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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Impacts Of Invasive Rats On Hawaiian Cave Resources, Francis G. Howarth, Fred D. Stone Feb 2020

Impacts Of Invasive Rats On Hawaiian Cave Resources, Francis G. Howarth, Fred D. Stone

International Journal of Speleology

Although there are no published studies and limited data documenting damage by rodents in Hawaiian caves, our incidental observations during more than 40 years of surveying caves indicate that introduced rodents, especially the roof rat, Rattus rattus, pose significant threats to vulnerable cave resources. Caves, with their nearly constant and predictable physical environment often house important natural and cultural features including biological, paleontological, geological, climatic, mineralogical, cultural, and archaeological resources. All four invasive rodents in Hawai‘i commonly nest in cave entrances and rock shelters, but only the roof rat (Rattus rattus) habitually enters caves and utilizes areas in total ...


Spectrally Derived Values Of Community Leaf Dry Matter Content Link Shifts In Grassland Composition With Change In Biomass Production, H. Wayne Polley, Chenghai Yang, Brian J. Wilsey, Philip A. Fay Jan 2020

Spectrally Derived Values Of Community Leaf Dry Matter Content Link Shifts In Grassland Composition With Change In Biomass Production, H. Wayne Polley, Chenghai Yang, Brian J. Wilsey, Philip A. Fay

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Leaf traits link environmental effects on plant species abundances to changes in ecosystem processes but are a challenge to measure regularly and over large areas. We used measurements of canopy reflectance from grassland communities to derive a regression model for one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content (LDMC). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to model community‐weighted (species abundance‐weighted) values of LDMC as a function of canopy reflectance in visible and near‐infrared (NIR) wavebands. The PLSR model then was applied to airborne measurements of canopy reflectance to determine how community LDMC interacts with inter‐annual ...


Long-Term Impact Of Poultry Manure On Crop Yield, Soil And Water Quality, And Crop Revenue, Natasha L. Hoover, Ji Yeow Law, Leigh Ann M. Long, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Michelle L. Soupir Dec 2019

Long-Term Impact Of Poultry Manure On Crop Yield, Soil And Water Quality, And Crop Revenue, Natasha L. Hoover, Ji Yeow Law, Leigh Ann M. Long, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A long-term poultry manure fertilizer study was initiated in 1998 and continued until 2009 under corn-soybean (CS) rotation. To match changing landscape trends, the plots were switched to continuous corn (CC) from 2010 to 2017. In both CS and CC phases, poultry manure (PM) was applied at the crop rotation recommended agronomic N rate and either half (CC phase) or double (CS phase) the recommended rate. Urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) was applied to comparison plots at the crop recommended application rate (168 kg N ha−1 and 224 kg N ha−1 for the CS and CC phases, respectively) throughout the ...


Using A Crop Modeling Framework For Precision Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Variable Seeding And Nitrogen Application Rates, Gabriel Mcnunn, Emily Heaton, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark A. Licht, Andy Vanloocke Dec 2019

Using A Crop Modeling Framework For Precision Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Variable Seeding And Nitrogen Application Rates, Gabriel Mcnunn, Emily Heaton, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark A. Licht, Andy Vanloocke

Agronomy Publications

A key goal of precision agriculture is to achieve the maximum crop yield while minimizing inputs and loses from cropping systems. The challenge for precision agriculture is that these factors interact with one another on a subfield scale. Seeding density and nitrogen (N) fertilizer application rates are two of the most important inputs influencing agronomic, economic and environmental outcomes in cropping systems including yield, return on investment (ROI), and nitrate (NO3−) leaching. Here a cropping system model framework is used to predict site-specific subfield optimum seeding density and (N) fertilizer application rates based on publicly available data sources. The framework ...


