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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Use Of Mobile Health In Infant And Young Child Nutrition: A Formative Study In Rural Maharashtra, Samreen Sadaf Khan Dr., Archana Patel Dr., Amrita Puranik Ms., Priyanka Kuhite Dr., Yamini Pusdekar Dr., Michael J. Dibley Dr., Ashraful Alam Dr. Jun 2020

Use Of Mobile Health In Infant And Young Child Nutrition: A Formative Study In Rural Maharashtra, Samreen Sadaf Khan Dr., Archana Patel Dr., Amrita Puranik Ms., Priyanka Kuhite Dr., Yamini Pusdekar Dr., Michael J. Dibley Dr., Ashraful Alam Dr.

The Qualitative Report

Undernutrition is a major public health problem for under 5 years of age children in India. Approximately 41% and 21% of under 5 years of age children are stunted and wasted respectively. Despite the known importance of age appropriate infant and young child feeding practices for child nutrition, the rates of these practices remain poor in India. The major determinants for inappropriate IYCF practices are beliefs and knowledge of parents and caregivers. These can be effectively addressed through counselling by mobile Health technology as mobile phones are widely available and have a high penetration across the country. This formative research ...


Covid-19-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, And Practices Among Adolescents And Young People In Bihar And Uttar Pradesh, India: Study Description, Rajib Acharya, Mukta Gundi, Thoai Ngo, Neelanjana Pandey, Sangram Kishor Patel, Jessie Pinchoff, Shilpi Rampal, Niranjan Saggurti, K.G. Santhya, Corinne White, A.J. Francis Zavier Apr 2020

Covid-19-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, And Practices Among Adolescents And Young People In Bihar And Uttar Pradesh, India: Study Description, Rajib Acharya, Mukta Gundi, Thoai Ngo, Neelanjana Pandey, Sangram Kishor Patel, Jessie Pinchoff, Shilpi Rampal, Niranjan Saggurti, K.G. Santhya, Corinne White, A.J. Francis Zavier

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

To control the spread of COVID-19 in India and to aid the efforts of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), the Population Council and other non-governmental organizations are conducting research to assess residents’ ability to follow sanitation and social distancing precautions under a countrywide lockdown. The Population Council COVID-19 study team is implementing rapid phone-based surveys to collect information on knowledge, attitudes and practices, as well as needs, among 2,041 young people (ages 19-23 years) and/or an adult household member, sampled from an existing prospective cohort study with a total sample size of 20,574 in ...


Low Perceived Risk: A Challenge To Adoption Of Preventive Behaviors For Covid-19?, Population Council Apr 2020

Low Perceived Risk: A Challenge To Adoption Of Preventive Behaviors For Covid-19?, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

India, with 13,387 cases reported as of April 17, currently accounts for just 0.6% of the COVID-19 cases worldwide. The nationwide lockdown may have helped contain the initial COVID-19 outbreak. However, until testing rates improve, the size of the outbreak remains unclear, and the risk of spread remains. It is critical to ensure ongoing adherence to current social distancing and handwashing behaviours to protect the population from a larger outbreak. An ongoing COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes and practices study implemented by the Population Council Institute in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh sought to assess the extent to which study participants ...


Migration And Covid-19: Uttar Pradesh And Bihar, Population Council Apr 2020

Migration And Covid-19: Uttar Pradesh And Bihar, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

To control the spread of COVID-19 in India and to aid the efforts of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, the Population Council and other nongovernmental organizations are conducting research to assess residents’ ability to follow sanitation and social distancing precautions under a countrywide lockdown. The Population Council COVID-19 study team is implementing rapid phone-based surveys to collect information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices, as well as needs, among 1,237 young people. As noted in this brief, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar are two of the highest out-migration states in India. Migration is mostly to metropolitan areas in ...


