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Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Review Of Laws And Policies In Kenya And Nigeria, Samuel Kimani, Otibho Obianwu Jun 2020

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Review Of Laws And Policies In Kenya And Nigeria, Samuel Kimani, Otibho Obianwu

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice that has health and human rights impacts on girls and women. The health sector has responsibility for prevention and response to provision of care services to women/girls with FGM/C-related complications. The mandate for the health sector response to FGM/C is anchored in nationwide or sector-specific legal/policy instruments. Kenya and Nigeria have ratified global legal/policy instruments and adopted WHO guidelines/tools for the prevention and management of FGM/C. The extent to which existing legal/policy documents in these two countries address prevention and response to ...


Appendices—Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Review Of Laws And Policies In Kenya And Nigeria, Samuel Kimani, Otibho Obianwu Jun 2020

Appendices—Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Review Of Laws And Policies In Kenya And Nigeria, Samuel Kimani, Otibho Obianwu

Reproductive Health

This document contains Appendices to “Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Review of Laws and Policies in Kenya and Nigeria.” Appendix 1 contains two tables: “Components of Kenyan Laws Related to FGM/C Prevention and Management,” and “Components of Nigerian Laws Related to FGM/C Prevention and Management.” Appendix 2 contains seven tables: “Components Relevant to Health Sector Response to Prevention and Management of FGM/C in Kenyan Policies,” “Components Relevant to Health Sector Response to Prevention and Management of FGM/C in Nigerian Policies,” “Components Relevant to Health Sector Response to Prevention and Management of FGM/C in the Kenyan ...


Reducing Hiv Risk Among Young Women And Their Partners: Highlights From The Dreams Implementation Science Research Portfolio, Population Council Jun 2020

Reducing Hiv Risk Among Young Women And Their Partners: Highlights From The Dreams Implementation Science Research Portfolio, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

The Population Council, with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the U.S. Agency for International Development through Project SOAR, led a set of implementation science studies to capture multiple perspectives that reflect the innovative aspects of DREAMS. These mixed-method studies conducted across seven countries (Eswatini, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia) provide critical evidence that fill knowledge gaps on how to reduce HIV risk among AGYW and their male partners. This brief presents key findings grouped around four areas of inquiry: 1) HIV vulnerability and risk; 2) social drivers of HIV risk; 3) effects of the DREAMS approach; and 4) lessons about how to implement multi-sectoral, community-based HIV prevention programs for AGYW. These highlights from across the Council’s DREAMS implementation science portfolio can be used by implementers, policymakers, and others to improve the delivery of HIV programs and services to vulnerable AGYW and their male partners.


Nairobi Informal Settlements: Covid-19 Perceptions, Prevention Practices And Impact—Round 3, Population Council May 2020

Nairobi Informal Settlements: Covid-19 Perceptions, Prevention Practices And Impact—Round 3, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This presentation provides an overview from the third round of data collection from a phone survey conducted May 10–11, 2020, in five informal settlements in Nairobi (Kibera, Huruma, Kariobangi, Dandora, and Mathare). Total number of interviews completed was 1,750 (87 percent of Round 1); 37 percent of participants were male, 63 percent were female. Almost all resided in the same location as in the previous interview three weeks prior. The presentation covered myths and misconceptions on COVID-1; risk of being infected; what individuals would do if they had symptoms of COVID-19; testing; stigma; movement outside the home; handwashing ...


Kenya: Covid-19 Perceptions, Prevention Practices, And Impact—Responses From Third Round Of Data Collection In Five Nairobi Informal Settlements (Kibera, Huruma, Kariobangi, Dandora, And Mathare), Population Council May 2020

Kenya: Covid-19 Perceptions, Prevention Practices, And Impact—Responses From Third Round Of Data Collection In Five Nairobi Informal Settlements (Kibera, Huruma, Kariobangi, Dandora, And Mathare), Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This brief presents findings from Round 3 of data collection in five Nairobi informal settlements (Kibera, Huruma, Kariobangi, Dandora, and Mathare). On May 10–11, 2020, phone interviews were completed with 1,750 adults, representing 87% of the original COVID-19 KAPstudy cohort. The average age of respondents was 36 years, and 63 percent were female. Almost all resided in the same location as in the previous interview three weeks prior. Overall, most participants are impacted economically and socially by the COVID-19 pandemic and associated social distancing and lockdown policies. Many report losing their source of income while also reporting increased ...