Methods To Evaluate Ruminant Animal Production Responses, Jose Manuel Diaz Gomez Dec 2019

Methods To Evaluate Ruminant Animal Production Responses, Jose Manuel Diaz Gomez

Theses and Dissertations

In experiment 1, 80 steers (197.0 kg initial body weight; BW for fall, 116.9 kg for spring), were stocked at 2.45 and 4.1 calves/ha in fall and spring, respectively in 16 tall fescue pastures [fall ergovaline (EV) = 1,475 ppb and spring EV = 1,173 ppb] under 2 treatments, mineral (MIN) (n = 8) and cumulative management (CM) (n = 8). Forage allowance did not differ (P = 0.76) between CM and MIN during fall but differed during spring (P ≤ 0.05, 2.55 vs. 3.22 kg DM/kg BW, for MIN and CM, respectively). For ...


Steenbergen, Joel (Fa 1325), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Sep 2019

Steenbergen, Joel (Fa 1325), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

FA Finding Aids

Finding aid and full-text scan of paper (Click on “Additional Files” below) for Folklife Archives Project 1325. Student folk studies project titled “Ginseng: The Wonder of the World,” about the history and folklore of ginseng in the United States, its uses, the harvesting process and tools.


Dyer, Susan Joan (Spear) (Fa 1326), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Sep 2019

Dyer, Susan Joan (Spear) (Fa 1326), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

FA Finding Aids

Finding aid and full-text scan of paper (Click on “Additional Files” below) for Folklife Archives Project FA 1326. Student folk studies project titled “’Sengin’: Cultivation of an Endangered Species” about growing and harvesting ginseng in Williamson County, Tennessee. Photos include the growing stages of the ginseng plant, the harvesting process, and related tools.


Harvesting Fertilized Rye Cover Crop: Simulated Revenue, Net Energy, And Drainage Nitrogen Loss, R. W. Malone, J. F. Obrycki, Douglas L. Karlen, T. C. Kaspar, D. B. Jaynes, T. B. Parkin, S. H. Lence, G. W. Feyereisen, Q. X. Fang, T. L. Richard, K. Gillette Aug 2019

Harvesting Fertilized Rye Cover Crop: Simulated Revenue, Net Energy, And Drainage Nitrogen Loss, R. W. Malone, J. F. Obrycki, Douglas L. Karlen, T. C. Kaspar, D. B. Jaynes, T. B. Parkin, S. H. Lence, G. W. Feyereisen, Q. X. Fang, T. L. Richard, K. Gillette

Douglas L Karlen

Harvesting fertilized rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop has been suggested as a method to increase producer revenue and biofuel feedstock production, but drainage N loss impacts are currently unknown. Using the tested Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) across several N rates, spring application of 120 kg N ha-1 prior to winter rye harvest reduced drainage N loss by 54% compared with no cover crop and by 18% compared with planted rye that was neither fertilized nor harvested. Estimates of producer revenue and net energy were also positive, with 8.3 Mg ha-1 of harvested rye biomass ...


Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass Aug 2019

Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass

WRIT: Journal of First-Year Writing

The beef industry is harmful to the environment and human health and alternative solutions must be implemented in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Water and grain are used in agriculture in abundance despite the negative environmental effects it causes. Cattle are the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in the sector, also contributing to climate change. Antibiotics are used in large quantities without regard to potential future consequences. One potential solution for this problem is lab-grown beef, which demands very little from the consumer and would take pressure off the environmental issues the beef industry creates. Lab-grown ...


Impacts Of Size Fractionation And Processing On Functional Characteristics Of Broken Rice Kernels, Rebecca Mawusi Bruce Aug 2019

Impacts Of Size Fractionation And Processing On Functional Characteristics Of Broken Rice Kernels, Rebecca Mawusi Bruce

Theses and Dissertations

Rice flour generated from broken rice (brokens) has inconsistencies in functional properties. This may be due to differences in size and composition of brokens used for the flour. It is postulated that size classification of brokens can improve flour functionality. This study sought to investigate the effect of size fractionation of brokens on the functional or pasting properties of resulting rice flour. Broken rice was generated from six cultivars of freshly harvested rough rice that were dried at 25◦C in the laboratory. The brokens were classified into large, medium and small, using US sieve size 10, 12 and 20 ...


Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg Jun 2019

Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Naihui Zhou, Zachary D. Siegel, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Jonathan W. Kelly, Iddo Friedberg

Dan Nettleton

The accuracy of machine learning tasks critically depends on high quality ground truth data. Therefore, in many cases, producing good ground truth data typically involves trained professionals; however, this can be costly in time, effort, and money. Here we explore the use of crowdsourcing to generate a large number of training data of good quality. We explore an image analysis task involving the segmentation of corn tassels from images taken in a field setting. We investigate the accuracy, speed and other quality metrics when this task is performed by students for academic credit, Amazon MTurk workers, and Master Amazon MTurk ...


Solanum Plastisexum, An Enigmatic New Bush Tomato From The Australian Monsoon Tropics Exhibiting Breeding System Fluidity., Angela J. Mcdonnell, Heather B. Wetreich, Jason T. Cantley, Peter Jobson, Christopher T. Martine Jun 2019

Solanum Plastisexum, An Enigmatic New Bush Tomato From The Australian Monsoon Tropics Exhibiting Breeding System Fluidity., Angela J. Mcdonnell, Heather B. Wetreich, Jason T. Cantley, Peter Jobson, Christopher T. Martine

Faculty Journal Articles

A bush tomato that has evaded classification by solanologists for decades has been identified and is described as a new species belonging to the Australian “Solanum dioicum group” of the Ord Victoria Plain biogeographic region in the monsoon tropics of the Northern Territory. Although now recognised to be andromonoecious, S. plastisexum Martine & McDonnell, sp. nov. exhibits multiple reproductive phenotypes, with solitary perfect flowers, a few staminate flowers or with cymes composed of a basal hermaphrodite and an extended rachis of several to many staminate flowers. When in fruit, the distal rachis may abcise and drop. A member of Solanum subgenus ...


An Overview Of American Ginseng Through The Lens Of Healing, Conservation And Trade, Margaret Wulfsberg May 2019

An Overview Of American Ginseng Through The Lens Of Healing, Conservation And Trade, Margaret Wulfsberg

Lawrence University Honors Projects

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is an herbaceous plant found in the eastern United States and Canada. Due to the high demand for ginseng roots on the Chinese market, it has been harvested at unsustainable rates. If this continues, overharvest along with other environmental factors will lead it to become extinct in the wild. American ginseng became popular due to its similarities with Asian ginseng, (Panax ginseng), a related plant that has been used in Chinese medicine for hundreds of years. Since there is so little Asian ginseng left in the wild, American ginseng now helps satisfy the demand for wild ...


Neonicotinoids In U.S. Maize: Insecticide Substitution Effects And Environmental Risk, Edward D. Perry, Giancarlo Moschini May 2019

Neonicotinoids In U.S. Maize: Insecticide Substitution Effects And Environmental Risk, Edward D. Perry, Giancarlo Moschini

CARD Working Papers

This study exploits a novel dataset containing more than 89,000 farm-level surveys over a 17-year period to investigate how neonicotinoid seed treatments in maize, now ubiquitous, have affected the use of other insecticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides are the most used class of insecticides in the world, but they are controversial because of their high toxicity to honeybees. In the United States, maize production accounts for the majority of neonicotinoid use, mostly as seed treatments. We find that neonicotinoids substituted for other major insecticides: plots planted with neonicotinoid- treated seeds were 52% and 47% less likely to be treated with a ...


Evaluation Of Drought Tolerance In Arkansas Cowpea Lines At Seedling Stage, Qirui Cui May 2019

Evaluation Of Drought Tolerance In Arkansas Cowpea Lines At Seedling Stage, Qirui Cui

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cowpea [Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp.] is not only a healthy, nutritious and versatile leguminous crop, it also has a relatively high adaptation to drought. Researches have shown that cowpea lines have a high tolerance to drought, and many of them can survive over 40 days under very hot and dry conditions. The cowpea (Southern pea) breeding program at the University of Arkansas (UA) has been active for over 50 years and has produced more than 1,000 advanced breeding lines. And the purpose of this study is to evaluate the drought-tolerant ability in Arkansas cowpea lines and use the drought ...


