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Physical Sciences and Mathematics

2000

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Articles 1 - 30 of 209

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Towards Implementing Carbon Markets In Agriculture, Hongli Feng, Jinhua Zhao, Catherine L. Kling Dec 2000

Towards Implementing Carbon Markets In Agriculture, Hongli Feng, Jinhua Zhao, Catherine L. Kling

CARD Working Papers

Despite the interest in carbon markets or programs for which agriculture could be rewarded for storing carbon, there are still substantive questions about how such mechanisms could be designed to meet this task and be generally acceptable to the international community. One of the most problematic of these issues is the fact that, unlike reductions in emissions, carbon sinks may only temporarily hold carbon out of the atmosphere. Until policy mechanisms that appropriately incorporate the potentially temporary nature of sinks are developed, it is unlikely that agricultural sequestration will gain widespread acceptance. In this paper, the authors introduce and discuss ...


Ask A Hypothetical Question, Get A Valuable Answer?, Christopher D. Azevedo, Joseph A. Herriges, Catherine L. Kling Dec 2000

Ask A Hypothetical Question, Get A Valuable Answer?, Christopher D. Azevedo, Joseph A. Herriges, Catherine L. Kling

CARD Working Papers

The authors model the recreation demand for Iowa wetlands, combining survey data on both actual usage patterns (i.e., revealed preferences) and anticipated changes to those patterns under hypothetical increases in trip costs (i.e., stated preferences). They formulate and test specific hypotheses concerning potential sources of bias in each data type and consistently reject consistency between the two data sources, both in terms of implied wetland values and underlying preference parameters. The authors pay careful attention to the interpretations of the test results, noting particularly how the interpretation of the same results can vary with the "school of thought ...


The Regional Distribution Of Farm-Level Impacts From Acreage Set-Asides, Bruce A. Babcock Dec 2000

The Regional Distribution Of Farm-Level Impacts From Acreage Set-Asides, Bruce A. Babcock

CARD Working Papers

The question of whether the United States should once again authorize acreage set-asides will be addressed now that Congress has decided to hold hearings about a possible early rewrite of farm policy. Questions about the impact of acreage set-asides on farm income and national policy goals will need to be answered. This paper takes an initial look at three pertinent questions: (1) What impact will acreage set-asides have on the prices of corn, soybeans, and wheat? (2) What would be the differential farm-level impacts of set-asides across regions? And (3) How might acreage controls work with existing marketing loans?


Preliminary Assessment Of Client Interest In And Needs Of The New England Environmental Finance Center, New England Environmental Finance Center, University Of Southern Maine Dec 2000

Preliminary Assessment Of Client Interest In And Needs Of The New England Environmental Finance Center, New England Environmental Finance Center, University Of Southern Maine

Planning

The New England Environmental Finance Center (NE/EFC) has been conceived as a knowledge-based clearinghouse, training, and change-agent program aimed at helping EPA's constituencies find financially successful approaches to environmental improvements. The NE/EFC will develop approaches to needs of particular priority in New England and potentially useful throughout the nation; share such approaches through the EFC national network; and help make tools from that network accessible throughout New England. In 1999 we began exploring with potential users how this ninth of the nation's EFCs might best address the region's needs. The assessment continued through the Muskie ...


Introduction: Symposium 2000: Water Rights And Watershed Management: Planning For The Future, Brian J. Perron, Sarah Richardson Dec 2000

Introduction: Symposium 2000: Water Rights And Watershed Management: Planning For The Future, Brian J. Perron, Sarah Richardson

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Huxley Hotline, 2000, November 17, Kate Koch, Huxley College Of The Environment, Western Washington University Nov 2000

Huxley Hotline, 2000, November 17, Kate Koch, Huxley College Of The Environment, Western Washington University

Huxley College Newsletters - Historical Collection

No abstract provided.


Huxley Hotline, 2000, November 8, Kate Koch, Huxley College Of The Environment, Western Washington University Nov 2000

Huxley Hotline, 2000, November 8, Kate Koch, Huxley College Of The Environment, Western Washington University

Huxley College Newsletters - Historical Collection

No abstract provided.


Colombia: The Political Psychology Of Fusarium Oxysporum, Ibpp Editor Nov 2000

Colombia: The Political Psychology Of Fusarium Oxysporum, Ibpp Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article presents a brief outline of caveats associated with the employment of fusarium oxysporum to eradicate coca and opium poppy production. These caveats are based on an analysis developed by Dr. Archie Dickey, an environmental biologist at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, Arizona, USA.