Contraceptive Use Dynamics In India: A Prospective Cohort Study Of Modern Reversible Contraceptive Users, Arupendra Mozumdar, Elizabeth Tobey, Kumudha Aruldas, Rajib Acharya, Aparna Jain Mar 2020

Contraceptive Use Dynamics In India: A Prospective Cohort Study Of Modern Reversible Contraceptive Users, Arupendra Mozumdar, Elizabeth Tobey, Kumudha Aruldas, Rajib Acharya, Aparna Jain

Reproductive Health

This report highlights the contraceptive use dynamics among 2,699 married women in India who began using one of four reversible contraceptive methods over one year. Women aged 15-49 were enrolled into the study from Odisha and Haryana states within one month of starting their reversible method—interval intrauterine device (IUD), postpartum IUD (PPIUD), injectable contraceptive, or oral contraceptive pill (OCP)—and were interviewed at four time points: at enrollment into the study, and three, six, and 12 months after enrollment. Study findings include the quality of care received at the time of method adoption, experience and management of side ...


Law Library Blog (December 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Dec 2019

Law Library Blog (December 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Employment, Aging And Disease In India, Veena S. Kulkarni, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Sep 2019

Employment, Aging And Disease In India, Veena S. Kulkarni, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

The literature on the associations between NCDs and disabilities, and loss of employment in India is patchy and sparse. Although insightful, these studies are long on economic losses through high out of pocket expenditure (OOP) and cutbacks in non-medical expenditure, but they are short on employment losses. Besides, most are based on not-so-recent data. The present study seeks to fill these gaps using a nation-wide panel survey, the India Human Development Survey 2015, that covers the period between 2005-2012. A state-of-art econometric analysis confirms that substantial employment losses are associated with non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and high ...


Volume I | Issue Ii | 2019.Pdf, Dujpew Editorial Board Sep 2019

Volume I | Issue Ii | 2019.Pdf, Dujpew Editorial Board

Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Politics, Economics and World Affairs

No abstract provided.


An Exploration Of Attitudes Toward Dogs Among College Students In Bangalore, India, Shelly Volsche, Miriam Mohan, Peter B. Gray, Madhavi Rangaswamy Jul 2019

An Exploration Of Attitudes Toward Dogs Among College Students In Bangalore, India, Shelly Volsche, Miriam Mohan, Peter B. Gray, Madhavi Rangaswamy

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Conversations in the field of anthrozoology include treatment and distinction of food animals, animals as workers versus pests, and most recently, emerging pet trends including the practice of pet parenting. This paper explores attitudes toward pet dogs in the shared social space of urban India. The data include 375 pen-and-paper surveys from students at CHRIST (Deemed to be University) in Bangalore, India. Reflecting upon Serpell’s biaxial concept of dogs as a relationship of affect and utility, the paper considers the growing trend of pet dog keeping in urban spaces and the increased use of affiliative words to describe these ...


The Impact Of Cleft Lip/Palate And Clp Surgical Intervention On The Social Integration Of Adolescents In India, Mustafa Zahid May 2019

The Impact Of Cleft Lip/Palate And Clp Surgical Intervention On The Social Integration Of Adolescents In India, Mustafa Zahid

Master's Theses

Cleft Lip/Palate, a congenital orofacial anomaly, carries an incidence rate of approximately 1 in every 1000 births. In addition to the stigma associated with the condition, the varying levels of cleft severity might result in lower life outcomes which could include lower cognitive ability, physical and psychological well-being, social and behavioral outcomes of adolescents. This paper focuses on the social integration element of life outcomes, which is composed of the social inclusion and prosocial behavior of the adolescent. Despite the affordability of restorative surgeries, patients in rural areas of Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) such as India face accessibility ...


Examining Early Marriage In India: Qualitative Findings, Neelanjana Pandey, Komal Saxena, Andrea J. Melnikas Jan 2019

Examining Early Marriage In India: Qualitative Findings, Neelanjana Pandey, Komal Saxena, Andrea J. Melnikas

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The More Than Brides Alliance (MTBA) implements the “Marriage: No Child’s Play” program (2016–20) in India, Malawi, Mali, Niger, and Pakistan. The MTBA is a holistic program that addresses early marriage through multiple strategies, including: sexual and reproductive health and rights, livelihoods, education, and prevalent community social norms around marriage. Furthermore, the program operates at multiple levels (girl, family, community, block, and district) to address individual, familial, and structural barriers to reducing child marriage in these communities. This report first looks at the legal environment in which programs operate by examining participants’ awareness of laws, acts, and programs ...