Untangling The Economic And Social Impediments To Producer Adoption Of Organic Wheat, Donya L. Ralph-Quarnstrom May 2019

Untangling The Economic And Social Impediments To Producer Adoption Of Organic Wheat, Donya L. Ralph-Quarnstrom

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Consumer demand for organic products has shown double-digit growth in recent years encouraging the development of a wider range of goods (Greene, 2017). Americans with an annual household income under $30,000 actively purchase organic foods at nearly the same rate as households with over $75,000 in annual incomes, 42% versus 49% (Greene et al., 2017). Previous research observed the adoption of organic farming practices on a combination of different grains, fruits and vegetables, meat, and dairy products from across the globe. However, this is the first study to examine the adoption of organic wheat in the Western U ...


Extraction And Quantification Of Hydrolyzable Tannins In Acorns From Different Species Of Oak Trees (Quercus Spp.), Sarah Browning, Marshall E. Woodruff Apr 2019

Extraction And Quantification Of Hydrolyzable Tannins In Acorns From Different Species Of Oak Trees (Quercus Spp.), Sarah Browning, Marshall E. Woodruff

Undergraduate Research Conference

Do white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) prefer to eat certain types of acorns based on tannin content?

Hydrolyzable tannins consist of gallate groups connected via ester linkages to a carbohydrate (D-glucose)

The Prussian Blue method was used to determine hydrolyzable tannin content


It's Essential: The Ylang-Ylang Trade On Nosy Be, James Sleigh Apr 2019

It's Essential: The Ylang-Ylang Trade On Nosy Be, James Sleigh

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper attempts to describe the production and sale of Ylang-Ylang from cultivation of the tree to the export of the flower, and examines the roles and power that each stakeholder has in the value chain. From there, the paper will look at issues associated with the trade; namely of the threat to the terrestrial ecosystem and the profit imbalance in the industry. Finally, the paper turns to potential strategies to resolve the previously stated issues associated with the production and sale of Ylang-Ylang. As a whole I hope that the paper can be seen as a rough survey of ...


Mixed Responses To Woody Encroachment In Icelandic Herbaceous Plant Morphology And Phenology, Cait Battle-Mcdonald Apr 2019

Mixed Responses To Woody Encroachment In Icelandic Herbaceous Plant Morphology And Phenology, Cait Battle-Mcdonald

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change and afforestation efforts are promoting tree growth into traditionally treeless locations in Iceland. This study examined this woody encroachment’s effect on the phenology and morophology of eight plants (Agrostis aequivalvis, Equisetum pratense, Equisetum arvense, Alchemilla alpina, Ranunculus acris, Lupinus nootkatensis, Anthriscus sylvestris, and Taraxacum sp.) in Kjarnaskógur forest, Akureyri, Iceland. An initial transplantation experiment testing trees’ effect on A. aequivalvis, E. pratense, R. acris, and A. sylvestris failed due to plant death. A subsequent observational study examined trees’ effect on E. pratense, A. alpina, R. acris, L. nootkatensis, A. sylvestris, and Taraxacum by observing morphological characteristics (leaf ...


Influence Of Indirect Cues And Vegetation Density On Foraging Behavior In Snowshoe Hares (Lepus Americanus), Zachary Lankist Apr 2019

Influence Of Indirect Cues And Vegetation Density On Foraging Behavior In Snowshoe Hares (Lepus Americanus), Zachary Lankist

Thinking Matters Symposium

Prey avoid chemical cues from predators at feeding sites because the risk of death outweighs the benefit of food. However, we lack information regarding avoidance of chemical cues from competitors as well as how foraging behavior changes alongside vegetative cover. To test if chemical cues and vegetative cover alter prey vigilance, number of visits, and time spent at feeding sites, I observed snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in plots containing coyote (Canis latrans; predator) and moose (Alces alces; competitor) urine across a spectrum of vegetation densities. Snowshoe hares significantly reduced the number of visits to feeding plots when coyote or moose ...