Gis And Spatial Analysis In Urban And Regional Research, Derek Bond Nov 2000

Gis And Spatial Analysis In Urban And Regional Research, Derek Bond

Derek Bond

The early optimism surrounding GIS has now faded. Few GIS implementations have lived up to expectation. The most successful have been those at the operational level where their main role has been to replace paper maps with digital ones. However, as the cost of GIS implementation falls and spatial data becomes more readily available there is a need to consider the future of GIS and spatial analysis. This is particularly important in the field of urban and regional research especially where considerable investment in GIS has already been made. This paper looks at the major issues that face regional and ...


The Resource And Agricultural Policy System (Raps): Upgrade And Documentation, Junjie Wu Nov 2000

The Resource And Agricultural Policy System (Raps): Upgrade And Documentation, Junjie Wu

CARD Technical Reports

In this report, the author upgrades and documents the Resource and Agricultural Policy System (RAPS). RAPS was developed to estimate the environmental impacts of farming practices and policy in 128,591 National Resources Inventory (NRI) sites in the Central United States (the Corn Belt, Lake States, and Northern Plains). This modeling system integrates the effects of soils, climate, crops, and management practices on several environmental indicators including nitrate runoff and leaching, pesticide runoff and leaching, water and wind erosion, and soil organic carbon. RAPS can be used to provide timely information on the nation's environmental health as it is ...


Transgenic Crops: An Environmental Assessment, David E. Ervin, Sandra S. Batie, Rick Welsh, Chantal L. Carpentier, Jacqueline I. Fern, Nessa J. Richman, Mary A. Schulz Nov 2000

Transgenic Crops: An Environmental Assessment, David E. Ervin, Sandra S. Batie, Rick Welsh, Chantal L. Carpentier, Jacqueline I. Fern, Nessa J. Richman, Mary A. Schulz

Economics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The report focuses on the environmental impacts of transgenic crops, and covers biosafety regulations in the US and EU, intellectual property rights, and market and trade developments.


Resource Law Notes Newsletter, No. 50, Fall 2000, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center Oct 2000

Resource Law Notes Newsletter, No. 50, Fall 2000, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center

Resource Law Notes: The Newsletter of the Natural Resources Law Center (1984-2002)

No abstract provided.


The Planet, 2000, Fall, Tiffany Campbell, Huxley College Of The Environment, Western Washington University Oct 2000

The Planet, 2000, Fall, Tiffany Campbell, Huxley College Of The Environment, Western Washington University

The Planet

No abstract provided.


Classes Of Logic Programs Which Possess Unique Supported Models, Anthony K. Seda, Pascal Hitzler Oct 2000

Classes Of Logic Programs Which Possess Unique Supported Models, Anthony K. Seda, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Logic programming is concerned with the use of logic as a programming language. The main manifestation of this computing paradigm is in the various versions of Prolog which are now available, in which computation is viewed as deduction from sets of Horn clauses, although there is also growing interest in the related form known as answer set programming, see [10]. The reference [1] contains a good survey of the growth of logic programming over the last twenty-five years both as a stand-alone programming language and as a software component of large information systems. One advantage a logic program P has ...


Managing Sprawl In The Land Of Unintended Consequences, Robert S. Bucci Sep 2000

Managing Sprawl In The Land Of Unintended Consequences, Robert S. Bucci

New England Journal of Public Policy

Americans witnessing the bulldozing of their country’s pastures, farmlands, and sensitive habitats to erect suburban housing tracts and commercial centers have come to realize that the remaining open land may be too precious to waste. Residential and commercial development is no longer quickly embraced to stimulate economic progress and prosperity. Municipalities are learning that development often extracts a price — sometimes the loss of community character and local charm, sometimes tax revenues that fall short of increased expenditures, and sometimes just plain ugliness. Responding to the new reality, many community officials have initiated unilateral ordinances regulating the development of open ...


Environmental Finance Charette, Hyannis Park On Lewis Bay: A Case Study, New England Environmental Finance Center, Environmental Finance Center Of University Of Maryland Sep 2000

Environmental Finance Charette, Hyannis Park On Lewis Bay: A Case Study, New England Environmental Finance Center, Environmental Finance Center Of University Of Maryland

Water

The town of Yarmouth currently has a $30 million septic sludge treatment plant and transport lines in place. The vast majority of the dwellings and businesses in the Hyannis Park area are on septic systems that are viable and Title 5 compliant, regardless of age. Conventional, "non-failing" septic systems, however, were never intended to remove form their effluent nutrients such as nitrogen. These have become recognized as an environmental threat only as our understanding of the impacts of excess nutrients on ecosystems has increased in recent decades.