Covid-19-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, And Practices In Urban Slums In Nairobi, Kenya: Study Description, Timothy Abuya, Karen Austrian, Adan Isaac, Beth Kangwana, Faith Mbushi, Eva Muluve, Daniel Mwanga, Thoai Ngo, Mercy Nzioki, Rhoune Ochako, Jessie Pinchoff, Ben Tidwell, John Wanyungu, Corinne White May 2020

Covid-19-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, And Practices In Urban Slums In Nairobi, Kenya: Study Description, Timothy Abuya, Karen Austrian, Adan Isaac, Beth Kangwana, Faith Mbushi, Eva Muluve, Daniel Mwanga, Thoai Ngo, Mercy Nzioki, Rhoune Ochako, Jessie Pinchoff, Ben Tidwell, John Wanyungu, Corinne White

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

To control the spread of coronavirus, the Kenyan Ministry of Health COVID-19 Taskforce has implemented initial prevention and mitigation measures. Of concern are the densely overcrowded, poor urban slums where sanitation and social distancing measures are near impossible. COVID-19 would spread rapidly and be devastating under these conditions. To inform the Taskforce strategy, the Population Council COVID-19 study team utilizes rapid phone-based surveys to collection information on knowledge, attitudes and practices among a longitudinal cohort of heads of household sampled from existing prospective cohort studies across five Nairobi urban slums. Iterations of the survey will be conducted every 2–4 ...


Adolescent Girls Initiative–Kenya: Endline Evaluation Report, Karen Austrian, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Beth Kangwana, Nicole Maddox, Yohannes Dibaba Wado, Benta Abuya, Valsa Shah, John A. Maluccio May 2020

Adolescent Girls Initiative–Kenya: Endline Evaluation Report, Karen Austrian, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Beth Kangwana, Nicole Maddox, Yohannes Dibaba Wado, Benta Abuya, Valsa Shah, John A. Maluccio

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Early pregnancy is a challenge for girls in Kenya that often has immediate effects on their educational opportunities, future implications for their social, health, and economic outcomes, and negative impacts on their children. For girls to achieve well-being in early and late adolescence, no single-sector intervention—whether education, health, wealth creation, or prevention of violence—will be adequate. The Adolescent Girls Initiative–Kenya (AGI-K) delivered multisectoral interventions to over 6,000 girls aged 11–15 in two marginalized areas of Kenya: the Kibera informal settlement in Nairobi and Wajir County in Northeastern Kenya. These interventions were carried out for two ...


Kenya: Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices And Needs—Responses From Second Round Of Data Collection In Five Nairobi Informal Settlements (Kibera, Huruma, Kariobangi, Dandora, Mathare), Population Council Apr 2020

Kenya: Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices And Needs—Responses From Second Round Of Data Collection In Five Nairobi Informal Settlements (Kibera, Huruma, Kariobangi, Dandora, Mathare), Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

To control the spread of coronavirus, the Kenyan Ministry of Health COVID-19 Taskforce has implemented initial prevention and mitigation measures. Of concern are the densely overcrowded, poor urban slums where sanitation and social distancing measures are near impossible. COVID-19 would spread rapidly and be devastating under these conditions. To inform the Taskforce strategy, the Population Council COVID-19 study team utilizes rapid phone-based surveys to collection information on knowledge, attitudes and practices among ~2,000 heads of household sampled from existing prospective cohort studies across five Nairobi urban slums. Iterations of the survey will be conducted every 1-2 weeks. Baseline findings ...


Nairobi Informal Settlements: Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices And Needs—Round 2, Population Council Apr 2020

Nairobi Informal Settlements: Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices And Needs—Round 2, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

To control the spread of coronavirus, the Kenyan Ministry of Health COVID-19 Taskforce has implemented initial prevention and mitigation measures. Of concern are the densely overcrowded, poor urban slums where sanitation and social distancing measures are near impossible. COVID-19 would spread rapidly and be devastating under these conditions. To inform the Taskforce strategy, the Population Council COVID-19 study team utilizes rapid phone-based surveys to collection information on knowledge, attitudes and practices among ~2,000 heads of household sampled from existing prospective cohort studies across five Nairobi urban slums. Iterations of the survey will be conducted every 1-2 weeks. Baseline findings ...


