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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Green To Gray: Political Ecology Of Paving Over Green Spaces In Moscow, Russia, Mikhail S. Blinnikov, Liudmila Volkova Jun 2020

Green To Gray: Political Ecology Of Paving Over Green Spaces In Moscow, Russia, Mikhail S. Blinnikov, Liudmila Volkova

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

Moscow, Russia is the largest city in Europe with over 12.6 million residents. The remarkable fact is that it is also a biologically diverse ecosystem with a few dozen specially protected natural areas, including 15 large forest parks and a variety of smaller nature-places. The recent landscaping “improvements” conducted by the Moscow government since 2010 greatly increased negative impacts on the green infrastructure, e.g., a lot more paving, systematic grass mowing, widespread planting of exotic plant species, increased residential and commercial construction, more noise, etc. While quantification of the impacts of the above on the biota is not ...


A Conceptual Agent-Based Model Of Farming Households’ Vulnerability To Winter Storms, Yiyi Zhang Jun 2020

A Conceptual Agent-Based Model Of Farming Households’ Vulnerability To Winter Storms, Yiyi Zhang

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

Vulnerability assessments are implemented to identify regions and groups at risk and factors that need to be addressed to reduce vulnerability. Existing assessments have allowed multidimensional factors to be examined in various settings and adopted complex models to simulate human-environment-weather interactions. However, these models are far less accessible than traditional models due to model abstraction and there has been limited research detailing a formalized way to simulate the interactions between rural households and external changes in response to a specific extreme weather event. To supplement applied efforts in vulnerability assessments and address the challenge in communicating agent-based models, this study ...


Mapping And Describing Geospatial Data To Generalize Complex Models: The Case Of Littosim-Gen, Ahmed Laatabi, Nicolas Becu, Nicolas Marilleau, Cécilia Pignon-Mussaud, Marion Amalric, Xavier Bertin, Brice Anselme, Elise Beck Jun 2020

Mapping And Describing Geospatial Data To Generalize Complex Models: The Case Of Littosim-Gen, Ahmed Laatabi, Nicolas Becu, Nicolas Marilleau, Cécilia Pignon-Mussaud, Marion Amalric, Xavier Bertin, Brice Anselme, Elise Beck

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

For some scientific questions, empirical data are essential to develop reliable simulation models. These data usually come from different sources with diverse and heterogeneous formats. The design of complex data-driven models is often shaped by the structure of the data available in research projects. Hence, applying such models to other case studies requires either to get similar data or to transform new data to fit the model inputs. It is the case of agent-based models (ABMs) that use advanced data structures such as Geographic Information Systems data. We faced this problem in the LittoSIM-GEN project when generalizing our participatory flooding ...


An Assessment Of Global Research Activities On Children And Adolescent Online Security, Adeola O. Opesade Dr, Omolayo A. Adesina Ms. Jun 2020

An Assessment Of Global Research Activities On Children And Adolescent Online Security, Adeola O. Opesade Dr, Omolayo A. Adesina Ms.

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

The use of the Internet among children and adolescents is now a norm in many parts of the world. As the Internet offers a wide range of benefits to these ones, so does it expose them to possible various risks and harm. Researchers in different countries across the world have engaged in the production of relevant research-based knowledge in order to make the virtual world a safe place for the younger ones. However, while studies have been carried out on the subject of Internet risk among children and adolescents, there is a dearth of information on the assessment of research ...


Joint Models Of Longitudinal Outcomes And Informative Time, Jangdong Seo Jun 2020

Joint Models Of Longitudinal Outcomes And Informative Time, Jangdong Seo

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Longitudinal data analyses commonly assume that time intervals are predetermined and have no information regarding the outcomes. However, there might be irregular time intervals and informative time. Presented are joint models and asymptotic behaviors of the parameter estimates. Also, the models are applied for real data sets.


Comparison Of Scale Identification Methods In Mixture Irt Models, Youn-Jeng Choi, Allan S. Cohen Jun 2020

Comparison Of Scale Identification Methods In Mixture Irt Models, Youn-Jeng Choi, Allan S. Cohen

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The effects of three scale identification constraints in mixture IRT models were studied. A simulation study found no constraint effect on the mixture Rasch and mixture 2PL models, but the item anchoring constraint was the only one that worked well on selecting correct model with the mixture 3PL model.


Comparing Means Under Heteroscedasticity And Nonnormality: Further Exploring Robust Means Modeling, Alyssa Counsell, Robert Philip Chalmers, Robert A. Cribbie Jun 2020

Comparing Means Under Heteroscedasticity And Nonnormality: Further Exploring Robust Means Modeling, Alyssa Counsell, Robert Philip Chalmers, Robert A. Cribbie

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Comparing the means of independent groups is a concern when the assumptions of normality and variance homogeneity are violated. Robust means modeling (RMM) was proposed as an alternative to ANOVA-type procedures when the assumptions of normality and variance homogeneity are violated. The purpose of this study is to compare the Type I error and power rates of RMM to the trimmed Welch procedure. A Monte Carlo study was used to investigate RMM and the trimmed Welch procedure under several conditions of nonnormality and variance heterogeneity. The results suggest that the trimmed Welch provides a better balance of Type I error ...


