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Articles 1 - 30 of 101

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Hidden Markov Model For Matching Spatial Networks, Benoit Costes, Julien Perret Jun 2019

A Hidden Markov Model For Matching Spatial Networks, Benoit Costes, Julien Perret

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Datasets of the same geographic space at different scales and temporalities are increasingly abundant, paving the way for new scientific research. These datasets require data integration, which implies linking homologous entities in a process called data matching that remains a challenging task, despite a quite substantial literature, because of data imperfections and heterogeneities. In this paper, we present an approach for matching spatial networks based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) that takes full benefit of the underlying topology of networks. The approach is assessed using four heterogeneous datasets (streets, roads, railway, and hydrographic networks), showing that the HMM algorithm ...


Evaluating Existing Manually Constructed Natural Landscape Classification With A Machine Learning-Based Approach, Rok Ciglic, Erik Strumbelj, Rok Cesnovar, Mauro Hrvatin, Drago Perko Jun 2019

Evaluating Existing Manually Constructed Natural Landscape Classification With A Machine Learning-Based Approach, Rok Ciglic, Erik Strumbelj, Rok Cesnovar, Mauro Hrvatin, Drago Perko

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Some landscape classifications officially determine financial obligations; thus, they must be objective and precise. We presume it is possible to quantitatively evaluate existing manually constructed classifications and correct them if necessary. One option for achieving this goal is a machine learning method. With (re)modeling of the landscape classification and an explanation of its structure, we can add quantitative proof to its original (qualitative) description. The main objectives of the paper are to evaluate the consistency of the existing manually constructed natural landscape classification with a machine learning-based approach and to test the newly developed general black-box explanation method in ...


Discovery Of Topological Constraints On Spatial Object Classes Using A Refined Topological Model, Ivan Majic, Elham Naghizade, Stephan Winter, Martin Tomko Jun 2019

Discovery Of Topological Constraints On Spatial Object Classes Using A Refined Topological Model, Ivan Majic, Elham Naghizade, Stephan Winter, Martin Tomko

Journal of Spatial Information Science

In a typical data collection process, a surveyed spatial object is annotated upon creation, and is classified based on its attributes. This annotation can also be guided by textual definitions of objects. However, interpretations of such definitions may differ among people, and thus result in subjective and inconsistent classification of objects. This problem becomes even more pronounced if the cultural and linguistic differences are considered. As a solution, this paper investigates the role of topology as the defining characteristic of a class of spatial objects. We propose a data mining approach based on frequent itemset mining to learn patterns in ...


Considering The Non-Programming Geographer's Perspective When Designing Extracurricular Introductory Computer Programming Workshops, Thomas R Etherington Dec 2018

Considering The Non-Programming Geographer's Perspective When Designing Extracurricular Introductory Computer Programming Workshops, Thomas R Etherington

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Computer programming is becoming an increasingly important scientific skill, but geographers are not necessarily receiving this training as part of their formal education. While there are efforts to promote and support extracurricular introductory computer programming workshops, there remain questions about how best to deliver these workshops. Therefore, as part of a recent introductory programming extracurricular workshop I organized for non-programing geographers, I tried to understand more about their perceptions of computer programming. I identify that one of the most important aspects for geographers to learn to computer program is to have training that is domain specific to ensure that the ...


Towards Harmonizing Property Measurement Standards, Abdullah Kara, Volkan Çağdaş, Ümit Işıkdağ, Bülent Onur Turan Dec 2018

Towards Harmonizing Property Measurement Standards, Abdullah Kara, Volkan Çağdaş, Ümit Işıkdağ, Bülent Onur Turan

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Area and volume values of buildings and building parts have been used in many applications including taxation, valuation and land use planning. Many countries maintain a national standard for representing the measurements of floor areas in buildings. The national standards generally use similar basis for measuring building floor areas, in fact, areas specified in national standards often have semantic differences. Therefore, a number of international standards have been developed for harmonizing floor area measurements; however, they also have differences. This study aims at harmonizing the floor areas defined in the international property measurement standards by revealing the semantic relations between ...


Bridging Space, Time, And Semantics In Giscience, Margarita Kokla, Eric Guilbert, Mir Abolfazl Mostafavi Dec 2018

Bridging Space, Time, And Semantics In Giscience, Margarita Kokla, Eric Guilbert, Mir Abolfazl Mostafavi

Journal of Spatial Information Science

No abstract provided.