More Than Brides Alliance: Midline Evaluation Report, Andrea J. Melnikas, Grace Saul, Santosh Kumar Singh, James Mkandawire, Mouhamadou Gueye, Aissa Diarra, Sajeda Amin Jan 2019

More Than Brides Alliance: Midline Evaluation Report, Andrea J. Melnikas, Grace Saul, Santosh Kumar Singh, James Mkandawire, Mouhamadou Gueye, Aissa Diarra, Sajeda Amin

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The More than Brides Alliance (MTBA) was formed to bringing together the strengths of a diverse team skilled in adolescent program implementation and research. The goal of the research presented in this report is to promote an evidence-based programmatic approach to delaying marriage in India, Malawi, Mali, Niger, and Pakistan by gathering detailed quantitative and qualitative information from the program areas over time to examine the impact of the present intervention and inform future strategies. This report highlights data from the midline survey on a set of outcomes approximately midway through the MTBA intervention and compares them with the same ...


Growing Burden Of Non-Communicable Diseases In India, Pratima Yadav, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Aug 2018

Growing Burden Of Non-Communicable Diseases In India, Pratima Yadav, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

The present study provides detailed evidence on NCDs and their covariates. This is particularly relevant in the present Indian context, as the elderly population ≥ 60 years is growing three times faster than the population as a whole. It is projected that the percentage of elderly people will more than double between 2010-2050. Alongside, old age morbidity (NCDs and their multi-morbidities) has risen significantly during 2004-2014. Using National Sample Survey data for 2004 and 2014, and ordered probit models, the underlying covariates are uncovered. There is a marked shift of NCDs and multi-morbidities from the younger to the old population. Some ...


Availability And Use Of Magnesium Sulphate At Health Care Facilities In Two Selected Districts Of North Karnataka, India., Geetanjali Katageri, Umesh Charantimath, Anjali Joshi, Marianne Vidler, Umesh Ramadurg, Sumedha Sharma, Sheshidhar Bannale, Beth A. Payne, Sangamesh Rakaraddi, Chandrashekhar Karadiguddi, Geetanjali Mungarwadi, Avinash Kavi, Diane Sawchuck, Richard Derman, Shivaprasad Goudar, Ashalata Mallapur, Mrutyunjaya Bellad, Laura A. Magee, Rahat Qureshi, Peter Von Dadelszen Jun 2018

Availability And Use Of Magnesium Sulphate At Health Care Facilities In Two Selected Districts Of North Karnataka, India., Geetanjali Katageri, Umesh Charantimath, Anjali Joshi, Marianne Vidler, Umesh Ramadurg, Sumedha Sharma, Sheshidhar Bannale, Beth A. Payne, Sangamesh Rakaraddi, Chandrashekhar Karadiguddi, Geetanjali Mungarwadi, Avinash Kavi, Diane Sawchuck, Richard Derman, Shivaprasad Goudar, Ashalata Mallapur, Mrutyunjaya Bellad, Laura A. Magee, Rahat Qureshi, Peter Von Dadelszen

Global Health Articles

BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Magnesium sulphate is accepted as the anticonvulsant of choice in these conditions and is present on the WHO essential medicines list and the Indian National List of Essential Medicines, 2015. Despite this, magnesium sulphate is not widely used in India for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. In addition to other factors, lack of availability may be a reason for sub-optimal usage. This study was undertaken to assess the availability and use of magnesium sulphate at public and private health care facilities in two districts of North Karnataka, India.

METHODS: A ...


