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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Relationship Between Forest Management And Stream Discharge In Mazumbai And Baga Ii Forest Reserves, Tanga Region, Tanzania, Shannon Duffy Oct 2019

The Relationship Between Forest Management And Stream Discharge In Mazumbai And Baga Ii Forest Reserves, Tanga Region, Tanzania, Shannon Duffy

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Deforestation is known to alter hydrology by reducing interception, transpiration and infiltration capacity, and increasing runoff which all leads to higher stream discharge. For rural Tanzanian communities, surface water resources are crucial for meeting basic needs, so the integrity of headwater catchments need to be maintained to ensure their reliability. The objectives of this study were to a) map the streams in the two forests because none currently exist and b) determine the effect of deforestation on discharge variability. Over fifteen days of data collection, this study analyzed variability of discharge and the degree of correlation between discharge and rainfall ...


Coastal Stream Salinity And Its Impacts On Pemba Agriculture, Sara Mccormack Oct 2019

Coastal Stream Salinity And Its Impacts On Pemba Agriculture, Sara Mccormack

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The extent of saltwater inundation of coastal streams was assessed on Pemba Island near agricultural areas in northeastern and northwestern regions of the island. Conductivity and pH were measured from water samples collected at various distances along the stream to determine the extent of salinity at different points in the tidal cycle. This salinity data, as well as the context of recent weather events, runoff, and geological characteristics of the region were used to determine the primary factors that influence changes in surface water salinity. The primary factor that influences surface water salinity was determined to be changes in stream ...


E-Waste Shouldn’T Be Waste: A Study On The Practices, Perceptions, And Policies On E-Waste In Urban Arusha, Tanzania, Melanie Mckenzie Oct 2019

E-Waste Shouldn’T Be Waste: A Study On The Practices, Perceptions, And Policies On E-Waste In Urban Arusha, Tanzania, Melanie Mckenzie

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examines the e-waste stream in urban Arusha, answer the questions of where electronics go, how people usually dispose of them, if people are aware of the impacts of e-waste, and what next steps are necessary. The study took place in November 2019 in urban Arusha, Tanzania. Through snowball and convenience sampling in 4 quotas (community members, electricians, business members, and a policy maker), the study finds that there is no place for the proper disposal of e-waste in Arusha. Many electronics are disposed of improperly by being put into the landfill or burned. Most participants were unaware of ...


Impacts Of Agricultural Practices On Soil Quality And The Resulting Soil Conservation Implication In Kizanda Village, Lushoto Region, Tanzania, Sarah Maccormick Oct 2019

Impacts Of Agricultural Practices On Soil Quality And The Resulting Soil Conservation Implication In Kizanda Village, Lushoto Region, Tanzania, Sarah Maccormick

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examined soil conservation in Kizanda Village which is in the Lushoto District, Tanga Region in the West Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. In Tanzania, and more specifically, the rural montane area, agriculture is an important part of both social and economic development. Due to a reported high rate of land degradation in Tanzania, this development is threatened though the lack of soil conservation. This study conducted structured interviews with farmers in Kizanda through snowball sampling to collect information about local agricultural practices and farmers’ perceptions on soil conservation issues. Soil samples were then collected from the corresponding farms (n ...


Water And War: The Potential For Perpetuation Of Conflict Due To Climate Change, Kaufman Butler Oct 2019

Water And War: The Potential For Perpetuation Of Conflict Due To Climate Change, Kaufman Butler

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change has had a dramatic impact on the world’s weather for years, scientists can only make predictions about how global climate will continue to change going forward; but in all scenarios the circumstances are quite dire. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) will see some of the most severe effects of climate change, which will permanently alter the lives of millions of people in the region. In the MENA region, climate change is projected to result in extreme drought and temperatures which will lead to increased water scarcity, in what is already the most water poor region ...