Nairobi Informal Settlements: Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices—Preliminary Findings, Karen Austrian, Timothy Abuya Apr 2020

Nairobi Informal Settlements: Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices—Preliminary Findings, Karen Austrian, Timothy Abuya

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

To control the spread of coronavirus, the Kenyan Ministry of Health COVID-19 Taskforce has implemented initial prevention and mitigation measures. Of concern are the densely overcrowded, poor urban slums where sanitation and social distancing measures are near impossible. COVID-19 would spread rapidly and be devastating under these conditions. To inform the Taskforce strategy, the Population Council COVID-19 study team utilizes rapid phone-based surveys to collection information on knowledge, attitudes and practices among ~2,000 heads of household sampled from existing prospective cohort studies across five Nairobi urban slums. Iterations of the survey will be conducted every 1-2 weeks. Baseline findings ...


Kenya: Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices—Preliminary Findings, Population Council Apr 2020

Kenya: Covid-19 Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices—Preliminary Findings, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

To control the spread of coronavirus, the Kenyan Ministry of Health COVID-19 Taskforce has implemented initial prevention and mitigation measures. Of concern are the densely overcrowded, poor urban slums where sanitation and social distancing measures are near impossible. COVID-19 would spread rapidly and be devastating under these conditions. To inform the Taskforce strategy, the Population Council COVID-19 study team utilizes rapid phone-based surveys to collection information on knowledge, attitudes and practices among ~2,000 heads of household sampled from existing prospective cohort studies across five Nairobi urban slums. Iterations of the survey will be conducted every 1-2 weeks. Baseline findings ...


A Diagnostic Assessment Of The Health System’S Response To Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Management And Prevention In Kenya, Samuel Kimani, Chantalle Okondo Apr 2020

A Diagnostic Assessment Of The Health System’S Response To Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Management And Prevention In Kenya, Samuel Kimani, Chantalle Okondo

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice associated with health consequences and rights violations. In Kenya, health sector–led FGM/C-related interventions are anchored in the legal and policy instruments and guidelines adapted from global/regional frameworks, as well as interventional tools approved by the World Health Organization. Despite the existence of the instruments, guidelines, and tools that should direct a robust health system response to FGM/C, the practice persists and quality of care of services for women and girls with FGM/C-related complications has not been ascertained. Evidence on whether the health sector implements relevant ...


Implementation Process Brief: Integrated Family Planning And Hiv Services At The Community Level In Kenya, Wilson Liambila, Sara Chace Dwyer, Charlotte E. Warren, Aparna Jain, Melsa Lutomia, Jane Loech, Elizabeth Washika Mar 2020

Implementation Process Brief: Integrated Family Planning And Hiv Services At The Community Level In Kenya, Wilson Liambila, Sara Chace Dwyer, Charlotte E. Warren, Aparna Jain, Melsa Lutomia, Jane Loech, Elizabeth Washika

Reproductive Health

Enabling women living with HIV to use contraception effectively can decrease unintended pregnancies and in turn reduce maternal mortality and vertical transmission of HIV. This brief describes the implementation process and intervention tested under the Evidence Project for delivering integrated FP and HIV services at the community level in Kenya. It outlines the implementation steps, best practices, and lessons learned of an intervention that was tested within the existing community health structure. Community health volunteers were trained to offer FP as part of their routine services to women living with HIV, and community health units were prepared to sustain those ...


Assessing The Role Of Law In Reducing The Practise Of Fgm/C In Kenya, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua, Daniel Mwanga, Charles Owuor Olungah Feb 2020

Assessing The Role Of Law In Reducing The Practise Of Fgm/C In Kenya, Agnes K. Meroka-Mutua, Daniel Mwanga, Charles Owuor Olungah

Reproductive Health

Criminalization is an important aspect of anti-FGM/C policies and programs. In countries where FGM/C is practiced, the enactment of a law prohibiting the practice is an important indicator of progress toward abandonment. Criminalization is often seen as playing an important role in the declining prevalence of FGM/C. However, there is not much research on the link between the enactment of laws that prohibit and criminalize FGM/C and declining prevalence of the practice. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to assess the extent to which people obey the law on FGM/C; to investigate the reasons ...