Experience As Counterpoint: A Qualitative Study Of Home, Happiness & Aging Amongst First-Generation South Asian Migrants In The U.S., Angela Singh May 2018

Experience As Counterpoint: A Qualitative Study Of Home, Happiness & Aging Amongst First-Generation South Asian Migrants In The U.S., Angela Singh

Theses and Dissertations

Susan Stanford Friedman writes that “Home comes into being most powerfully when it is gone, lost, left behind, desired and imagined” (202). My dissertation addresses notions of home, nostalgia, happiness and aging often found in South Asian diasporic fiction, and from the results of a qualitative study I conducted in which I interviewed five migrant couples who moved to the US from India for educational and professional purposes in the 1960s and 1970s. This project draws on and contributes toward the fields of Migration and Diaspora Studies, Transnational Studies and South Asian Studies. My research aims to explore more uncommonly ...


Allopathic Medicine’S Influence On Indigenous Peoples In The Kumaon Region Of India, Eliana M. Blum Apr 2018

Allopathic Medicine’S Influence On Indigenous Peoples In The Kumaon Region Of India, Eliana M. Blum

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

This paper focuses on the use of western medicine in the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, India. The goal of this research is to understand which healing practices are preferable in rural villages. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 53 participants, including two spiritual healers, two doctors, and one pharmacist. Results indicate that allopathic medicine, otherwise known as modern medicine or western medicine, has become the go-to remedy for even the most remote people in India. Nearly all participants use allopathic medicine, but less than half of the participants experiment with other forms of healing, such as Ayurveda, homeopathy, meditation, and yoga ...


Mothers, Daughters, Wives, And Widows: The Politics Of India's Social Programs For Women, 1985-2015, Prakirti Nangia Jan 2018

Mothers, Daughters, Wives, And Widows: The Politics Of India's Social Programs For Women, 1985-2015, Prakirti Nangia

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Why is social policy for women in the global south increasingly focused on women as mothers? While existing literature explains the rise of maternalist (mother-focused) social policy in 20th-century Europe and the United States, I show that it does not account for the newest wave of maternalist social policy, which is unfolding in developing countries around the world. Using India as a case study, I compare the surprising and divergent trajectories of two contemporaneous women’s programs to unearth the causes of growing maternalism in the global south. One of the programs, Janani Suraksha Yojana (Mother Protection Scheme, or JSY ...


Community-Level Assessment Of Heatwaves In Odisha State, India: Effects, Resilience And Implications, Sangram Kishor Patel Jan 2018

Community-Level Assessment Of Heatwaves In Odisha State, India: Effects, Resilience And Implications, Sangram Kishor Patel

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Heatwaves constitute a potential threat to many of India’s states, including Odisha, and their impact could become acute without adaptive capacity. This research brief explores the perceived causes and experiences of climate change and heatwave by stakeholders in the district. It summarizes reported effects on livelihoods, food security, and livestock; water and sanitation; and health, and reviews coping strategies offered by respondents. The report includes a number of recommendations to meet the needs of the population as indicated by the findings.


Community-Level Assessment Of Droughts In Odisha: Effects, Resilience, And Implications, Sangram Kishor Patel Jan 2018

Community-Level Assessment Of Droughts In Odisha: Effects, Resilience, And Implications, Sangram Kishor Patel

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

India has been severely affected by drought—one-third of the country is either drought-prone or classified as desert. Odisha’s geographic location makes it vulnerable to various natural disasters and climatic risks so the Population Council conducted a study there to explore the impact of drought on people and their resilience, as well as examine the perceptions of state-level infrastructure and institutional initiatives to strengthen responses to droughts. The study found that farmers, laborers, and the poor are severely affected physically, financially, and psychologically as a result of consecutive droughts that have affected agriculture and livelihoods. The report notes a ...


Community-Level Assessment Of Floods And Cyclones In Coastal Odisha, India: Impact, Resilience, And Implications, Sangram Kishor Patel Jan 2018

Community-Level Assessment Of Floods And Cyclones In Coastal Odisha, India: Impact, Resilience, And Implications, Sangram Kishor Patel

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

India is among the countries that have been severely affected by both floods and cyclones. In 2012, the Government of India estimated that nearly 12 percent of India’s land is prone to floods and river erosion. The Population Council conducted formative research in the state of Odisha to explore the people’s perceptions on impact and resilience to cyclones and floods, and to examine the state-level infrastructure and institutional initiatives to strengthen responses to these events. Findings reported in this brief indicate that flooding and cyclones have had a disproportionate affect on vulnerable groups, including women, children, the elderly ...


