030), and manage ...


Marine Ranching Version 3.0: History, Status And Prospects, Hongsheng Yang, Dewen Ding Jun 2022

Marine Ranching Version 3.0: History, Status And Prospects, Hongsheng Yang, Dewen Ding

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Since the 1930s, the construction of marine ranching has successively experienced the version 1.0 (traditional marine ranching) of farming-ranching and engineering, and the version 2.0 (marine ecological ranching) of ecologization and informatization, and now it is about to enter the version 3.0 (global aquatic ecological ranching) of digitalization and systematization, which covers seawater and fresh water. Marine ranching version 3.0 must adhere to the modern aquatic ecological ranching development concept of "ecology, precision, intelligence, integration", characterized by synchronous protection and utilization, expansion of scene and space, breakthrough in core technology, and innovation in development patterns. After ...


Policy Overview (March–May, 2021) Jun 2022

Policy Overview (March–May, 2021)

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

No abstract provided.


Implications Of Covid-19 Mitigation Policies On Recreational Trail Users: Exploring Antecedents To Physical Distancing On Trails Across The Rural-Urban Continuum, Christopher J. Wynveen, Ingrid Schneider, Deonne Vanderwoude, Taylor Stein, Heather Gibson, Kim Shinew, William Hendricks, Megha Budruk Jun 2022

Implications Of Covid-19 Mitigation Policies On Recreational Trail Users: Exploring Antecedents To Physical Distancing On Trails Across The Rural-Urban Continuum, Christopher J. Wynveen, Ingrid Schneider, Deonne Vanderwoude, Taylor Stein, Heather Gibson, Kim Shinew, William Hendricks, Megha Budruk

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent travel restrictions led to a worldwide increase in greenspace use. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encouraged policies including physical distancing and COVID-related signage. However, the extent to which these policies influenced behavior is unknown. To fill this gap, we report on a 2020 observational study at 14 trails across six U.S. states framed within a social-ecological model. Behavioral observations of 8,093 groups assessed compliance rates with infection-mitigation behaviors. Additionally, we noted the presence of COVID-related signs, the days between the observation and stay-at-home order start date, the setting (i ...


A New Lens: Using The Policy, Systems, And Environmental Framework To Guide Community Development, Caroline Backman, Clea Rome, Laura Ryser, Rebecca Sero, Debra Hansen Jun 2022

A New Lens: Using The Policy, Systems, And Environmental Framework To Guide Community Development, Caroline Backman, Clea Rome, Laura Ryser, Rebecca Sero, Debra Hansen

The Journal of Extension

Extension is uniquely positioned to deliver data-driven solutions to complex community issues with University applied research, particularly through crises like COVID-19. Applying the Policy, Systems and Environmental (PSE) framework to community development is an effective, innovative approach in guiding Extension leaders to create, document, and share long-term transformative change on challenging issues with stakeholders. Beyond the public health sector, applying a PSE approach to community development provides leverage points for population-level benefits across sectors. This article describes current public health approaches, methodologies, and how the PSE framework translates to other programs with four examples of high-impact, systems level Extension projects.


Best Cities For Affordable Homeownership In The Mountain West, Kelliann Beavers, Olivia K. Cheche, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Jun 2022

Best Cities For Affordable Homeownership In The Mountain West, Kelliann Beavers, Olivia K. Cheche, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Housing & Real Estate

This fact sheet highlights data on the best cities for affordable homeownership in the Mountain West, based on the SmartAsset report, “Best Cities to Buy an Affordable Family Home – 2021 Edition.” The report is SmartAsset’s second annual study, following the 2020 report, and includes data on 100 of the largest cities in the United States. This fact sheet highlights the rank, index, down payment-to-income ratio, housing costs as a percent of income, and four-year change in homeownership rate within each of the 15 Mountain West cities included in the original report.


A (Partial And Principled) Defense Of Sentences Of Life Imprisonment, Mirko Bagaric, Jennifer Svilar Jun 2022

A (Partial And Principled) Defense Of Sentences Of Life Imprisonment, Mirko Bagaric, Jennifer Svilar

Cleveland State Law Review

There has been more than a five-fold increase in the number of life sentences in the United States over the past four decades. One in seven prisoners in the United States is serving a life (or virtual) life sentence. This amounts to over 200,000 prisoners. The increase has occurred against the backdrop of near universal condemnation by scholars and public policy advocates – many of whom are now advocating for the abolition of life sentences. Arguments that life sentences are not an effective deterrent or means of protecting the community have some merit. Yet, we argue that in a limited ...


