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2006

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Articles 1 - 30 of 445

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Properties Of Corneal Receptors In A Teleost Fish, Paul J. Ashley, Lynne U. Sneddon, Catherine R. Mccrohan Dec 2006

Properties Of Corneal Receptors In A Teleost Fish, Paul J. Ashley, Lynne U. Sneddon, Catherine R. Mccrohan

Veterinary Science and Medicine Collection

Corneal receptors have not previously been identified in lower vertebrates. The present study describes the properties of trigeminal ganglion corneal receptors in a teleost fish, the rainbow trout (Oncoryhnchus mykiss). Out of 27 receptors, 7 were polymodal nociceptors, 6 were mechanothermal nociceptors, 2 were mechanochemical receptors and the largest group, 12, were only responsive to mechanical stimulation. No cold responsive receptors were found on the trout cornea. Mechanical and thermal thresholds were lower and receptive field diameters smaller than those of cutaneous trigeminal receptors in the trout, demonstrating greater sensitivity in the cornea. The lack of cold sensitive neurons may ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Dec 2006

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Bankruptcy Court Interpretation Of Chapter 12 Tax Rules, Neil E. Harl, Joseph A. Peiffer Dec 2006

Bankruptcy Court Interpretation Of Chapter 12 Tax Rules, Neil E. Harl, Joseph A. Peiffer

Agricultural Law Digest

The first Bankruptcy Court interpretation1 of the provisions in the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 20052 pertaining to the income tax treatment of asset dispositions in Chapter 12 bankruptcy cases3 has been published. The first case, involving a hog farmer from Northern Iowa who had encountered disease problems in the swine herd and a series of accidents (following a period of low hog prices), tested the income tax rules enacted in 2005 for Chapter 12 filers. Although the decision was favorable to the taxpayers on some issues, the opinion did not go as far ...


Index To Volume 17, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 2006

Index To Volume 17, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Identifying Economic Indicators For Ecosystem-Based Management:, Scott Norris Dec 2006

Identifying Economic Indicators For Ecosystem-Based Management:, Scott Norris

Publications

In America and across the world, the use of ecosystem-based management is

increasing. One of the primary challenges faced in using this method of management is the integration of economic data and environmental information. This report explores the use of a new tool for integrating economic data, ecosystem-based economic indicators, in a case study of Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve, an estuarine environment located in Monterey County, CA. Research and literature reviews were used to detail the economic activities of the area, in order to identify possible indicators,criteria for evaluating the indicators, and potential sources of indicator data ...


Living In A Land Of Fire, R. J. Whelan, P. Kanowski, M. Gill, A. Andersen Dec 2006

Living In A Land Of Fire, R. J. Whelan, P. Kanowski, M. Gill, A. Andersen

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Fires are an inherent part of the Australian environment. They cannot be prevented, but the risks they pose — to life, health, property and infrastructure, production systems, and to environment values — can be minimised through systematic evaluation and strategic planning and management. Fires have a fundamental and irreplaceable role in sustaining many of Australia’s natural ecosystems and ecological processes, and they are a valuable tool for achieving many land management objectives. However, if they are too frequent or too infrequent, too severe or too mild, or mistimed, they can erode ecosystem ‘health’ and biodiversity and compromise other land management goals ...


Wavelet-Based Functional Mixed Models To Characterize Population Heterogeneity In Accelerometer Profiles: A Case Study. , Jeffrey S. Morris, Cassandra Arroyo, Brent A. Coull, Louise M. Ryan, Steven L. Gortmaker Dec 2006

Wavelet-Based Functional Mixed Models To Characterize Population Heterogeneity In Accelerometer Profiles: A Case Study. , Jeffrey S. Morris, Cassandra Arroyo, Brent A. Coull, Louise M. Ryan, Steven L. Gortmaker

Jeffrey S. Morris

We present a case study illustrating the challenges of analyzing accelerometer data taken from a sample of children participating in an intervention study designed to increase physical activity. An accelerometer is a small device worn on the hip that records the minute-by-minute activity levels of the child throughout the day for each day it is worn. The resulting data are irregular functions characterized by many peaks representing short bursts of intense activity. We model these data using the wavelet-based functional mixed model. This approach incorporates multiple fixed effects and random effect functions of arbitrary form, the estimates of which are ...


