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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Question Of Animal Awareness, Francoise Wemelsfelder Oct 2019

The Question Of Animal Awareness, Francoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

The problem of animal awareness lies at the interface of science and philosophy. As a starting point for the study of phenomena such as awareness, mind, consciousness, etc., we hardly have any reference other than our own human experience and in the context of a nondualistic ontology this can be justified. In philosophy and psychology it appears to be very difficult to give direct operational definitions of terms such as consciousness, etc. So we might expect this to be even more difficult in the study of animals. A detailed knowledge of animals and their behaviour is necessary in order to ...


Generational Cohort Differences In Types Of Organizational Commitment, April Lavette Jones May 2019

Generational Cohort Differences In Types Of Organizational Commitment, April Lavette Jones

April Jones

In hospitals in the United States, the ratio of nurses to patients is declining, resulting in an increase in work demands for nurses. Consequently, organizations face challenges with nurses' organizational commitment. Studies have revealed generational differences, as determined by birth year, in employee levels of organizational commitment in a number of organizational settings. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding the impact of generational cohorts on the organizational commitment of nurses. The purpose of this quantitative, nonexperimental, cross-sectional design was to address whether generational cohorts of nurses differed in their levels of organizational commitment, and to investigate whether ...


Awareness Of Emotions Leads To Self-Efficacy Among College Students, Amy Lee, Emily M. Delacruz May 2019

Awareness Of Emotions Leads To Self-Efficacy Among College Students, Amy Lee, Emily M. Delacruz

Publications and Research

Self-efficacy is one’s belief in their own ability to succeed in a particular situation or accomplish a task (Bandura, 1977). Previous research has shown that the effort one puts into achieving goals, coping abilities, and behavior in the face of opposition are all heavily influenced by efficacy beliefs. Self reflection and knowledge of inner feelings, areas in which one excel, areas in which one do poorly, and areas in which one need to improve aid in the establishment of goals (Bandura, 1977 & Cervone, 2004). Inner feelings are bound to occur when one make sense of what one can and cannot do, thus these emotional entities are important to make sense of who we are and aid in self-efficacy. Research has shown that while both negative and positive emotions increase in prevalence during a single moment, emotional experience becomes more stable with aging (Carstensen, 2011). Theories of adult development argues that there are individual differences and variability in emotional development (Carstensen, 2011 & Erikson, 1950). This present study assess the emotional development of participants, through means of scales and narratives, and determines if there is a correlation between a participant’s emotional development and self-efficacy, through self-reflection of their perceived strengths and weaknesses in both an interpersonal and academic setting. The hypothesis, If there is an increase in emotional awareness in an individual, then said individual will have an increase in self-efficacy because the individual’s strengths and weaknesses can be identified through self-reflection, was put to test and the results proved the hypothesis true; there is a positive correlation between emotional awareness and self-efficacy. This study provided the foundation for future ...


The Effects Of Ambient Temperature And Lighting Intensity On Wheel-Running Behavior In A Diurnal Rodent, The Nile Grass Rat (Arvicanthis Niloticus), Garrett M. Fogo, Alyssa M. Goodwin, Ohanes S. Khacherian, Brandi J. Ledbetter, Andrew J. Gall May 2019

The Effects Of Ambient Temperature And Lighting Intensity On Wheel-Running Behavior In A Diurnal Rodent, The Nile Grass Rat (Arvicanthis Niloticus), Garrett M. Fogo, Alyssa M. Goodwin, Ohanes S. Khacherian, Brandi J. Ledbetter, Andrew J. Gall

Faculty Publications

Environmental conditions, such as the light-dark cycle and temperature, affect the display of circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity patterns in mammals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that manipulating these environmental conditions would affect wheel-running activity patterns in a diurnal rodent, the Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus). Grass rats are diurnal in the field, however, a subset switch from a day-active pattern to a night-active pattern of activity after the introduction of a running wheel. The mechanism of this chronotype switch remains largely unknown. In the present study, grass rats were presented with running wheels in 12:12 light-dark conditions. First ...


The Effects Of Stress Mindset Interventions On University Students' Health And Functioning, Abigail Fate Apr 2019

The Effects Of Stress Mindset Interventions On University Students' Health And Functioning, Abigail Fate

Undergraduate Honors Papers

In modern society, the overwhelming cultural narrative proclaims that stress is detrimental to health and should be limited and avoided at all costs. However, recent research has demonstrated that it is one’s stress mindset, rather than their stress level, that determines the psychological and physiological outcomes. Mindsets are lenses that simplify and order the world, and have been proven to influence daily behavioral and physiological responses to create cascading effects. Recent research has demonstrated that one’s mindset about stress is the demining factor in health, performance, and productivity in response to stressful conditions, and that these mindsets can ...