Inferences About The Probability Of Success, Given The Value Of A Covariate, Using A Nonparametric Smoother, Rand Wilcox Jun 2020

Inferences About The Probability Of Success, Given The Value Of A Covariate, Using A Nonparametric Smoother, Rand Wilcox

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

For a binary random variable Y, let p(x) = P(Y = 1 | X = x) for some covariate X. The goal of computing a confidence interval for p(x) is considered. In the logistic regression model, even a slight departure difficult to detect via a goodness-of-fit test can yield inaccurate results. The accuracy of a confidence interval can deteriorate as the sample size increases. The goal is to suggest an alternative approach based on a smoother, which provides a more flexible approximation of p(x).


A Note On Inferences About The Probability Of Success, Rand Wilcox Jun 2020

A Note On Inferences About The Probability Of Success, Rand Wilcox

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

There is an extensive literature dealing with inferences about the probability of success. A minor goal in this note is to point out when certain recommended methods can be unsatisfactory when the sample size is small. The main goal is to report results on the two-sample case. Extant results suggest using one of four methods. The results indicate when computing a 0.95 confidence interval, two of these methods can be more satisfactory when dealing with small sample sizes.


On Statistical Significance Of Discriminant Function Coefficients, Tolulope T. Sajobi, Gordon H. Fick, Lisa M. Lix May 2020

On Statistical Significance Of Discriminant Function Coefficients, Tolulope T. Sajobi, Gordon H. Fick, Lisa M. Lix

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Discriminant function coefficients are useful for describing group differences and identifying variables that distinguish between groups. Test procedures were compared based on asymptotically approximations, empirical, and exact distributions for testing hypotheses about discriminant function coefficients. These tests are useful for assessing variable importance in multivariate group designs.


Support Vector Machine-Based Modified Sp Statistic For Subset Selection With Non-Normal Error Terms, Shivaji Shripati Desai, D N. Kashid May 2020

Support Vector Machine-Based Modified Sp Statistic For Subset Selection With Non-Normal Error Terms, Shivaji Shripati Desai, D N. Kashid

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Support vector machine (SVM) is used for estimation of regression parameters to modify the sum of cross products (Sp). It works well for some nonnormal error distributions. The performance of existing robust methods and the modified Sp is evaluated through simulated and real data. The results show the performance of the modified Sp is good.


An Improved Two Independent-Samples Randomization Test For Single-Case Ab-Type Intervention Designs: A 20-Year Journey, Joel R. Levin, John M. Ferron, Boris S. Gafurov May 2020

An Improved Two Independent-Samples Randomization Test For Single-Case Ab-Type Intervention Designs: A 20-Year Journey, Joel R. Levin, John M. Ferron, Boris S. Gafurov

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Detailed is a 20-year arduous journey to develop a statistically viable two-phase (AB) single-case two independent-samples randomization test procedure. The test is designed to compare the effectiveness of two different interventions that are randomly assigned to cases. In contrast to the unsatisfactory simulation results produced by an earlier proposed randomization test, the present test consistently exhibited acceptable Type I error control under various design and effect-type configurations, while at the same time possessing adequate power to detect moderately sized intervention-difference effects. Selected issues, applications, and a multiple-baseline extension of the two-sample test are discussed.


Recurrence Relations For Marginal And Joint Moment Generating Functions Of Topp-Leone Generated Exponential Distribution Based On Record Values And Its Characterization, Zaki Anwar, Neetu Gupta, Mohd Akram Raza Khan, Qazi Azhad Jamal May 2020

Recurrence Relations For Marginal And Joint Moment Generating Functions Of Topp-Leone Generated Exponential Distribution Based On Record Values And Its Characterization, Zaki Anwar, Neetu Gupta, Mohd Akram Raza Khan, Qazi Azhad Jamal

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The exact expressions and some recurrence relations are derived for marginal and joint moment generating functions of kth lower record values from Topp-Leone Generated (TLG) Exponential distribution. This distribution is characterized by using the recurrence relation of the marginal moment generating function of kth lower record values.


A New Exponential Approach For Reducing The Mean Squared Errors Of The Estimators Of Population Mean Using Conventional And Non-Conventional Location Parameters, Housila P. Singh, Anita Yadav May 2020

A New Exponential Approach For Reducing The Mean Squared Errors Of The Estimators Of Population Mean Using Conventional And Non-Conventional Location Parameters, Housila P. Singh, Anita Yadav

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Classes of ratio-type estimators t (say) and ratio-type exponential estimators te (say) of the population mean are proposed, and their biases and mean squared errors under large sample approximation are presented. It is the class of ratio-type exponential estimators te provides estimators more efficient than the ratio-type estimators.