Why We Should Reuse Wastewater, Bridget Sarver Jun 2022

Why We Should Reuse Wastewater, Bridget Sarver

Certified Public Manager® Applied Research

As population and industry grow, the need to reuse wastewater is growing. Aquifers are often the dominant water supplies to surrounding areas. The levels of those aquifers are declining each year. Water loss affects many things like water wells, lakes, and rivers. Lakes and rivers that are used as water sources are seeing a decline in levels. Low water levels and drought occur because of the changing water cycle. Heavy rain and runoff can help refill lakes and rivers; however precipitation does not always fall back on the area that it evaporated from. By reusing wastewater, we will be saving ...


Leadership Through Budgeting: Controlling Taxes And Increasing Services, Tony Sims Jun 2022

Leadership Through Budgeting: Controlling Taxes And Increasing Services, Tony Sims

Certified Public Manager® Applied Research

Local budgets are the key responsibility of elected and appointed leaders, as are ultimate control over how tax dollars are allocated, and which services are provided to the citizens. Nowhere else is leadership more important than during budget preparation. However, local budgeting is typically more an annual event than an ongoing efficient and effective process. By implementing a budgeting process and preparing a budget in accordance with the criteria required by the Government Finance Officers Association’s (GFOA) Distinguished Budget Presentation Award Program and earning the award, local governments can create more efficient and effective operations, improve public trust, and ...


Labor Transitions Between Formal And Informal Employment In Egypt, Alaa Mahmoud Al-Barrawi Jun 2022

Labor Transitions Between Formal And Informal Employment In Egypt, Alaa Mahmoud Al-Barrawi

Theses and Dissertations

Informal employment is the hallmark of developing economies. Egypt is no exception to this trend. Those who are informally employed are exceptionally vulnerable as they lack social protection. Moreover, large informal sectors are symptomatic of underdevelopment and have negative repercussions on the economy. Few studies examine the determinants of labor market transitions in Egypt with a focus on transitions between formal and informal labor market states. This study focuses on determinants of labor market transitions in Egypt, relying on the Egyptian Labor Market Panel Surveys of 2012 and 2018. It develops four multinomial logistic regression models to achieve this goal ...


Flexible Working Practices For Educated Egyptian Women In The Digital Era: A Study On Telework During The Covid-19 Pandemic And Its Potential To Reduce Gender Gap, Sarah Sherif El Ashry Jun 2022

Flexible Working Practices For Educated Egyptian Women In The Digital Era: A Study On Telework During The Covid-19 Pandemic And Its Potential To Reduce Gender Gap, Sarah Sherif El Ashry

Theses and Dissertations

Telework has recently gained popularity around the world, a trend that saw significant growth with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Egypt is one of the many countries that adopted this new approach in an attempt to facilitate social distancing policies. This allowed more working mothers in Egypt to experience telework practices for the first time and be able to report their experience. These circumstances have presented a great opportunity to test its simultaneous application across different sectors throughout Egypt. Therefore, it is important to reflect on the adoption of telework during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine ...


Studying Female Engineers' Experiences In The Egyptian Labor Market, Nada Abdelhay Jun 2022

Studying Female Engineers' Experiences In The Egyptian Labor Market, Nada Abdelhay

Theses and Dissertations

With an aim to investigate and analyze the active participation of female engineers in the Egyptian labor market, this qualitative research study argues that gender-biased cultures embedded within formal educational and employment engineering institutions marginalize and undermine the representation of highly educated female engineers. Based on women’s shared experiences, it becomes apparent that their personal interests are not sufficient to ensure an engineering career. Other determinants–primarily in the form of impending challenges–during the pre-university, university and employment stages of life impact women’s lived experiences. On the one hand, challenges faced before graduation include: a) gender-based stigmas ...


Lgbtq+ Congregants Navigating Identity In The Context Of "Welcoming But Not Affirming" Evangelical, Pentecostal, And Non-Denominational Religious Institutions: A Queer Narrative Analysis, Sarah E. Rasmussen Jun 2022

Lgbtq+ Congregants Navigating Identity In The Context Of "Welcoming But Not Affirming" Evangelical, Pentecostal, And Non-Denominational Religious Institutions: A Queer Narrative Analysis, Sarah E. Rasmussen

University Honors Theses

Welcoming but not affirming Evangelical, Pentecostal, and non-denominational churches invite LGBTQ+ people to attend their church, but do not affirm their identity as a gender and/or sexual minority. Because of this, they restrict LGBTQ+ attendees from participating in leadership, paid staff positions, and ministry work. LGBTQ+ attendees are often not aware of these restrictive policies initially. The current study aims to examine how LGBTQ+ people navigate their faith and identity within welcoming but not affirming church spaces through narrative analysis. Fifteen participants engaged in an interview, where they were asked about their experience within welcoming but not affirming church ...