Baseline Evaluation Of Project Mesha In Bihar: Factsheet Results 2017-2018, Population Council Jan 2018

Baseline Evaluation Of Project Mesha In Bihar: Factsheet Results 2017-2018, Population Council

Reproductive Health

This fact sheet presents baseline results for an evaluation survey among women who were the primary decisionmakers in the rearing of goats in Bihar, India. The study underpins the Aga Khan Foundation’s implementation of “Project Mesha,” a community-based program to develop the potential of goat farming among women goat rearers in four blocks of Muzaffarpur district. The aim of the project is to increase the income and empowerment of women goat rearers through the implementation of Project Mesha in JEEViKA-run self-help groups. The fact sheet includes data on demographic and household profiles; goat ownership, rearing, income, and productive resources ...


Dynamics Of Interval Iud Use In India, The Evidence Project Jan 2018

Dynamics Of Interval Iud Use In India, The Evidence Project

Reproductive Health

The IUD is an important long-acting, reversible contraceptive method, and an alternative to permanent female sterilization that does not carry the risk of regret. In India, as the government aims to expand the basket of reversible method choice available to women, understanding the experiences of those who use the interval IUD is paramount. This brief describes a study by the Population Council, with support from USAID/India, which found that overall there is room to improve the quality of services clients receive. The report recommends disseminating messaging about potential side effects of the IUD, training frontline health workers on four ...


Dynamics Of Postpartum Iud Use In India, The Evidence Project Jan 2018

Dynamics Of Postpartum Iud Use In India, The Evidence Project

Reproductive Health

Evidence suggests that in India, compared to married women in general, postpartum married women have a much higher need for family planning that remains unmet. India’s postpartum IUD (PPIUD) program aims to help postpartum women space pregnancies and prevent mistimed or unwanted births. The majority of PPIUD users in this study were young, educated, and had one child. Most were involved in making the final decision about which family planning method to use after discussions with the provider, and most had spoken with a frontline health worker at least once about family planning methods in the three months preceding ...


Dynamics Of Injectable Contraceptive Use In India, The Evidence Project Jan 2018

Dynamics Of Injectable Contraceptive Use In India, The Evidence Project

Reproductive Health

This brief describes a research study by the Population Council, with support from USAID/India, whose purpose is to provide evidence that can be used to strengthen the family planning program and meet the needs of reversible contraceptive users who want to prevent pregnancy in India. Understanding the experiences of the small but growing population of women choosing the injectable is important as the Government of India continues to roll out injectable contraceptive methods in the public sector. The report’s key recommendations include: disseminating messaging about potential side effects of the injectable, institutionalizing quality of care in pre-service trainings ...


Dynamics Of Oral Contraceptive Pill Use In India, The Evidence Project Jan 2018

Dynamics Of Oral Contraceptive Pill Use In India, The Evidence Project

Reproductive Health

The purpose of this brief is to provide evidence that can be used to strengthen the family planning program in India, particularly for community-based and facility-based distribution of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), use of which remains low despite their availability. Understanding women’s interactions with frontline health workers while obtaining the method and during follow-up counseling can help the Government of India improve its National Family Planning Program. Based on its findings, the report recommends that all providers, especially frontline health workers, receive training focusing on four domains of quality of care: 1) respectful care, 2) counseling to enable appropriate ...


Scholarly Communications Of Nephrology By Indian Scientists In Science Citation Index Expanded: A Scientometric Profile, Chandran Velmurugan Jan 2018

Scholarly Communications Of Nephrology By Indian Scientists In Science Citation Index Expanded: A Scientometric Profile, Chandran Velmurugan

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Objectives: Nephrology is one the complicated diseases of the human body. This study tries to focus the scholarly communications of Nephrology which were indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) from the Web of Science (WoS) bibliometric database and to observe various elements in terms of yearly growth, author productivity, document, language, institution, geographical, most productive keywords, collaborative index (CI), degree of collaboration (DC) and many more characteristic features during the study period.