Hyper-Local Geographically Weighted Regression: Extending Gwr Through Local Model Selection And Local Bandwidth Optimization, Alexis Comber, Yunqiang Wang, Yihe Lü, Xingchang Zhang, Paul Harris Dec 2018

Hyper-Local Geographically Weighted Regression: Extending Gwr Through Local Model Selection And Local Bandwidth Optimization, Alexis Comber, Yunqiang Wang, Yihe Lü, Xingchang Zhang, Paul Harris

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Geographically weighted regression (GWR) is an inherently exploratory technique for examining process non-stationarity in data relationships. This paper develops and applies a hyper-local GWR which extends such investigations further. The hyper-local GWR simultaneously optimizes both local model selection (which covariates to include in each local regression) and local kernel bandwidth specification (how much data should be included locally). These are evaluated using a measure of model fit. The hyper-local GWR approach evaluates different kernel bandwidths at each location and selects the most parsimonious local regression model. By allowing models and bandwidths to vary locally, this approach extends and refines the ...


Georeferencing Places From Collective Human Descriptions Using Place Graphs, Hao Chen, Stephan Winter, Maria Vasardani Dec 2018

Georeferencing Places From Collective Human Descriptions Using Place Graphs, Hao Chen, Stephan Winter, Maria Vasardani

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Place descriptions in everyday communication or in online text provide a rich source of spatial knowledge about places. Such descriptions typically consist of references to places and spatial relationships between them. An important step to utilize such knowledge in information systems is georeferencing the referred places. Beside place name disambiguation, another challenge is that a significant proportion of place references in such descriptions are not official place names indexed by gazetteers, thus cannot be resolved easily. This paper presents a novel approach for georeferencing places from collective descriptions using place graphs, regardless of whether they are referred to by gazetteered ...


Towards Place-Based Exploration Of Instagram: Using Co-Design To Develop An Interdisciplinary Geovisualization Prototype, Catherine Emma Jones, Daniele Guido, Marta Severo Dec 2018

Towards Place-Based Exploration Of Instagram: Using Co-Design To Develop An Interdisciplinary Geovisualization Prototype, Catherine Emma Jones, Daniele Guido, Marta Severo

Journal of Spatial Information Science

An abundance of geographic information is hidden within texts and multimedia objects that has the potential to enrich our knowledge about the relationship between people and places. One such example is the geographic information embedded within user-generated content collected and curated by the social media giants. Such geographic data can be encoded either explicitly as geotags or implicitly as geographical references expressed as texts that comprise part of a title or image caption. To use such data for knowledge building there is a need for new mapping interfaces. These interfaces should support both data integration and visualization, and geographical exploration ...


Using Mobility Data As Proxy For Measuring Urban Vitality, Patrizia Sulis, Ed Manley, Chen Zhong, Michael Batty Jun 2018

Using Mobility Data As Proxy For Measuring Urban Vitality, Patrizia Sulis, Ed Manley, Chen Zhong, Michael Batty

Journal of Spatial Information Science

In this paper, we propose a computational approach to Jane Jacobs' concept of diversity and vitality, analyzing new forms of spatial data to obtain quantitative measurements of urban qualities frequently employed to evaluate places. We use smart card data collected from public transport to calculate a diversity value for each research unit. Diversity is composed of three dynamic attributes: intensity, variability, and consistency, each measuring different temporal variations of mobility flows. We then apply a regression model to establish the relationship between diversity and vitality, using Twitter data as a proxy for human activity in urban space. Final results (also ...


Locally-Varying Explanations Behind The United Kingdom's Vote To Leave The European Union, Roger Beecham, Aidan Slingsby, Chris Brunsdon Jun 2018

Locally-Varying Explanations Behind The United Kingdom's Vote To Leave The European Union, Roger Beecham, Aidan Slingsby, Chris Brunsdon

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Explanations behind area-based (Local Authority-level) voting preference in the 2016 referendum on membership of the European Union are explored using aggregate-level data. Developing local models, special attention is paid to whether variables explain the vote equally well across the country. Variables describing the post-industrial and economic "successfulness" of Local Authorities most strongly discriminate variation in the vote. To a lesser extent this is the case for variables linked to "metropolitan" and "big city" contexts, which assist the Remain vote, those that distinguish more traditional and "nativist" values, assisting Leave, and those loosely describing material outcomes, again reinforcing Leave. Whilst variables ...