Recipient Rights Guidelines: Assessment Of Practical Interpretation, Patrick Wieszciecinski Apr 2019

Recipient Rights Guidelines: Assessment Of Practical Interpretation, Patrick Wieszciecinski

Master's Theses

Although the State of Michigan has passed legislation to ensure that the rights of mental health service recipients are protected, there has been no published research evaluating the accuracy and consistency with which these guidelines are applied in real world cases. Quite obviously, even well intentioned policy may fall short of its intended goal if it is not implemented consistently and with fidelity. The State of Michigan trains Recipient Rights Officers (RROs) who in turn provide training and oversight for local mental health service agencies (Community Mental Health Agencies and PIHPs) who are charged with educating practitioners and other service ...


Examining The ‘Cosmetics Placebo Effect’, Carlota Batres, Sarah S. Kramer, Caroline G. Deangelis, Richard Russell Jan 2019

Examining The ‘Cosmetics Placebo Effect’, Carlota Batres, Sarah S. Kramer, Caroline G. Deangelis, Richard Russell

Psychology Faculty Publications

Previous studies have found a positive effect of cosmetics on certain behavioral measures, such as the tip given to waitresses by male patrons. These studies have employed confederates who usually wear cosmetics. We therefore sought to examine whether the positive effect found in these studies could, in part, be explained by a change in behavior. In order to test the possibility of a ‘cosmetics placebo effect’, we employed a confederate to solicit donations from passersby. On some days our confederate would not have any cosmetics applied to her face (i.e., no cosmetics condition), on some days cosmetics were pretended ...


Altruism In The Human Species: A Meta-Ethnography, Josh Tedrow Jan 2019

Altruism In The Human Species: A Meta-Ethnography, Josh Tedrow

Undergraduate Theses

The purpose of this meta-ethnography was to explore the theories surrounding human altruistic behavior. I began by selecting a series of empirical and theoretical sources for review. After reading the empirical materials, I summarized empirical studies within categories such as the observed psychological, biological, and social factors associated with altruism. I then reviewed the theoretical literature and established the similar trends in the discussion about the social application of altruism. The trends that I found were reciprocal altruism, the importance of small-group function in facilitating large-group function, and that group function is imperative for a successful future of humanity. After ...


Developing Sensory Behavioral Assays For Zebrafish Autism Model, Shannon Wagner Jan 2019

Developing Sensory Behavioral Assays For Zebrafish Autism Model, Shannon Wagner

University Honors Program Theses

Individuals of all ages can suffer from a wide variety of symptoms and disabilities that could be diagnosed as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Due to new methods and technology, individuals are now being diagnosed in the first two years of their life, which is when the signs of ASD are initially exhibited. Individuals diagnosed with ASD share many similar disabilities and symptoms such as hyperactivity to social, visual, and auditory stimuli, as well as hyposensitivity to olfactory stimuli. Neural circuit-based alterations are widely considered as a cause for these behavioral aberrations. We have created behavioral assays using zebrafish larvae to ...


Behavioral Impairment Following Gestational Exposure To Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterial Aerosols In Male And Female Rats, Matthew Leland Eckard Jan 2019

Behavioral Impairment Following Gestational Exposure To Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterial Aerosols In Male And Female Rats, Matthew Leland Eckard

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are beginning to be recognized as hazardous to human and animal health. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is primarily used as a whitening agent in paints, plastics, and sunscreens. While relatively inert in its bulk form, nano-TiO2 (diameter) can produce prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress in target tissue. Recently, the potential for nano-TiO2 to cause neuroinflammation and damage has heightened concerns about its continued use. One important concern is that nano-TiO2, and other metal oxide ENMs, may affect fetal neurodevelopment. Accordingly, it is imperative to screen ENMs, like TiO2, for possible neurotoxicity following developmental exposures. The current set of ...


Environmental Decision-Making (Nrc 494 Ei), Ezra Markowitz Jan 2019

Environmental Decision-Making (Nrc 494 Ei), Ezra Markowitz

Sustainability Education Resources

Over the past 30 years, there has been a growing recognition amongst environmental advocates, resource managers, policymakers and researchers that the underlying cause of most environmental, conservation and sustainability issues is human behavior. As NRC and ENVIRSCI majors, you have received extensive technical training in how natural systems operate yet relatively little training when it comes to influencing or understanding how people make environmental decisions that affect those natural systems. Recognizing the fundamental role that human decision-making plays in shaping the environment reveals a new set of tools and approaches for both understanding the challenges we face and confronting those ...