Activity, Distribution, And Density Of Brown Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) On Misali Island, Pemba Island, Tanzania, Raegan Hasselbring Oct 2019

Activity, Distribution, And Density Of Brown Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) On Misali Island, Pemba Island, Tanzania, Raegan Hasselbring

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This project investigated the activity, distribution, and density of brown rats (R. norvegicus) on Misali Island, Pemba. These factors were studied through field observations conducted over a 21-day observation period. Brown rats were highest in density around areas of human activity, attracted to the detritus, an ample food source. Although highest in density in these areas, a greater total population of brown rats was distributed in the coastal forest due to its proportion of area on the overall island. In the forest, the rats were most active along the coastal sections for unknown and unexplored reasons – possibly due to regular ...


Vulnerability And Adaptability Of Mangrove Forests On Misali Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania, Samantha A. Smith Oct 2019

Vulnerability And Adaptability Of Mangrove Forests On Misali Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania, Samantha A. Smith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As climate change threatens to cause heightened sea levels and decreased rainfall patterns in the Indian Ocean, mangrove forests are forced to adapt or suffer. This study aims to analyze the persistence of four prominent mangrove forests on Misali Island based on vulnerability and adaptability. The study focuses on three types of forests: overwash, coastal fringing, and scrub. Forest A, an overwash forest, was the main site of study and was surveyed for species type and seedling/sapling counts using ten transects which ranged from 40 to 91.7 meters in length. Data was analyzed in order to determine biodiversity ...


The Influence Of Location, Positioning, And Seasonality On Feeding Behavior Of The Sydney Oyster (Saccostrea Glomerata) In New South Wales, Australia, Nathaniel Hess Oct 2019

The Influence Of Location, Positioning, And Seasonality On Feeding Behavior Of The Sydney Oyster (Saccostrea Glomerata) In New South Wales, Australia, Nathaniel Hess

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Oysters are hard shelled bivalves that aggregate over time to create structures in estuarine systems, known as oyster reefs. These reefs are important for the promotion of estuarine biodiversity by supporting many species of fish, invertebrates, and plants. They also act as a key contributor to water health by using active suspension feeding mechanisms and selective feeding to remove nutrients and water borne pollutants from estuarine systems. They have been touted as possible bio-remediators. They also effect rates of sedimentation in estuaries.

Oyster reefs have historically been threatened by anthropogenic influences such as overharvesting, destructive fishing practices, water pollution, CO2 ...


From Traps To Snapshots: Examining The Ecology Of Feral Predators And Native Small Mammals In Southeastern Australia Through Case Studies Of Two Faunal Sampling Methods, Katherine Karson Oct 2019

From Traps To Snapshots: Examining The Ecology Of Feral Predators And Native Small Mammals In Southeastern Australia Through Case Studies Of Two Faunal Sampling Methods, Katherine Karson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cat (Felis catus) are introduced mesopredators that significantly threaten native small mammal species in Australia. For decades, environmental managers have attempted to mitigate the effects of these introduced species. However, ecosystems are highly complex, making it difficult to assess the impacts of feral predators on communities of native fauna independent of other disturbances such as fire regime and habitat fragmentation. Cost-effective ecological monitoring programs are imperative for evaluating threats to native species and informing environmental decisions. New technology has become increasingly present in wildlife monitoring, and camera trapping has provided an alternative to ...


Informing Joyality 4 Kids: Ecopsychology Education To Support Upper Primary Children’S Well-Being Through Environmental And Social Crisis, Cambry Baker Oct 2019

Informing Joyality 4 Kids: Ecopsychology Education To Support Upper Primary Children’S Well-Being Through Environmental And Social Crisis, Cambry Baker

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Responding to climate change and the state of the world demands psychological resilience and a transformative shift towards sustainable behavior. Children inheriting our uncertain future require psychological support and tools of well-being to fuel emotionally sustainable activism. In this paper I investigate how best to support upper primary aged children through environmental and social issues with Joyality 4 Kids, an educational ecopsychology program.

During November of 2019 I completed the Joyality Program processes independently, then conducted two focus group interviews with five individuals experienced in the Joyality Program and/or environmental education to develop the processes for an eight-hour Joyality ...