Modeling Movement Probabilities Within Heterogeneous Spatial Fields, Jed A. Long Jun 2018

Modeling Movement Probabilities Within Heterogeneous Spatial Fields, Jed A. Long

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Recent efforts have focused on modeling the internal structure of space-time prisms to estimate the unequal movement opportunities within. This paper further develops this area of research by formulating a model for field-based time geography that can be used to probabilistically model movement opportunities conditioned on underlying heterogeneous spatial fields. The development of field-based time geography draws heavily on well-established methods for cost-distance analysis, common to most GIS software packages. The field-based time geographic model is compared with two alternative approaches that are commonly employed to estimate probabilistic space-time prisms - (truncated) Brownian bridges and time geographic kernel density estimation. Using ...


Determining The Optimal Spatial And Temporal Thresholds That Maximize The Predictive Accuracy Of The Prospective Space-Time Scan Statistic (Pstss) Hotspot Method, Monsuru Adepeju, Andrew Evans Jun 2018

Determining The Optimal Spatial And Temporal Thresholds That Maximize The Predictive Accuracy Of The Prospective Space-Time Scan Statistic (Pstss) Hotspot Method, Monsuru Adepeju, Andrew Evans

Journal of Spatial Information Science

The spatial and temporal thresholds (K and T) are two key parameters that control the performance of the prospective space-time scan statistical (PSTSS) hotspot method. This study proposes an objective function approach, in which the optimal values of K and T that maximize the mean hit rate (a measure of predictive accuracy), are determined. The proposed approach involves sweeping through a range of values defined for each parameter and monitors their impacts on the mean hit rate. A case study of the crime data sets of the South Chicago area is presented in which 100 one-day consecutive predictions are carried ...


25 Years Of Gisruk, Jonny Huck Jun 2018

25 Years Of Gisruk, Jonny Huck

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Special Feature Editorial


Parameter-Free Aggregation Of Value Functions From Multiple Experts And Uncertainty Assessment In Multi-Criteria Evaluation, Benjamin Rohrbach, Robert Weibel, Patrick Laube Jun 2018

Parameter-Free Aggregation Of Value Functions From Multiple Experts And Uncertainty Assessment In Multi-Criteria Evaluation, Benjamin Rohrbach, Robert Weibel, Patrick Laube

Journal of Spatial Information Science

This paper makes a threefold contribution to spatial multi-criteria evaluation (MCE): firstly by presenting a new method concerning value functions, secondly by comparing different approaches to assess the uncertainty of a MCE outcome, and thirdly by presenting a case-study on land-use change. Even though MCE is a well-known methodology in GIScience, there is a lack of practicable approaches to incorporate the potentially diverse views of multiple experts in defining and standardizing the values used to implement input criteria. We propose a new method that allows generating and aggregating non-monotonic value functions, integrating the views of multiple experts. The new approach ...


A Grounding-Based Ontology Of Data Quality Measures, Franz-Benjamin Mocnik, Amin Mobasheri, Luisa Griesbaum, Melanie Eckle, Clemens Jacobs, Carolin Klonner Jun 2018

A Grounding-Based Ontology Of Data Quality Measures, Franz-Benjamin Mocnik, Amin Mobasheri, Luisa Griesbaum, Melanie Eckle, Clemens Jacobs, Carolin Klonner

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Data quality and fitness for purpose can be assessed by data quality measures. Existing ontologies of data quality dimensions reflect, among others, which aspects of data quality are assessed and the mechanisms that lead to poor data quality. An understanding of which source of information is used to judge about data quality and fitness for purpose is, however, lacking. This article introduces an ontology of data quality measures by their grounding, that is, the source of information to which the data is compared to in order to assess their quality. The ontology is exemplified with several examples of volunteered geographic ...


A Cutting-Plane Method For Contiguity-Constrained Spatial Aggregation, Johannes Oehrlein, Jan-Henrik Haunert Dec 2017

A Cutting-Plane Method For Contiguity-Constrained Spatial Aggregation, Johannes Oehrlein, Jan-Henrik Haunert

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Aggregating areas into larger regions is a common problem in spatial planning, geographic information science, and cartography. The aim can be to group administrative areal units into electoral districts or sales territories, in which case the problem is known as districting. In other cases, area aggregation is seen as a generalization or visualization task, which aims to reveal spatial patterns in geographic data. Despite these different motivations, the heart of the problem is the same: given a planar partition, one wants to aggregate several elements of this partition to regions. These often must have or exceed a particular size, be ...