Volume 6 Full Text, Bjur Staff May 2020

Volume 6 Full Text, Bjur Staff

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Women’S Empowerment Or Exploitation Of Women? Examining The Implications Of Economic Empowerment Programming, Billie White May 2020

Women’S Empowerment Or Exploitation Of Women? Examining The Implications Of Economic Empowerment Programming, Billie White

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


The Butler-Tarkington Community Member Views On The Perceived Gentrification, Julio C. Trujillo, Jr., Ethan Daniels May 2020

The Butler-Tarkington Community Member Views On The Perceived Gentrification, Julio C. Trujillo, Jr., Ethan Daniels

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Cyber Jihadism: An Analysis On How The Cyber Sphere Has Altered Islamic Terrorism, Simon Spangenberg May 2020

Cyber Jihadism: An Analysis On How The Cyber Sphere Has Altered Islamic Terrorism, Simon Spangenberg

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Parent Interaction Between An Infant With A Cochlear Implant And Additional Disabilities, Lillian J. Southern May 2020

Parent Interaction Between An Infant With A Cochlear Implant And Additional Disabilities, Lillian J. Southern

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Drowning In Depression: A Reading Of William Cowper’S “The Castaway”, Katrina B. Skalko May 2020

Drowning In Depression: A Reading Of William Cowper’S “The Castaway”, Katrina B. Skalko

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


A Matter Of Perspective: Reportage Style In District 9 (2009), Mahmut M. Osler May 2020

A Matter Of Perspective: Reportage Style In District 9 (2009), Mahmut M. Osler

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


The Motivations And Perceived Benefits Of Student Participation In Dance Marathon, Emily J. Nettesheim May 2020

The Motivations And Perceived Benefits Of Student Participation In Dance Marathon, Emily J. Nettesheim

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Border Security And Immigration Policy: The Fight Against Terrorism, Caroline Klenck May 2020

Border Security And Immigration Policy: The Fight Against Terrorism, Caroline Klenck

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Comparison Of Patient Outcomes In A Pharmacist-Led Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy Program, Zachary W. Howe, Lindsay Saum, Jennifer Mccann May 2020

Comparison Of Patient Outcomes In A Pharmacist-Led Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy Program, Zachary W. Howe, Lindsay Saum, Jennifer Mccann

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


What Do You Want To Be When You Grow Up? Cognitive Flexibility Influences Career Decision Making And Related Anxiety, Emily M. Flandermeyer, Keegan G. Sawin May 2020

What Do You Want To Be When You Grow Up? Cognitive Flexibility Influences Career Decision Making And Related Anxiety, Emily M. Flandermeyer, Keegan G. Sawin

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents And Front Matter, Bjur Staff May 2020

Table Of Contents And Front Matter, Bjur Staff

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis In Traffic Safety, Amin Azimian, Dimitra Pyrialakou May 2020

Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis In Traffic Safety, Amin Azimian, Dimitra Pyrialakou

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

This paper presents an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) of road traffic crashes at different severity levels in West Virginia (WV). Although ESDA can support transportation safety decision-making by helping planners understand and summarize crash data, it is underutilized in practice. This paper describes the application of five representative easy-to-use method to identify crash patterns and high crash-risk counties in WV. Analysis of crash data from 2010 to 2015 indicated that traffic crashes in WV were not spatially correlated. However, crash severities were found to be positively correlated.


The Use Of Digital Millenium Copyright Act To Stifle Speech Through Non-Copyright Related Takedowns, Miller Freeman May 2020

The Use Of Digital Millenium Copyright Act To Stifle Speech Through Non-Copyright Related Takedowns, Miller Freeman

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

In 1998, Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. This law provided new methods of protecting copyright in online media. These protections shift the normal judicial process that would stop the publication of infringing materials to private actors: the online platforms. As a result, online platforms receive notices of infringement and issue takedowns of allegedly copyrighted works without the judicial process which normally considers the purpose of the original notice of infringement. In at least one case, discussed in detail below, this has resulted in a notice and takedown against an individual for reasons not related to the purpose of ...


Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling May 2020

Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The urgency to prepare for the climate crisis has never been greater. We are currently living in the sixth mass extinction and the effects are only going to accelerate. We will inherit more wildfires, larger wildfires, and more frequent wildfires.

This piece is not meant to stoke fear in its readers or be depressing, but to shift public perception on what our future holds by evaluating the laws and science presented to us. This piece will look at regional and federal regulations and assess the increased rate of forest fires and the grave public health concerns from stagnant smoke specifically ...


Ecosystem Services Of Urban Tree Canopy For The Mitigation Of Climate Change: Measuring Carbon Sequestration And Understory Temperature Reduction Of Knoxville’S Urban Forest, Tyler Hounshell May 2020

Ecosystem Services Of Urban Tree Canopy For The Mitigation Of Climate Change: Measuring Carbon Sequestration And Understory Temperature Reduction Of Knoxville’S Urban Forest, Tyler Hounshell

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

In the future, the city of Knoxville, Tennessee will be impacted by climate warming due to anthropogenic climate change. Yet, the ecosystem services provided by urban tree canopy in Knoxville’s urban forest can help mitigate the effects of climate warming. In addition to improving air quality, regulating water flow, and reducing noise pollution, Knoxville’s urban forest serves as a carbon sink and sequesters carbon dioxide on an annual basis. Utilizing methods for calculating carbon sequestration by trees in urban and suburban settings developed by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the sequestration potential and its uncertainty is calculated ...