The Psychological Impacts Of Being Environmentally Active, Allie White Oct 2019

The Psychological Impacts Of Being Environmentally Active, Allie White

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

There are many psychological impacts that come with being environmentally active. The impacts that people tend to focus more on recently are the negative impacts, such as eco-anxiety or activist burnout. Much less attention is given to the potential positive impacts associated with being environmentally active. Thus, this research aims to look at whether there are positive psychological impacts of being environmentally active, and if there are, what specifically about being environmentally active creates those positive impacts. This is important because, if there are positive impacts of being environmentally active, they could be used to motivate people to become more ...


It's Essential: The Ylang-Ylang Trade On Nosy Be, James Sleigh Apr 2019

It's Essential: The Ylang-Ylang Trade On Nosy Be, James Sleigh

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper attempts to describe the production and sale of Ylang-Ylang from cultivation of the tree to the export of the flower, and examines the roles and power that each stakeholder has in the value chain. From there, the paper will look at issues associated with the trade; namely of the threat to the terrestrial ecosystem and the profit imbalance in the industry. Finally, the paper turns to potential strategies to resolve the previously stated issues associated with the production and sale of Ylang-Ylang. As a whole I hope that the paper can be seen as a rough survey of ...


The House Of The Fish: Collaborative Coral Reef Awareness Project On Nosy Be, Meghan Hurley Apr 2019

The House Of The Fish: Collaborative Coral Reef Awareness Project On Nosy Be, Meghan Hurley

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this project was to initiate a place-based coral reef education project, with the ultimate goal of improved localized conservation efforts in the face of growing global threats. Three principal groups that interact with coral reefs on Nosy Be were interviewed: fishers, tourist guides, and conservationists. Research was conducted on the biology of coral reefs, and on the most prominent threats facing coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and around Nosy Be. Information and direct quotes from interviews, and the results of research, were incorporated into a photographic journal entitled "In the House of the Fish" or "An-tragno ...


Women In Conservation: A Study Of Effective Community-Based Conservation And The Empowerment Of Women In Tanzania, Ruby Krietzman Apr 2019

Women In Conservation: A Study Of Effective Community-Based Conservation And The Empowerment Of Women In Tanzania, Ruby Krietzman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The subject of this study is women involved in Community-Based Conservation (CBC) from areas surrounding Lake Manyara National Park, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, and Mount Kilimanjaro National Park. CBC is a participatory process between people and organizations who have responsibilities affecting conservation. Communities surrounding protected conservation areas tend to experience high levels of poverty and marginalization due to exclusive conservation policies and the lack of co-management principles. Although tourism revenue is abundant in these locations, the benefits rarely impact local community members that disproportionately experience the effects of conservation. This is especially true for women who hold the responsibilities of collecting ...


An Assessment Of Coral Bleaching Near Misali Island, Tanzania, Danielle Kulick Apr 2019

An Assessment Of Coral Bleaching Near Misali Island, Tanzania, Danielle Kulick

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Coral bleaching and reef health were studied in fringing reefs around Misali Island, Tanzania. Over a 28-day period, 1,329 coral colonies were surveyed along 31 transects. For each colony, data was collected on growth form and bleaching severity. No significant differences in bleaching frequency or intensity were observed between the resource extraction and non-extraction zones protected under the Pemba Channel Marine Conservation Area (PECCA). Bleaching was observed to be extensive across all coral growth forms and was found to collectively increase over the study period in frequency and intensity. This study indicates the vulnerability of Misali coral reefs to ...


The New Geopolitical Space In The Information Era: A Neuroscientific Approach To National Security, Naomi Silverstein Apr 2019

The New Geopolitical Space In The Information Era: A Neuroscientific Approach To National Security, Naomi Silverstein

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Cognitive Warfare is the interdisciplinary use of technology and an understanding of the brain’s natural processes to influence opinion and behavior. Also known as sharp power, these methods are more technical and accurate than Cold War-age propaganda, and more personal than typical information warfare. With tools like disinformation and big data, outsiders have the ability to exploit vulnerabilities, manipulate belief formation and disseminate a chosen narrative on the grand scale. Examples of events that utilized cognitive warfare to influence sentiment include the 2016 U.S. Presidential election, Russian annexation of Crimea, and the UK’s vote to withdraw from ...