Is It Hot In Here Or Is It The Climate? Predicting Individual And Systemic Pro-Environmental Engagement, Alaina Geibig Jan 2019

Is It Hot In Here Or Is It The Climate? Predicting Individual And Systemic Pro-Environmental Engagement, Alaina Geibig

Summer Research

Reducing greenhouse gas contributions is increasingly critical in order to lessen global consequences of climate change. Despite this, U.S residents’ shift towards practicing pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) has been slow. This study investigated factors that predict everyday PEBs, including people’s beliefs about impact, difficulty of performing, and meaningfulness of PEBs, as well as perceived social norms, and the actor’s own sense of environmental identity. We predicted that people would participate in more PEBs if they believe that the behaviors are easy, meaningful, impactful, and reflect norms in their social environment. We also explored differences in the factors associated ...


The Effects Of Therapy Balls On In-Seat And On-Task Behavior In Young Children, Ariel Ching Jan 2019

The Effects Of Therapy Balls On In-Seat And On-Task Behavior In Young Children, Ariel Ching

All Master's Theses

ABSTRACT

THE EFFECTS OF THERAPY BALLS ON IN-SEAT AND ON-TASK BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

by

Ariel Chanel Ching

February 2019

This study utilized an alternating treatment design to study the effects of therapy balls, chairs, and the element of choice on the in-seat and on-task behaviors of three, preschool-aged children. Participants were between 4 and 5 years old, typically developing, and were selected based on their ability to make a choice between two different stimuli. This study was conducted at a table, with the participant engaging in a fine-motor activity that they had shown preference to, based on a paired-stimulus ...


Effect Of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction On Aggression In Adults With Intellectual Disabilities, William Sanchez Jan 2019

Effect Of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction On Aggression In Adults With Intellectual Disabilities, William Sanchez

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Individuals with intellectual developmental disabilities occasionally exhibit challenging behaviors through forms of aggression. Interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, and applied behavioral analysis, have all been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of aggression. This quantitative study used a secondary analysis of clinical records from an agency that provides day treatment services for adults with intellectual disabilities. To assess the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program in reducing aggression in this population, 18 individuals with various levels of intellectual disabilities participated in an 8-week MBSR while an additional 18 participants served as the wait list control group ...


High School Students' Perceptions Of Safety Concerns Predicts School Avoidance, Ann Marie Howard Jan 2019

High School Students' Perceptions Of Safety Concerns Predicts School Avoidance, Ann Marie Howard

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

School violence is a growing concern and an impending danger for American youth. Students' perceptions of violent school incidents may lead to fear and this fear may lead to school avoidance. Although researchers have found that teenage pregnancy and working to support family are two of the main reasons that students stay home from school, there has been no research conducted on whether students' perceptions of safety concerns, solely focusing on the presence of guns, gangs, student bullying, and fear of victimization, predict their decision to stay home from school. Therefore, based on social disorganization and resilience theories, the purpose ...


Nonverbal Synchrony And Pronoun Use In Romantic Dyads, John A. Moran Dec 2018

Nonverbal Synchrony And Pronoun Use In Romantic Dyads, John A. Moran

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Diurnally Active Rodents For Laboratory Research, Roberto Refinetti, G. J. Kenagy Dec 2018

Diurnally Active Rodents For Laboratory Research, Roberto Refinetti, G. J. Kenagy

Psychological Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Although inbred domesticated strains of rats and mice serve as traditional mammalian animal models in biomedical research, the nocturnal habits of these rodents make them inappropriate for research that requires a model with human-like diurnal activity rhythms. We conducted a literature review and recorded locomotor activity data from four rodent species that are generally considered to be diurnally active, the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), the degu (Octodon degus), the African (Nile) grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus), and the antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus). Our data collected under 12L:12D light-dark cycles confirmed and expanded the existing literature in showing that the ...


Bubble Stream Production By Belugas (Delphinapterus Leucas), Megan Slack Aug 2018

Bubble Stream Production By Belugas (Delphinapterus Leucas), Megan Slack

Theses

Bubble stream production in belugas has been poorly characterized and its function is not well understood. I examined behavioral states when producing bubble streams (“bubbling”), and when bubbling calls, to determine whether bubbling was significantly associated with a particular call category or behavioral state. Using 19 hours of video and audio recordings collected over a two-day period, I quantified bubble streams of a 4-month old calf and an unrelated adult female housed together. Based on the overall activity budgets and pool of vocalizations for both animals, I calculated the expected counts of bubble streams with and without vocalizations, assuming that ...