Strategic Analytics For National Defense And International Security, Greg H. Parlier Jun 2022

Strategic Analytics For National Defense And International Security, Greg H. Parlier

International Journal of Security Studies & Practice

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Civil Society Organizations In Youth Inclusion Reforms In Post-Uprising Tunisia, Amal Tobich Jun 2022

The Role Of Civil Society Organizations In Youth Inclusion Reforms In Post-Uprising Tunisia, Amal Tobich

Theses and Dissertations

Tunisia has a large youth population; more than half of the population are youth aged between 15-30 years in 2011. Tunisia has long faced challenges adopting serious reforms for youth inclusion and participation. Young people, especially since the Arab Spring, are driving social and economic innovation, challenging policies, and representing governments. More connected than ever, young people exert a greater influence on their fellow citizens and their country and youth inclusion is a central aspect of the post-2015 global development agenda. This study seeks to determine the role of Civil society Organizations in youth inclusion by drawing on extensive literature ...


Endnotes, Issue 25.3, Cisr Jmu Jun 2022

Endnotes, Issue 25.3, Cisr Jmu

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


Housing Affordability For Top Occupations In Nevada Metros, 2022, Kristian Thymianos, Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio, Ally M. Beckwith, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Jun 2022

Housing Affordability For Top Occupations In Nevada Metros, 2022, Kristian Thymianos, Elia Del Carmen Solano-Patricio, Ally M. Beckwith, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Housing & Real Estate

This fact sheet combines housing and employment data from the National Housing Conference (NHC) and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to examine housing affordability for the 10 most common occupations in the Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV and the Reno-Sparks, NV metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in Quarter 1 of 2022.


A Convenient Rhetoric Or Substantial Change Of Teacher Racial Diversity? A Text Mining Analysis Of Federal, State, And District Documents, Sing Hui Lee, Briana Keith, Yasmine Bey, Yinying Wang, Xiulong Yang, Xiang Li, Jonathan Shihao Ji Jun 2022

A Convenient Rhetoric Or Substantial Change Of Teacher Racial Diversity? A Text Mining Analysis Of Federal, State, And District Documents, Sing Hui Lee, Briana Keith, Yasmine Bey, Yinying Wang, Xiulong Yang, Xiang Li, Jonathan Shihao Ji

Educational Policy Studies Faculty Publications

Teacher racial diversity has been widely considered important in education. However, it remains unclear to what extent and how teacher racial diversity has been addressed at the federal, state, and district levels. In this study, we employed text mining to collect and analyze over three million documents at the federal, state, and district levels. We found that while students of color had disproportionately less access to racially diverse teachers, the documents under our analysis insufficiently discussed the recruitment and retention of racially diverse teachers. Our findings also reveal that education agencies at the federal, state, and district levels paid scant ...


Arts Vibrancy In The Mountain West, 2020, Joshua Padilla, Ally M. Beckwith, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. Jun 2022

Arts Vibrancy In The Mountain West, 2020, Joshua Padilla, Ally M. Beckwith, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Cities & Metros

This fact sheet highlights data on various arts vibrant communities in the United States from the 2020 Arts Vibrancy Index Report. The growth of arts communities across the country contributes to the increased intensity of the United States’ cultural sector. Using the original data prepared by Southern Methodist University (SMU) Data Arts, this fact sheet focuses on the arts vibrancy of communities in the Mountain West.


Transportation Mode Choice Behavior In The Era Of Autonomous Vehicles: The Application Of Discrete Choice Modeling And Machine Learning, Sangwan Lee Jun 2022

Transportation Mode Choice Behavior In The Era Of Autonomous Vehicles: The Application Of Discrete Choice Modeling And Machine Learning, Sangwan Lee

Dissertations and Theses

New mobility technologies, such as shared mobility services (e.g., car-sharing) and, more importantly, autonomous vehicles (AVs), continue to evolve. The supply-side advancement will likely disrupt and transform transportation mode choice behaviors, and create a new paradigm since they are emerging and becoming increasingly feasible alternatives to the existing modes of transportation. Accordingly, this dissertation employs discrete choice modeling (DCM) and machine learning (ML) using a U.S. nationwide stated choice experiment to understand how travelers adopt new transportation modes or continue to use conventional modes of transportation.

This dissertation consists of three papers. The first examines future market shares ...


Threat Of Nuclear Terrorism: The Developing Nuclear Security Regime, Muhammed Ali Alkış Jun 2022

Threat Of Nuclear Terrorism: The Developing Nuclear Security Regime, Muhammed Ali Alkış

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Terrorism has always been a part of human history in various forms. However, it had not been such a clear and present danger until the 9/11 attacks. After the 9/11 attacks, terrorism evolved into a new kind of terrorism only aiming to change a system with sensational attacks that cause so many deaths. Today, it poses a threat in the form of nuclear terrorism. Its potential rate of lethality could not be compared with any other forms of terrorism if terrorists managed to detonate an intact nuclear weapon or an improvised nuclear device. In addition, the psychological effects ...