Mixed Responses To Woody Encroachment In Icelandic Herbaceous Plant Morphology And Phenology, Cait Battle-Mcdonald Apr 2019

Mixed Responses To Woody Encroachment In Icelandic Herbaceous Plant Morphology And Phenology, Cait Battle-Mcdonald

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate change and afforestation efforts are promoting tree growth into traditionally treeless locations in Iceland. This study examined this woody encroachment’s effect on the phenology and morophology of eight plants (Agrostis aequivalvis, Equisetum pratense, Equisetum arvense, Alchemilla alpina, Ranunculus acris, Lupinus nootkatensis, Anthriscus sylvestris, and Taraxacum sp.) in Kjarnaskógur forest, Akureyri, Iceland. An initial transplantation experiment testing trees’ effect on A. aequivalvis, E. pratense, R. acris, and A. sylvestris failed due to plant death. A subsequent observational study examined trees’ effect on E. pratense, A. alpina, R. acris, L. nootkatensis, A. sylvestris, and Taraxacum by observing morphological characteristics (leaf ...


Environmental Consciousness For The Politically Autonomous: The Basque Country, Miranda L. White Apr 2019

Environmental Consciousness For The Politically Autonomous: The Basque Country, Miranda L. White

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

When discussing the issue of political autonomy, the usual topics that are taken into consideration are based around human rights, language, culture, society or economics. Those are the most commonly discussed for good reason, as they are important for the rights and freedoms of a community itself. However, this research paper aims to investigate further into the discussion of the environmental effects of political autonomy in Spain, specifically in the matter of autonomous competencies for waterway and air management. Therefore, in order to test such a hypothesis, this study will use the Basque Country of Spain as the subject, and ...


Río Muchacho: La Interacción Entre Agricultura Orgánica, Educación Ambiental Y Ecoturismo, Tatum Contreras Apr 2019

Río Muchacho: La Interacción Entre Agricultura Orgánica, Educación Ambiental Y Ecoturismo, Tatum Contreras

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

El enfoque principal de mi proyecto fue crear un documental sobre cómo Río Muchacho combinada lo orgánico, el ecoturismo y la educación ambiental. Hice mi proyecto en la provincia de Manabí cerca del pueblo Canoa. Documenté y entrevisté a todas las personas involucradas en Río muchacho- de los dueños, a los visitantes. Empecé mi proyecto el 8 de abril y terminé con la filmación y las entrevistas el 26 de abril. En la primera semana trabajé en la finca orgánica de 7 de la mañana hasta las 4 de la tarde. Las dos otras semanas trabajé de 7 a la ...


Las Buenas Vibras Y El Buen Vivir El ‘Desarrollo’ Turístico Por La Ruta Del Sol, Devon Hornberger Apr 2019

Las Buenas Vibras Y El Buen Vivir El ‘Desarrollo’ Turístico Por La Ruta Del Sol, Devon Hornberger

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

En Montañita, Ecuador, el turismo constituye el principal motor de crecimiento económico, lo que se considera el ‘desarrollo’. Este turismo tiene un carácter particular – bohemio, hippie, escapista — que aprovecha de los discursos de la sostenibilidad y el ‘capitalismo verde’. Este proyecto intenta poner en conversación estos tipos de discursos desarrollistas con las perspectivas locales sobre como el turismo ha afectado los modos de ser comunitarios. Se concluye que el proyecto modernizador ha plantado unas raíces firmes en Montañita, y se va extendiendo baja la tierra a las otras comunidades por toda la Ruta del Spondylus. Explora unas iniciativas comunitarias que ...