The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Jonathan M. Hochmuth Aug 2018

The Effects Of Gateway Width On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians: A Systematic And Parametric Analysis, Jonathan M. Hochmuth

Master's Theses

The gateway in-street sign treatment has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective method for increasing driver yielding behavior at crosswalks. In the present study, wide and narrow gateway widths were compared at two sites to determine if there was a differential effect on driver yielding behavior. Then, the relationship between width and yielding was refined with a parametric analysis at one of these sites. Gateway width was varied in two-foot intervals from 12ft to 18ft. The results indicated an inverse relationship between gateway width and driver yielding behavior. There are likely two variables related to this effect. First, because drivers ...


An Analysis Of Innovate Training With Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Raymond John Van Steyn Jul 2018

An Analysis Of Innovate Training With Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Raymond John Van Steyn

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland conducted a training program in 2014 to develop a gestural command for their dolphins called “innovate”. This training paradigm was developed to resemble the seminal research by Pryor, Haag and O’Reilly (1969), as well as more recent efforts of Braslau-Schneck (1993) and Kuczaj and Eskelinen (2014) of training dolphins to offer “creative” behaviors not developed through conventional methods of behavioral modification, such as shaping. The goal of the present study was to observe records taken during the National Aquarium’s training procedure as well as data collected ~3 years after said training in ...


Applied Behavior Analysis Function Based Procedures Contribute To Parent Child Interaction Therapy Child Outcomes, Melissa Grant May 2018

Applied Behavior Analysis Function Based Procedures Contribute To Parent Child Interaction Therapy Child Outcomes, Melissa Grant

Masters Theses

Developmental disabilities affect nearly one in six children in the United States; up to 30 % of these individuals have problem behaviors causing stressors in both the child and their caregiver’s lives. These problem behaviors have various topographical and functional forms, such as property destruction, aggression, tantrums, self-injurious behavior, and many others. If these behaviors are not nipped in the bud during younger years they have the capability to bring about academic failure, alienation from typical peers and other adults, and in the longer term, substance abuse issues, and a decrease in functioning skills within their communities. Evidence-based practices are ...


Borderline Personality And Risk-Taking: Examining The Role Of Impulsivity Across Domains, Colten Karnedy Mar 2018

Borderline Personality And Risk-Taking: Examining The Role Of Impulsivity Across Domains, Colten Karnedy

Masters Theses

Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and high levels of BPD traits have demonstrated greater rates of engagement in risky, self-destructive behaviors compared to healthy controls. Specifically, impulsivity has been theorized to underlie many of these risky behaviors. Although existing self-report literature suggests that individuals with BPD are more impulsive than controls, evidence from behavioral measures remains inconclusive. Likewise, there is scant research examining specific domains of impulsivity associated with risky behaviors in BPD, which is problematic given that impulsivity is a diagnostic criterion for BPD. Thus, the proposed research aims to bridge this gap in the literature by examining ...


Using Restorative Practices To Create A School District That Cares, Louis L. Fletcher Phd, Kim Boyd Psyd Mar 2018

Using Restorative Practices To Create A School District That Cares, Louis L. Fletcher Phd, Kim Boyd Psyd

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

Zero-tolerance became the rule in many school districts due to an increase in school-based violence, which served to silence student voices and led to the overrepresentation of minority students in discipline situations. Schools could adopt restorative approaches, but change cannot be sustained without fair processes at the district level. Thus, district policies should be aligned to restorative practices to increase the probability of district-wide success.


A Review Of Survey Data Collected On The Use Of Applied Behavior Analytic (Aba) Based Instructional Strategies By Educators In Pennsylvania Schools, Eric J. Bieniek, Mike Monfore, Matthew Erickson, Ashlea Rineer-Hershey, Richael Barger-Anderson Mar 2018

A Review Of Survey Data Collected On The Use Of Applied Behavior Analytic (Aba) Based Instructional Strategies By Educators In Pennsylvania Schools, Eric J. Bieniek, Mike Monfore, Matthew Erickson, Ashlea Rineer-Hershey, Richael Barger-Anderson

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

This survey was initiated to explore the perceptions and daily practices of Applied behavior Analytic ABA) by educators supporting exceptional learners in public and private school settings in Pennsylvania. This survey explores the degree to which educators are trained, feel confident in and actually carry out a range evidenced based practices following an ABA approach. Results are also presented in regards to barriers that educators feel limit the delivery of ABA based approaches and undermine the fidelity of interventions once introduced in their professional settings.


Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere Feb 2018

Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere

Dissertations

Despite the wide acceptance of animal personality as a valid area of study, research on marine mammal personality remains remarkably scarce. What literature does exist predominantly focuses on bottlenose dolphins (Frick, 2016; Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007; Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012; Lilley, de Vere, Yeatre & Kuczaj, 2018; Moreno, Highfill & Kuczaj, 2017). There is also strong evidence for individual differences in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012), and preliminary research has provided evidence of broad personality factors in pinniped species using behavioral coding (de Vere, Lilley & Highfill, 2017) and trait rating methods (Ciardelli, Weiss, Powell & Reiss, 2017). Several aspects of personality are not well documented across many taxa, including age-related patterns, the species-relevance of emotional trait words, potential issues associated with the non-human Dominance factor, and the convergent validity of multiple methods. The current study therefore aimed to address these issues in two pinniped species, California sea lions and harbor seals, and provides the first cross-method validation of personality dimensions in these taxa. There was some evidence that pinniped trainers could reliably rate the emotional states experienced by these species. Trait rating assessments produced three personality factors for each species; these exhibited good cross-method convergence in California sea lions, but not harbor seals. Dominance rankings were correlated with one behavioral and one rating factor in each species, although this was somewhat confounded by the extremely close correspondence of dominance and age.


The Relationship Between Exposure To Lead And Criminal Behavior, Margaret Meyer, Christine Rogers Jan 2018

The Relationship Between Exposure To Lead And Criminal Behavior, Margaret Meyer, Christine Rogers

2017-2018: Scott County, Iowa Health Department

In recent years it has been made apparent that exposure to lead is a significant problem for many individuals and families. Lead exposure–whether through the air, water, or by ingestion–has been linked to numerous physical, cognitive, and social problems (Chandramouli, 2009; Nevin, 2007). Furthermore, urban, poor and immigrant populations are at a higher risk for lead exposure (Bakhireva, et al., 2013). And increasingly a connection between lead exposure and criminal behavior has been identified through both correlation studies and experiments. The high cost of exposure to lead is apparent when looking at the effects of lead over a ...


The Impact Of Chronic Stress, Traumatic Experiences And Genes On Behavior, Colten Brown Jan 2018

The Impact Of Chronic Stress, Traumatic Experiences And Genes On Behavior, Colten Brown

Research on Capitol Hill

Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) alters neurotransmission and remodels neural circuits involved in learning, attention and decision making.

Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is essential for the function of neurons. Regulation of GDNF during stress is linked to resiliency while the inability to regulate it causes behavioral alterations.

We investigated the effects of CUS on latent inhibition (LI), a measure of selective attention expressed in this model as freezing behavior.


Examining An Asynchronous Group Discussion Board Adaptation Of A Parent-Mediated Behavior Intervention For Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Alexis D. Rodgers Jan 2018

Examining An Asynchronous Group Discussion Board Adaptation Of A Parent-Mediated Behavior Intervention For Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Alexis D. Rodgers

Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication deficits, as well as restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors, interests, and activities (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Although important relationships have been shown and described among the issues of challenging behavior, parent stress, and parenting sense of competence for families of children with ASD, there is a shortage of intervention programs appropriately suited for families which target these issues. Some programs have been developed and tested, but none is directly applicable for the target population. This is notable because of the connections drawn in the literature between families ...


School Personnel’S Knowledge And Perception Of School Refusal Behavior, Joshua M. Foy Jan 2018

School Personnel’S Knowledge And Perception Of School Refusal Behavior, Joshua M. Foy

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

This study examined the knowledge of school personnel regarding risk and protective factors, the four-function model, assessment, and treatment of school refusal behavior. This study also explored the perceptions of school personnel regarding the understanding of school refusal behavior as an emotional condition versus its being delinquent behavior and the climate of understanding at their work setting. Two hundred, ninety-six mental health and non-mental professionals who currently work in school settings across the United States participated in this study by completing an online survey pertaining to this topic. Results indicate that mental health professionals demonstrated a higher level of knowledge ...


Predictors Of Independence For Adults With Intellectual Disability, Kristina Beall Jan 2018

Predictors Of Independence For Adults With Intellectual Disability, Kristina Beall

Honors Theses

As the life expectancy for adults has increased, the number of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) entering adulthood has increased, which brings up the question of how to evaluate and provide the care needed for these individuals. An important aspect of adulthood in individuals with ID is independence. Research links independence (specifically living environment and employment) and self-determination to a higher QOL. The purpose of the current study was to examine predictors of independent living and employment for adults with ID. Client records were obtained from an organization for adults with ID. Data retrieved included demographic information, IQ score, living ...