Semantic Web And Information Brokering: Opportunities, Commercialization, And Challenges, Amit P. Sheth Sep 2000

Semantic Web And Information Brokering: Opportunities, Commercialization, And Challenges, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

From the chairs' report published in SIGMOD record: The keynote address entitled 'Semantic Web and Information Brokering: Opportunities, Early Commercializations, and Challenges' was delivered by Amit Sheth (University of Georgia and Taalee Corp). Sheth characterized semantics as the next step in the evolution of the WWW and stressed the importance of semantically organized information for supporting ubiquitous, powerful, accurate and efficient access to this information. Sheth also reviewed proposals for semantic interoperability frameworks such as the DAML(DARPA Agent Mark-Up Language), the Oingo family of tools for defining concepts and extracting knowledge from large databases, as well as several scenarios ...


Table Of Contents Volume 11, Number Four, Fall 2000, Risk Editorial Board Sep 2000

Table Of Contents Volume 11, Number Four, Fall 2000, Risk Editorial Board

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (1990-2002)

Table of contents for the journal RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (ISSN: 1073-8673)


Risk Assessments For Chemical Stockpile Incinerators: Is The Supporting Guidance Adequate, Lawrence V. Tannenbaum Sep 2000

Risk Assessments For Chemical Stockpile Incinerators: Is The Supporting Guidance Adequate, Lawrence V. Tannenbaum

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (1990-2002)

The author identifies potential deficiencies in guidance used in the United States for risk assessments of chemical weapons incinerators.


Review Of: Amer Ei-Ahraf Et Al., The Impact Of Public Policy On Environmental Quality And Health: The Case Of Land Use Management And Planning, Jason J. Carrier Sep 2000

Review Of: Amer Ei-Ahraf Et Al., The Impact Of Public Policy On Environmental Quality And Health: The Case Of Land Use Management And Planning, Jason J. Carrier

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (1990-2002)

Review of the book The Impact of Public Policy on Environmental Quality and Health: The Case of Land Use Management and Planning by Amer El-Ahraf et al., (Quorum Books 1999). Acknowledgments, introduction, appendixes, selected bibliography, index. ISBN 1-56720-065-6 [181 pp. $59.95. Hardbound, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881].


The School/Home Communication Project: A Study Of The Effect Of More Frequent Grade Reporting On The Achievement Of High School Mathematics Students, Robert Dean Rogers Sep 2000

The School/Home Communication Project: A Study Of The Effect Of More Frequent Grade Reporting On The Achievement Of High School Mathematics Students, Robert Dean Rogers

Humanistic Mathematics Network Journal

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Geometry From Africa: Mathematical And Educational Explorations By Paulus Gerdes, Claudia Zaslavsky Sep 2000

Book Review: Geometry From Africa: Mathematical And Educational Explorations By Paulus Gerdes, Claudia Zaslavsky

Humanistic Mathematics Network Journal

No abstract provided.


Exception Handling In Workflow Systems, Zongwei Luo, Amit P. Sheth, Krzysztof J. Kochut, John A. Miller Sep 2000

Exception Handling In Workflow Systems, Zongwei Luo, Amit P. Sheth, Krzysztof J. Kochut, John A. Miller

Kno.e.sis Publications

In this paper, defeasible workflow is proposed as a framework to support exception handling for workflow management. By using the “justified” ECA rules to capture more contexts in workflow modeling, defeasible workflow uses context dependent reasoning to enhance the exception handling capability of workflow management systems. In particular, this limits possible alternative exception handler candidates in dealing with exceptional situations. Furthermore, a case-based reasoning (CBR) mechanism with integrated human involvement is used to improve the exception handling capabilities. This involves collecting cases to capture experiences in handling exceptions, retrieving similar prior exception handling cases, and reusing the exception handling experiences ...


Carbon Sequestration In Agriculture: Value And Implementation, Hongli Feng, Jinhua Zhao, Catherine L. Kling Sep 2000

Carbon Sequestration In Agriculture: Value And Implementation, Hongli Feng, Jinhua Zhao, Catherine L. Kling

CARD Working Papers

Examining the value of carbon sequestration in a dynamic model, the authors demonstrate that unless the sequestration is permanent, it is only a fraction of the value of emission abatement. The magnitude of the fraction increases in the duration of sequestration, the natural decay rate of carbon, and the discount rate. The authors also show that sinks should be used as early as possible in order to optimally reduce the carbon stock. Finally, the authors propose and assess three mechanisms for efficiently introducing sequestration into a carbon permit trading market: a pay-as-you-go system, a variable-length-contract system, and a carbon-annuity-account system ...