A Diagnostic Assessment Of The Health System's Response To Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Management And Prevention In Kenya: A Case Study Of West Pokot County, Samuel Kimani Feb 2020

A Diagnostic Assessment Of The Health System's Response To Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Management And Prevention In Kenya: A Case Study Of West Pokot County, Samuel Kimani

Reproductive Health

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), a pervasive cultural practice in some contexts, is associated with negative impacts on women’s and girls’ health and rights. The health sector is well positioned to respond to the prevention of FGM/C and the management of its complications because of its primary role in disease prevention, health promotion, and curative services. In Kenya, the health sector’s role is anchored in national and county legal and policy instruments and guidelines that are adopted or customized from global or regional frameworks as well as skills support tools approved by the World Health Organization ...


Understanding Local Variation In How Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Declines, Changes, Or Persists: Analysis Of Household Survey Data For Kenya, Nigeria, And Senegal, Population Reference Bureau Feb 2020

Understanding Local Variation In How Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Declines, Changes, Or Persists: Analysis Of Household Survey Data For Kenya, Nigeria, And Senegal, Population Reference Bureau

Reproductive Health

Efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) intensified in many parts of Africa following a 2012 United Nations General Assembly Resolution, but change has been uneven. Important evidence gaps remain in our understanding of why the practice declines, changes, or persists in specific locations. Policymakers and program planners need such information to better tailor interventions to address local patterns and focus resources on abandonment efforts in areas with the greatest needs. To fill these gaps, researchers with the Evidence to End FGM/C consortium analyzed nationally representative household survey data for Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. The results of ...


Motorbike-Related Injuries & Safety Practices Among Motorbike Riders In Kisumu, Western Kenya In 2019, Rowan Poehler Apr 2019

Motorbike-Related Injuries & Safety Practices Among Motorbike Riders In Kisumu, Western Kenya In 2019, Rowan Poehler

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Road traffic injuries are a growing public health problem throughout the world. Kenya has is known for having unsafe roads with an estimated 13,463 road traffic fatalities in 2016 and 24% of road traffic fatalities coming from 2-and 3-wheeled vehicles (WHO, 2018). This study sought to analyze road safety measures and road traffic injuries amongst motorbike taxi drivers in Kisumu, Kenya. A qualitative survey was administered to 152 motorbike taxi drivers in Kisumu over a two-week period in April 2019. The results were then analyzed. Results showed that 70% of drivers owned a helmet for themselves and 48.3 ...


The Medicalisation Of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting In Kenya: Perspectives Of Families And Health Care Providers, Population Council Jan 2019

The Medicalisation Of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting In Kenya: Perspectives Of Families And Health Care Providers, Population Council

Reproductive Health

This evidence brief summarizes key findings from a study that sought to understand the shifts in FGM/C including medicalization among several communities Kenya. The study finds that medicalization is increasing because: 1) it is perceived to be safer because the procedure is reportedly performed under sterile conditions by trained health professionals; 2) it is believed to shorten the recovery period; and 3) it is a response to the law prohibiting the practice because it allows FGM/C to be performed in secret. These findings indicate that medicalization is an adaptation to awareness of the health complications associated with FGM ...


Tracing Change In Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Shifting Norms And Practices Among Communities In Narok And Kisii Counties, Kenya—Brief, Dennis Matanda, Chantalle Okondo, Caroline W. Kabiru, Bettina Shell-Duncan Jan 2019

Tracing Change In Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Shifting Norms And Practices Among Communities In Narok And Kisii Counties, Kenya—Brief, Dennis Matanda, Chantalle Okondo, Caroline W. Kabiru, Bettina Shell-Duncan

Reproductive Health

This policy brief summarizes key findings from a study that examined whether there are shifts in norms and practices related to FGM/C among communities in Narok (predominantly inhabited by Maasai) and Kisii (predominantly inhabited by Abagusii) counties in Kenya. Although Kisii and Narok are FGM/C hotspots, practicing communities in these counties are reassessing norms and traditions in light of the current social and legal climate. These changes may provide a useful starting point for intervention programs that seek to create dialogue and critical reflection on the practice of FGM/C in an effort to accelerate its abandonment. Programmatic ...


Autonomy, Intimate Partner Violence, And Maternal Health-Seeking Behavior: Findings From Mixed-Methods Analysis In Kenya, Charlotte E. Warren, Pooja Sripad, Charity Ndwiga Jan 2019

Autonomy, Intimate Partner Violence, And Maternal Health-Seeking Behavior: Findings From Mixed-Methods Analysis In Kenya, Charlotte E. Warren, Pooja Sripad, Charity Ndwiga

Reproductive Health

Gendered norms and discriminatory practices often limit women’s decision-making power, which over time can lead to social norms that systematically disadvantage women. Aspects of empowerment were explored in a global evaluation of Demographic and Health Survey data that measured how gendered social norms influenced maternal health-seeking behaviors. Analysis specifically explored associations of women’s autonomy and acceptability of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) on antenatal care use and facility delivery in 63 low- and middle-income countries. Service utilization is positively associated with increased autonomy and negatively associated with increased acceptability of IPVAW, but variability exists across countries and ...