Insight Provenance For Spatiotemporal Visual Analytics: Theory, Review, And Guidelines, Andreas Hall, Paula Ahonen-Rainio, Kirsi Virrantaus Dec 2017

Insight Provenance For Spatiotemporal Visual Analytics: Theory, Review, And Guidelines, Andreas Hall, Paula Ahonen-Rainio, Kirsi Virrantaus

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Research on provenance, which focuses on different ways to describe and record the history of changes and advances made throughout an analysis process, is an integral part of visual analytics. This paper focuses on providing the provenance of insight and rationale through visualizations while emphasizing, first, that this entails a profound understanding of human cognition and reasoning and that, second, the special nature of spatiotemporal data needs to be acknowledged in this process. A recently proposed human reasoning framework for spatiotemporal analysis, and four guidelines for the creation of visualizations that provide the provenance of insight and rationale published in ...


Vgi In Surveying Engineering: Introducing Collaborative Cloud Land Surveying, Ioannis Sofos, Vassilios Vescoukis, Maria Tsakiri Dec 2017

Vgi In Surveying Engineering: Introducing Collaborative Cloud Land Surveying, Ioannis Sofos, Vassilios Vescoukis, Maria Tsakiri

Journal of Spatial Information Science

olunteered geographic information (VGI) has enabled many innovative applications in various scientific fields. This paper introduces a new framework called "collaborative cloud-based land surveying" (CCLS) that uses VGI principles for data sharing among surveyor engineers to boost the productivity and improve the quality of their applications. A cloud-based spatio-temporal data repository is presented, aiming to facilitate the sharing of VGI among surveyor engineers. A fully-functional distributed software application has been developed and used to apply CCLS in a large-scale land surveying project run by the Greek Ministry of Culture, which involves the mapping of the historic center of Athens. Results ...


Sailing: Cognition, Action, Communication, Thora Tenbrink, Frank Dylla Dec 2017

Sailing: Cognition, Action, Communication, Thora Tenbrink, Frank Dylla

Journal of Spatial Information Science

How do humans perceive and think about space, and how can this be represented adequately? For everyday activities such as locating objects or places, route planning, and the like, many insights have been gained over the past few decades, feeding into theories of spatial cognition and frameworks for spatial information science. In this paper, we explore sailing as a more specialized domain that has not yet been considered in this way, but has a lot to offer precisely because of its peculiarities. Sailing involves ways of thinking about space that are not normally required (or even acquired) in everyday life ...


Editorial, Matt Duckham Dec 2017

Editorial, Matt Duckham

Journal of Spatial Information Science

No abstract provided.


Fundamentals Of Satellite Remote Sensing: An Environmental Approach 2e, Luke Wallace Dec 2017

Fundamentals Of Satellite Remote Sensing: An Environmental Approach 2e, Luke Wallace

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Book review of Fundamentals of Satellite Remote Sensing: An Environmental Approach 2e" by Emilio Chuvieco"


Quantifying Space, Understanding Minds: A Visual Summary Approach, Mark Simpson, Kai-Florian Richter, Jan Oliver Wallgrün, Alexander Klippel Dec 2017

Quantifying Space, Understanding Minds: A Visual Summary Approach, Mark Simpson, Kai-Florian Richter, Jan Oliver Wallgrün, Alexander Klippel

Journal of Spatial Information Science

This paper presents an illustrated, validated taxonomy of research that compares spatial measures to human behavior. Spatial measures quantify the spatial characteristics of environments, such as the centrality of intersections in a street network or the accessibility of a room in a building from all the other rooms. While spatial measures have been of interest to spatial sciences, they are also of importance in the behavioral sciences for use in modeling human behavior. A high correlation between values for spatial measures and specific behaviors can provide insights into an environment's legibility, and contribute to a deeper understanding of human ...


Modeling And Manipulating Spacetime Objects In A True 4d Model, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter Dec 2017

Modeling And Manipulating Spacetime Objects In A True 4d Model, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Hugo Ledoux, Jantien Stoter

Journal of Spatial Information Science

The concept of spacetime has long been used in physics to refer to models that integrate 3D space and time as a single 4D continuum. We argue in this paper that it is also advantageous to use this concept in a practical geographic context by realizing a true 4D model, where time is modeled and implemented as a dimension in the same manner as the three spatial dimensions. Within this paper we focus on 4D vector objects, which can be implemented using dimension-independent data structures such as generalized maps. A 4D vector model allows us to create and manipulate models ...