Method: The data were collected from the Web of Science Core Collection database by using the keywords as topic ‘Nephrology’ and refined by ‘countries /Territories’ (India) and ...


End-Of-Life Care And Opioid Use In India: Challenges And Opportunities, Aasems Jacob, Aju Mathew Dec 2017

End-Of-Life Care And Opioid Use In India: Challenges And Opportunities, Aasems Jacob, Aju Mathew

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Caste Matters: Perceived Discrimination Among Women In Rural India, Apurv Soni, Jasmine A. Khubchandani, Nisha Fahey, Nitin Raithatha, Anusha Prabhakaran, Nancy Byatt, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Ajay Phatak, Milagros C. Rosal, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Jeroan J. Allison May 2017

Caste Matters: Perceived Discrimination Among Women In Rural India, Apurv Soni, Jasmine A. Khubchandani, Nisha Fahey, Nitin Raithatha, Anusha Prabhakaran, Nancy Byatt, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Ajay Phatak, Milagros C. Rosal, Somashekhar Nimbalkar, Jeroan J. Allison

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Purpose: To examine the relationship of caste and class with perceived discrimination among pregnant women from rural western India.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 170 pregnant women in rural Gujarat, India, who were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study. Everyday Discrimination Scale and Experiences of Discrimination questionnaires were used to assess perceived discrimination and response to discrimination. Based on self-reported caste, women were classified to three categories with increasing historical disadvantage: General, Other Backward Castes (OBC), and Scheduled Caste or Tribes (SC/ST). Socioeconomic class was determined using standardized

Kuppuswamy scale. Regression models for count and binomial data ...


Ensuring Adolescents In Uttar Pradesh Stay—And Learn—In School, Sapna Desai, Neelanjana Pandey Jan 2017

Ensuring Adolescents In Uttar Pradesh Stay—And Learn—In School, Sapna Desai, Neelanjana Pandey

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The Government of India has invested in improving education through two key programs for universal access to, and retention in, secondary education. In Uttar Pradesh, the Population Council found high levels of enrollment among younger adolescents, with limited gender disparity. Retention beyond elementary school, however, was low, and learning outcomes—literacy and numeracy—were poor. This policy brief focuses on two challenges to preparing Uttar Pradesh’s adolescents for the future: universal enrollment and retention in secondary school. The brief outlines recommendations that the government invest in secondary schooling, improve school facilities, support and evaluate quality teaching inputs and curriculum ...


Empowering Women And Addressing Marital Violence Through Self-Help Groups: Evidence From Rural Bihar, Shireen J. Jejeebhoy, K.G. Santhya, Rajib Acharya, A.J. Francis Zavier, Neelanjana Pandey, Santosh Kumar Singh, Komal Saxena, Shilpi Rampal, Sharmistha Basu, Aparajita Gogoi, Madhu Joshi Jan 2017

Empowering Women And Addressing Marital Violence Through Self-Help Groups: Evidence From Rural Bihar, Shireen J. Jejeebhoy, K.G. Santhya, Rajib Acharya, A.J. Francis Zavier, Neelanjana Pandey, Santosh Kumar Singh, Komal Saxena, Shilpi Rampal, Sharmistha Basu, Aparajita Gogoi, Madhu Joshi

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This report details results of a program implemented by the Population Council, together with the Centre for Catalyzing Change and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine: Do Kadam Barabari Ki Ore (Two Steps Towards Equality). The primary objective of the program was to test whether strengthening existing village-level self-help groups (SHGs); orienting members on violence against women and girls, and supporting them in prevention activities; and helping women who experience violence had changed their gender-role attitudes and reduced the experience of marital violence. On the whole, findings show that the program was acceptable and effective in many ways ...