Associations Between Fgm/C And Hiv In Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, And Sierra Leone: A Limited Analysis Of Demographic And Health Survey Data, Yetunde A. Noah Pinheiro, Zhuzhi Moore, David Gathara Jan 2019

Associations Between Fgm/C And Hiv In Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, And Sierra Leone: A Limited Analysis Of Demographic And Health Survey Data, Yetunde A. Noah Pinheiro, Zhuzhi Moore, David Gathara

Reproductive Health

Studies investigating the association between male circumcision and HIV have demonstrated the protective effect of male circumcision. In some settings, FGM/C and male circumcision are considered “equivalent” procedures. This working paper presents findings of a study that investigates the effect of FGM/C on the likelihood of HIV infection for women in practicing communities in Ethiopia, Gambia, Kenya, and Sierra Leone.


Using Demographic And Health Surveys In The Campaign To End Fgm/C: A Kenyan Example, Dennis Matanda, Caroline W. Kabiru Jan 2019

Using Demographic And Health Surveys In The Campaign To End Fgm/C: A Kenyan Example, Dennis Matanda, Caroline W. Kabiru

Reproductive Health

In order to design effective interventions to end female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), we need to map where FGM/C is practiced and what factors influence it. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), nationally representative surveys conducted in low- and middle-income countries every five years, give us the opportunity to explore how FGM/C is influenced by both individual and community-level factors. Where FGM/C prevalence is not uniform, various research and analysis techniques can be used to improve estimates and draw further information from DHS data. This brief shares insights from two studies carried out in ...


Nisitu (Nisikilize Tujengane): Listen To Me, Let’S Grow Together, Population Council Jan 2018

Nisitu (Nisikilize Tujengane): Listen To Me, Let’S Grow Together, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Evidence from several studies, including in Kenya, supports the idea that empowerment and asset-building interventions targeting multiple levels of the socio-ecological environment can improve education, health, economic and social capital, gender-equitable attitudes, and violence outcomes for girls. This brief describes efforts by researchers to test the effects of engaging boys and men alongside girl-centered programming to improve the lives of adolescent girls. In 2017, the Population Council and partners undertook formative research to understand from girls: 1) what are the most influential types of males in their lives; 2) how and what they influence; and 3) what behavior changes among ...


What Works To Improve Outcomes For Kenya's Adolescent Girls?, Population Council Jan 2018

What Works To Improve Outcomes For Kenya's Adolescent Girls?, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This fact sheet outlines results from the Adolescent Girls Initiative–Kenya, a study that evaluates the long-term impact of a multi-sectoral intervention targeted at adolescent girls aged 11 to 15 years from Kibera and rural Wajir. The intervention consists of four different components: a community-based violence-prevention program, an education conditional cash transfer (CCT), health-focused girls' empowerment clubs, and wealth creation for girls via financial education and savings. Results indicate that the approach was a cost-effective way to create positive change across a range of well-being factors for young adolescent girls, including education, health, and economic outcomes.


Adolescent Girls Initiative–Kenya: Midline Results Report, Karen Austrian, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Joyce Mumah, Beth Kangwana, Yohannes Dibaba Wado, Benta Abuya, Valsa Shah, John A. Maluccio Jan 2018

Adolescent Girls Initiative–Kenya: Midline Results Report, Karen Austrian, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Joyce Mumah, Beth Kangwana, Yohannes Dibaba Wado, Benta Abuya, Valsa Shah, John A. Maluccio

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Many adolescent girls in Kenya face considerable risks and vulnerabilities that affect their education status, health, and general well-being. In addition to low educational attainment and health risks, other factors that impact education and health outcomes include household poverty, lack of economic independence, limited income-earning opportunities, illiteracy, violence, and social isolation. Younger adolescent girls who live in environments laden with these vulnerabilities are at risk of experiencing negative outcomes such as school dropout, early sexual initiation, unintended pregnancy, early marriage, and sexual and gender-based violence. The Adolescent Girls Initiative–Kenya (AGI-K) delivered multisectoral interventions to over 6,000 girls aged ...