Cognitively Plausible Representations For The Alignment Of Sketch And Geo-Referenced Maps, Sahib Jan, Angela Schwering, Carl Schultz, Malumbo Chaka Chipofya Dec 2017

Cognitively Plausible Representations For The Alignment Of Sketch And Geo-Referenced Maps, Sahib Jan, Angela Schwering, Carl Schultz, Malumbo Chaka Chipofya

Journal of Spatial Information Science

In many geo-spatial applications, freehand sketch maps are considered as an intuitive way to collect user-generated spatial information. The task of automatically mapping information from such hand-drawn sketch maps to geo-referenced maps is known as the alignment task. Researchers have proposed various qualitative representations to capture distorted and generalized spatial information in sketch maps, however thus far the effectiveness of these representations has not been evaluated in the context of an alignment task. This paper empirically evaluates a set of cognitively plausible representations for alignment using real sketch maps collected from two different study areas with the corresponding geo-referenced maps ...


Topological Augmentation: A Step Forward For Qualitative Partition Reasoning, Matthew P. Dube Dec 2017

Topological Augmentation: A Step Forward For Qualitative Partition Reasoning, Matthew P. Dube

Journal of Spatial Information Science

The current state of the art for partition based qualitative spatial reasoning systems such as the 9-intersection, 9+-intersection, direction relation matrix, and peripheral direction relations is that of the binary set intersection — either empty or non-empty — conveying the intersection (or lack thereof) of an object in the sets deriving the partition. While such representations are sufficient for topological components of objects, these representations are not sufficient for various tasks in qualitative spatial reasoning (composition, representation transfer, converse, etc.) regarding partitions as tiles. Topological augmentation expands the current binary status quo into a system of assigning topological relations ...


Mapping Neighborhood Scale Survey Responses With Uncertainty Metrics, Charles R. Ehlschlaeger, Yizhao Gao, James D. Westervelt, Robert C. Lozar, Marina V. Drigo, Jeffrey A. Burkhalter, Carey L. Baxter, Matthew D. Hiett, Natalie R. Myers, Ellen R. Hartman Dec 2016

Mapping Neighborhood Scale Survey Responses With Uncertainty Metrics, Charles R. Ehlschlaeger, Yizhao Gao, James D. Westervelt, Robert C. Lozar, Marina V. Drigo, Jeffrey A. Burkhalter, Carey L. Baxter, Matthew D. Hiett, Natalie R. Myers, Ellen R. Hartman

Journal of Spatial Information Science

This paper presents a methodology of mapping population-centric social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics at neighborhood scale. This methodology extends traditional survey analysis methods to create cartographic products useful in agent-based modeling and geographic information analysis. It utilizes and synthesizes survey microdata, sub-upazila attributes, land use information, and ground truth locations of attributes to create neighborhood scale multi-attribute maps. Monte Carlo methods are employed to combine any number of survey responses to stochastically weight survey cases and to simulate survey cases' locations in a study area. Through such Monte Carlo methods, known errors from each of the input sources can be ...


Provenance And Credibility In Spatial And Platial Data, Grant Mckenzie, Martin Raubal, Krzysztof Janowicz, Andrew Flanagin Dec 2016

Provenance And Credibility In Spatial And Platial Data, Grant Mckenzie, Martin Raubal, Krzysztof Janowicz, Andrew Flanagin

Journal of Spatial Information Science

No abstract provided.


Trajectory Data Mining: A Review Of Methods And Applications, Jean Damascène Mazimpaka, Sabine Timpf Dec 2016

Trajectory Data Mining: A Review Of Methods And Applications, Jean Damascène Mazimpaka, Sabine Timpf

Journal of Spatial Information Science

The increasing use of location-aware devices has led to an increasing availability of trajectory data. As a result, researchers devoted their efforts to developing analysis methods including different data mining methods for trajectories. However, the research in this direction has so far produced mostly isolated studies and we still lack an integrated view of problems in applications of trajectory mining that were solved, the methods used to solve them, and applications using the obtained solutions. In this paper, we first discuss generic methods of trajectory mining and the relationships between them. Then, we discuss and classify application problems that were ...


Enhancing Building Footprints With Squaring Operations, Imran Lokhat, Guillaume Touya Dec 2016

Enhancing Building Footprints With Squaring Operations, Imran Lokhat, Guillaume Touya

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Whatever the data source, or the capture process, the creation of a building footprint in a geographical dataset is error prone. Building footprints are designed with square angles, but once in a geographical dataset, the angles may not be exactly square. The almost-square angles blur the legibility of the footprints when displayed on maps, but might also be propagated in further applications based on the footprints, e.g., 3D city model construction. This paper proposes two new methods to square such buildings: a simple one, and a more complex one based on nonlinear least squares. The latter squares right and ...