Evaluation Of Restoration Techniques And Management Practices Of Tule Pertaining To Eco-Cultural Use, Irene A. Vasquez Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Restoration Techniques And Management Practices Of Tule Pertaining To Eco-Cultural Use, Irene A. Vasquez

Theses and projects

Tule (Schoenoplectus sp.) is a native plant commonly used by California tribes and Indigenous people throughout the world (Macía & Balslev 2000). Ecological, social and regulatory threats to its use in contemporary Indigenous culture highlight major issues concerning natural resource management. My ancestral homeland, what is now Yosemite National Park, stands as a figurehead in the intersection of land management and Indigenous peoples. An important element of Traditional Ecological Management (TEM) for quality basketry materials is prescribed fire, an element western science is increasingly acknowledging for creating a more biodiverse and heterogeneous landscape. This research was conducted in Mariposa and Colusa ...


Ua100/1/1 Rural Training School Administration, Wku Archives Jan 2019

Ua100/1/1 Rural Training School Administration, Wku Archives

WKU Archives Collection Inventories

No abstract provided.


A-029 Louisiana Tech University, Lloyd P. Blackwell Papers, 1945 - 1975, University Archives And Special Collections, Prescott Memorial Library, Louisiana Tech University Jan 2019

A-029 Louisiana Tech University, Lloyd P. Blackwell Papers, 1945 - 1975, University Archives And Special Collections, Prescott Memorial Library, Louisiana Tech University

University Archives Finding Aids

No abstract provided.


A-028 Louisiana Tech University, Lloyd P. Blackwell Papers, 1941 - 1976, University Archives And Special Collections, Prescott Memorial Library, Louisiana Tech University Jan 2019

A-028 Louisiana Tech University, Lloyd P. Blackwell Papers, 1941 - 1976, University Archives And Special Collections, Prescott Memorial Library, Louisiana Tech University

University Archives Finding Aids

No abstract provided.


Soil And Water Conservation: An Annotated Bibliography, Colby J. Moorberg Jan 2019

Soil And Water Conservation: An Annotated Bibliography, Colby J. Moorberg

NPP eBooks

Soil and Water Conservation: An Annotated Bibliography highlights freely-available online resources covering various aspects of soil and water conservation, and is designed to be a resource for conservation students and practitioners. The thirteen chapters in the annotated bibliography are grouped into four sections, including History and Fundamentals, Conservation Practices, Conservation Implementation, and Careers. Types of cited resources include extension bulletins, USDA NRCS conservation practice standards, and other government reports and resources. Cited resources are generally concise, easily read, and meant for general audiences. Annotations and images are used to provide context for each resource. Many contributors made Soil and Water ...


Contents, Discovery Editors Jan 2019

Contents, Discovery Editors

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Dean, Discovery Editors Jan 2019

Letter From The Dean, Discovery Editors

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Discovery: The Student Journal Of Dale Bumpers College Of Agricultural, Food And Life Sciences - Volume 20 2019, Discovery Editors Jan 2019

Discovery: The Student Journal Of Dale Bumpers College Of Agricultural, Food And Life Sciences - Volume 20 2019, Discovery Editors

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


A Message From The Associate Dean Of The Honors College And Co-Chair Of The Service Learning Initiative, Discovery Editors Jan 2019

A Message From The Associate Dean Of The Honors College And Co-Chair Of The Service Learning Initiative, Discovery Editors

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Greenhouse Aquaponics: Custom Aquaponic Systems At Home, Jesse L. Blanchard, David G. Hyatt, Jennie Popp, Leah English Jan 2019

Greenhouse Aquaponics: Custom Aquaponic Systems At Home, Jesse L. Blanchard, David G. Hyatt, Jennie Popp, Leah English

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Taking advantage of inherent natural systems, aquaponic practices hold the potential to serve as an educational, sustainable, and profitable hobby for home gardeners facing common constraints such as temperature, space, and pests. The goal of this research was to assess the feasibility of implementing a small scale (4,542-liter) home -based aquaponic system in a small (48.768 square meter) greenhouse to produce fresh produce and fish protein. System construction and maintenance costs were compared to the value of crops and fish produced to determine whether this aquaponic system is a feasible option for the home grower. It was hypothesized ...