What Do We Know About The Hiv Risk Characteristics Of Adolescent Girls And Young Women In Kenya? Findings From Dreams Implementation Science Research, Population Council Jan 2018

What Do We Know About The Hiv Risk Characteristics Of Adolescent Girls And Young Women In Kenya? Findings From Dreams Implementation Science Research, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

The Population Council is conducting implementation science research in Kenya to build needed evidence to inform community-based, girl-centered interventions. DREAMS programs in Kenya are implementing a core package of interventions in the highest HIV-burden areas to address HIV risk among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW)—a population in which AIDS is the leading cause of death in the region. This brief summarizes key findings from a survey of 1,778 AGYW, more than half of whom are enrolled in DREAMS programming.


Expanding The Evidence Base And Networks For Sexual Violence Response In East And Southern Africa—Completion Report For The Period May 2014–February 2018, Population Council Jan 2018

Expanding The Evidence Base And Networks For Sexual Violence Response In East And Southern Africa—Completion Report For The Period May 2014–February 2018, Population Council

Reproductive Health

This is the final report of the Expanding the Evidence Base and Networks for Sexual Violence Response program, which, over the years, has enabled regional partners to collectively test and document experiences in tackling violence against children and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in humanitarian contexts. To foster SGBV prevention and ensure that responses to SGBV are effective, the program has targeted a range of stakeholders, including influential regional bodies; the health, education, and justice sectors; and children and refugees—as survivors as well as members of communities where prevention is being promoted. The program has helped to change the ...


Shifts In Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting In Kenya: Perspectives Of Families And Health Care Providers, Samuel Kimani, Caroline W. Kabiru Jan 2018

Shifts In Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting In Kenya: Perspectives Of Families And Health Care Providers, Samuel Kimani, Caroline W. Kabiru

Reproductive Health

Despite compelling reasons and efforts to eradicate female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in Kenya, the practice has persisted, albeit with some changes. This study sought to understand the shifts in FGM/C among families and healthcare providers from selected Kenyan communities that practice FGM/C. Our findings highlight similarities and differences across three distinct Kenyan communities. FGM/C appears to persist through two models: first, shifts (changes) in the practice, notably cutting at a younger age, lesser cutting; and second, through stability and consistency with minimal change. The two diverse models appear to rely on and sustain social norms ...


Addressing Barriers To Quality Of Underutilized Commodities And Services For Prevention And Management Of Pre-Eclampsia And Eclampsia In Kenya, Charity Ndwiga, Pooja Sripad, Charlotte E. Warren Jan 2018

Addressing Barriers To Quality Of Underutilized Commodities And Services For Prevention And Management Of Pre-Eclampsia And Eclampsia In Kenya, Charity Ndwiga, Pooja Sripad, Charlotte E. Warren

Reproductive Health

The Ending Eclampsia Project seeks to increase access to quality, underutilized interventions and commodities for the prevention, detection, and management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PE/E), including promoting correct use of antihypertensive drugs and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). This final report details the findings of a qualitative study that explored health system bottlenecks that prevent access to quality maternal and newborn health care in two Kenyan counties, Kakamega and Kitui, with a specific focus on PE/E. The study explored policy implementation gaps in Kenya’s newly devolved county government structure, to:1) assess the policy and health system environment for ...


Retrospective Cohort Study: Clinical Presentation And Outcomes Of Pre-Eclampsia And Eclampsia At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, Charity Ndwiga, Alfred Osoti, Pooja Sripad, George Odwe, Omondi Ogutu, Charlotte E. Warren Jan 2018

Retrospective Cohort Study: Clinical Presentation And Outcomes Of Pre-Eclampsia And Eclampsia At Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, Charity Ndwiga, Alfred Osoti, Pooja Sripad, George Odwe, Omondi Ogutu, Charlotte E. Warren

Reproductive Health

Pre-eclampsia has two distinct subtypes: early onset pre-eclampsia, which occurs before 34 weeks of gestation, and late onset pre-eclampsia, which occurs after 34 weeks. Few studies examine and compare early and late onset pre-eclampsia in a low- and middle-income country setting. This study’s goal was to establish a profile of patients with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, especially pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, over a two-year period. At Kenya’s national referral hospital, clinical presentation at admission was examined, as was management of complications, along with maternal and newborn health outcomes in the hospital’s maternity unit, to ascertain any differences in ...