Primitive Palms: A Density Study On The Impacts Of Harvesting Natural Materials For Construction Purposes On Sumak Allpa Of The Amazon Rainforest, Zachary Bull Apr 2019

Primitive Palms: A Density Study On The Impacts Of Harvesting Natural Materials For Construction Purposes On Sumak Allpa Of The Amazon Rainforest, Zachary Bull

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In an effort to better understand how rural construction techniques affect a surrounding environment, this study combines a density test of the natural building materials used in the construction of a school on Sumak Allpa island of the Orellana Province in the Amazon basin of Ecuador. The focus of the study measures the density of the bamboo species Guadua angustifolia and the Panama hat plant Carludovica palmata on the island while noting a comprehensive compilation of the techniques and materials used in the building process. Using a mix of plots and transects, a comparison of harvested material to remaining material ...


Trends In Nectar Production And Concentration Of Hummingbird-Pollinated Flowers: An Investigation Of Three Flowers Of The Ecuadorian Cloud Forest: Palicourea Demissa, Mezobromelia Capituligera, And Kohleria Affinis, Grace Palmer Apr 2019

Trends In Nectar Production And Concentration Of Hummingbird-Pollinated Flowers: An Investigation Of Three Flowers Of The Ecuadorian Cloud Forest: Palicourea Demissa, Mezobromelia Capituligera, And Kohleria Affinis, Grace Palmer

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Nectar concentration and sugar production both impact and are impacted by pollinator activity through a complex system of coevolution. Additionally, a variety of morphological and environmental factors influence the nectar properties of animal-pollinated flowering plants. Nectar concentration and nectar production rate (NPR) of three hummingbird-pollinated plants, Palicourea demissa, Mezobromelia capituligera, and Kohleria affinis, were measured. These flowers occur and were studied in the southern section of the Chocó-Andean subtropical montane rainforest, in the Pichincha province of Ecuador. Flowers were bagged for 24 hours and sampled at approximate two-hour time intervals for 12 or 24 hours. Nectar concentration and sugar production ...


Quiscalus Mexicanus Vocalization Pitch And Traffic Noise In Breeding Populations Along The Cinta Costera Highway And In Downtown Gamboa, Panamá, Benjamin P. Gregory Apr 2019

Quiscalus Mexicanus Vocalization Pitch And Traffic Noise In Breeding Populations Along The Cinta Costera Highway And In Downtown Gamboa, Panamá, Benjamin P. Gregory

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Urbanization is one of the fastest-growing threats to the biodiversity of the planet, but not all animals are extirpated by the drastic environmental changes of urbanization, and many are even able to thrive in urban landscapes. Behavioral flexibility is often cited as one reason that successful urban animals can so rapidly adapt to a foreign environment with novel stressors. A well-studied example of urban behavioral flexibility is urban-living birds singing with higher-frequency songs in areas with high levels of traffic noise. The present study investigated this trend in Quiscalus mexicanus, an icterid bird with a huge vocal range, highly sexually ...


The Impacts Of Tourism On Subak, Sawah, And The Environment, Reiley Adelson Apr 2019

The Impacts Of Tourism On Subak, Sawah, And The Environment, Reiley Adelson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In this paper I wish to explore the topic of Sawah, Subak, and the impact tourism has on both of these important parts of Balinese culture. By starting with the history of subak, moving into the Green Revolution, then into the start of mass tourism, and coming all the way up until today, I would like to see how subak has changed and developed or how it hasn’t. I would also like to get a sense of what people see for the future of farming in Bali. To go about this, I talked with rice farmers, who are being ...


Life Events Which Motivate Youth To Become Climate Activists In Sydney And Canberra, Phoebe Dolan Apr 2019

Life Events Which Motivate Youth To Become Climate Activists In Sydney And Canberra, Phoebe Dolan

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Climate activism is the tool of young people to rise and fight for their future and the future of the planet. Today it is necessary that young people engage as climate activists. My research asks what life events motivate youth to become climate activists. I looked into the initial life events which spark the motivation of young people to understand their initial motives for joining the climate movement. I looked into where the motivation came from, a concern for nature, a concern for social justice or the interconnectedness of the two. I also looked into the life events of individuals ...