Irreversible Abatement Investment Under Cost Uncertainties: Tradable Emission Permits And Emissions Charges, Jinhua Zhao Aug 2000

Irreversible Abatement Investment Under Cost Uncertainties: Tradable Emission Permits And Emissions Charges, Jinhua Zhao

CARD Working Papers

A major concern with tradable emission permits (TEPs) is that stochastic permit prices may reduce firm incentive to invest in abatement capital or technologies relative to other policies such as a fixed emissions charge. However, under efficient permit trading, the price uncertainty is caused by abatement cost uncertainties which affect investment under both permit and charge policies. The authors develop a rational expectations general equilibrium model of permit trading to show how cost uncertainty affects investment. Differences between the two policies can be decomposed into a general equilibrium effect and a price-versus-quantity effect. Except for the curvature of the payoff ...


The Efficiency Of Sequestering Carbon In Agricultural Soils, Gregory R. Pautsch, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Bruce A. Babcock, Catherine L. Kling Aug 2000

The Efficiency Of Sequestering Carbon In Agricultural Soils, Gregory R. Pautsch, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Bruce A. Babcock, Catherine L. Kling

CARD Working Papers

Agricultural tillage practices are important human-induced activities that can alter carbon emissions from agricultural soils and have the potential to significantly contribute to reductions in greenhouse gas emission (Lal et al, 1998). This research investigates the expected costs of sequestering carbon in agricultural soils under different subsidy and market-based policies. Using the detailed National Resources Inventory data, we estimate the probability that farmers adopt conservation tillage practices based on a variety of exogenous characteristics and profit from conventional practices. These estimates are used with physical models of carbon sequestration to estimate the subsidy costs of achieving increased carbon sequestration with ...


A Computational Laboratory For Evolutionary Trade Network, David Mcfadzean, Deron Stewart, Leigh Tesfatsion Aug 2000

A Computational Laboratory For Evolutionary Trade Network, David Mcfadzean, Deron Stewart, Leigh Tesfatsion

ISU Economic Report Series

This study presents, motivates, and Illustrates the use of a computational laboratory for the Investigation of evolutionary trade network formation among strategically Interacting buyers, sellers, and dealers. The computational laboratory, referred to as the Trade Network Game Laboratory (TNG Lab), Is targeted for the Microsoft Windows desktop. The TNG Lab is both modular and extensible, and has a clear, easily operated graphical user interface. It permits visualization of the formation and evolution of trade networks by means of real-time animations. Data tables and charts reporting descriptive performance statistics are also provided In real time. The capabilities of the TNG Lab ...


Policy Persistence In Environmental Regulation, Jinhua Zhao, Catherine L. Kling Aug 2000

Policy Persistence In Environmental Regulation, Jinhua Zhao, Catherine L. Kling

CARD Working Papers

This paper is a study of the optimal emission standards under uncertain pollution damages and transaction costs associated with policy changes. The authors show that, in many situations, either policy changes should be avoided or they should be reduced in scale due to the presence of future transaction costs. Under this constraint, policy persistence can be viewed as the rational response of forward-looking policy makers to future transaction costs, and not just the passive outcome of the current political process.


Image-Based Change Detection Using An Integrated Spatiotemporal Gazetteer, Georgios Mountrakis Aug 2000

Image-Based Change Detection Using An Integrated Spatiotemporal Gazetteer, Georgios Mountrakis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis addresses image-based change detection. Motivation was provided by the lack of algorithms that incorporate in their solution diverse types of pre-existing and complementary information and have the ability to interact with a spatiotemporal environment. The main differentiation with our approach is that we develop our algorithm within an integrated spatiotemporal environment and we make use of all change evidence that might exist within that environment. In addition, a change resolution model is developed that will distinguish meaningful changes based on user requirements. A model for change is proposed that establishes a general framework for the incorporation of image ...


The University Of Nebraska At Omaha Center For Space Data Use In Teaching And Learning, Neal Grandgenett, Uno Aviation Institute Jul 2000

The University Of Nebraska At Omaha Center For Space Data Use In Teaching And Learning, Neal Grandgenett, Uno Aviation Institute

Faculty Books and Monographs

UNOAI Report 2000-4

Within the context of innovative coursework and other educational activities, we are proposing the establishment of a University of Nebraska at Omaha Center for the Use of Space Data in Teaching and Learning. This Center will provide an exciting and motivating process for educators at all levels to become involved in professional development and training which engages real life applications of mathematics, science, and technology. The Center will facilitate innovative courses (including online and distance education formats), systematic degree programs, classroom research initiatives, new instructional methods and tools, engaging curriculum materials, and various symposiums. It will involve ...