Primates Of The Padangtegal Monkey Forest: Aggressive, Submissive And Affiliative: Interactions Between The Balinese Long-Tailed Macaques And Tourists, Marleigh Jenkins-Morse Apr 2019

Primates Of The Padangtegal Monkey Forest: Aggressive, Submissive And Affiliative: Interactions Between The Balinese Long-Tailed Macaques And Tourists, Marleigh Jenkins-Morse

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bali is one of Indonesia’s seventeen thousand islands and it has become a major tourist destination for visitors from all over the world. One of the most sought after attractions are the various monkey forests on the island, and one of the most renowned is the Padangtegal Monkey Forest in Ubud. As someone who studies Biological Anthropology, I am fascinated by primates both human and non-human. Within the Ubud Monkey Forest these two species come into contact on a daily basis.

Ethnoprimatology is a growing study, and it refers to the “interconnections between human and nonhuman primates” (McCarthy et ...


Newsworthy Migrants: Sentiment And Text Analysis Of Dutch Newspapers, Nicholas J. Schmitz Apr 2019

Newsworthy Migrants: Sentiment And Text Analysis Of Dutch Newspapers, Nicholas J. Schmitz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Understanding how a migrant population is viewed and displayed by the host country has been a struggle for a long period of time for anyone studying migration. Traditional methods of collecting information were tedious, time intensive and expensive. However, Big data has been providing unique solutions to gaps in information in many different fields across the world. Media plays an important part in developing and assessing the public opinion on a topic. With the availability of a large number of online articles from historical time periods, it is possible to use quantitative analysis, such as text analytics, to can see ...


Mammals Of The Northern Andes: An Analysis Of Camera Trap Data And Observation In Angochagua, Ecuador, Risa Berman Apr 2019

Mammals Of The Northern Andes: An Analysis Of Camera Trap Data And Observation In Angochagua, Ecuador, Risa Berman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The high Andes of Ecuador are home to a diverse community of mammals, many of which are threatened. These include the Andean bear, Andean fox, puma, and mountain tapir. This study used camera traps, direct observation, and indirect observation over three weeks to monitor the wildlife in the mountains of the Parroquia of Angochagua. The five species observed during this period were Andean bear, Andean fox, dog, mountain paca, and mouse. While this short study did not completely survey the mammalian community of the area, it confirmed the presence, diet, sociality, temporal habits, elevational range, and habitat preferences of the ...


Avian Upsloping In The Tropics: Myioborus Miniatus And Myioborus Torquatus Abundance In Different Altitudinal Ranges In Boquete, Chiriquí, Panama, Julie Yoon Apr 2019

Avian Upsloping In The Tropics: Myioborus Miniatus And Myioborus Torquatus Abundance In Different Altitudinal Ranges In Boquete, Chiriquí, Panama, Julie Yoon

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Direct and indirect effects of warming global temperatures due to climate change are known to cause upwards shifts of the altitudinal ranges of some avian species. Most susceptible to this trend and at risk of riding the “escalator to extinction” are endemic species in tropical montane cloud forests, such as Myioborus torquatus. There are abiotic factors, like temperature, and biotic interactions, such as the presence of its altitudinal neighbor Myioborus miniatus, that limit the altitudinal range of this bird species in the Neotropics. This study measured abundance of M. miniatus and M. torquatus populations at different altitudinal ranges by point ...


Lepidopteran Diversity And Abundance Across Five Different Indigenously Managed Land Use Zones In The Naso-Teribe Territory, Bocas Del Toro Province, Panama, Eli Dotson Apr 2019

Lepidopteran Diversity And Abundance Across Five Different Indigenously Managed Land Use Zones In The Naso-Teribe Territory, Bocas Del Toro Province, Panama, Eli Dotson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Lepidopterans, the order that includes both moths and butterflies, are among the best-known insects taxonomically and ecologically due to the relative ease of monitoring them in comparison to other groups of insects. Their distribution follows that of other insects and forms of life, as around 90% of species have a tropical distribution. This incredibly speciose group of animals fills many vital roles in the ecosystems they inhabit, including herbivores in their larval stages, prey for a variety of predators in all life stages, and pollinators for many plant species as adults. In some circumstances, certain species may also serve as ...