Arkansas Animal Science Department Report 2006, Zelpha B. Johnson, D. Wayne Kellogg Dec 2006

Arkansas Animal Science Department Report 2006, Zelpha B. Johnson, D. Wayne Kellogg

Research Series

No abstract provided.


Fragmentation And Loss: A Gis View Of The Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat, Linda J. Wallers Dec 2006

Fragmentation And Loss: A Gis View Of The Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat, Linda J. Wallers

MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects

Landscapes are ever changing or being changed by natural forces or by human activities. The changes, over time, frequently result in more complex and fragmented landscape structures. Much of the fragmentation is due to human activities, primarily roads. Landscape indices, tools that identify and quantify landscape structure, provide statistical analysis of how the landscape is fragmented by roads and what, if any, habitat loss resulting from road-avoidance behavior might be present. The interpretation of the landscape indices can give scientists clues to where limited resources can be directed to preserve the habitat.

The desert tortoise habitat was chosen as the ...


Modeling Mohave Ground Squirrel Habitat, Ernesto Carreras-Díaz Dec 2006

Modeling Mohave Ground Squirrel Habitat, Ernesto Carreras-Díaz

MS GIS Program Major Individual Projects

The Mohave ground squirrel (Spermophilus mohavensis) is endemic to the northwestern region of the Mojave Desert. It is currently considered a threatened species by the state of California. Habitat loss due to human development within the species’ limited geographic area has been identified as a major contributor to the species’ threatened status. Habitat degradation due to livestock grazing, military training, and the increased abundance of invasive and non-invasive plant species are also serious conservation issues. It is important to be able to identify remaining areas of suitable habitat in order to conserve and manage viable Mohave ground squirrel populations. This ...


Intra-Industry Trade, Multilateral Trade Integration, And Invasive Species Risk, Anh T. Tu, John C. Beghin Dec 2006

Intra-Industry Trade, Multilateral Trade Integration, And Invasive Species Risk, Anh T. Tu, John C. Beghin

CARD Working Papers

We analyze the linkage between protectionism and invasive species (IS) hazard in the context of two-way trade and multilateral trade integration, two major features of real-world agricultural trade. Multilateral integration includes the joint reduction of tariffs and trade costs among trading partners. Multilateral trade integration is more likely to increase damages from IS than predicted by unilateral trade opening under the classic Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) framework because domestic production (the base susceptible to damages) is likely to increase with expanding export markets. A country integrating its trade with a partner characterized by relatively higher tariff and trade costs is also more ...


Uv-B Screening Potential Is Higher In Two Cosmopolitan Moss Species Than In A Co-Occurring Antarctic Endemic Moss – Implications Of Continuing Ozone Depletion, J. L. Dunn, Sharon A. Robinson Dec 2006

Uv-B Screening Potential Is Higher In Two Cosmopolitan Moss Species Than In A Co-Occurring Antarctic Endemic Moss – Implications Of Continuing Ozone Depletion, J. L. Dunn, Sharon A. Robinson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Concentrations of UV-B absorbing pigments and anthocyanins were measured in three moss species, over a summer growing season in Antarctica. Pigment concentrations were compared with a range of climatic variables to determine if there was evidence that pigments were induced by UV-B radiation, or other environmental parameters, and secondly if there were differences between species in their pigment responses. Significant seasonal differences in the potential UV-B screening pigments were found, with the two cosmopolitan species Bryum pseudotriquetrum and Ceratodon purpureus appearing better protected from the potentially damaging effects of ozone depletion than the Antarctic endemic Schistidium antarctici. Bryum pseudotriquetrum accumulated ...


Minerva 2006, The Honors College Dec 2006

Minerva 2006, The Honors College

Minerva

This issue of Minerva includes an article on the course "Honors for All Ages," an Honors course offered at Penobscot Valley Senior College; an interview with notable Honors alum, Bernard Lown; and a celebration of the life of former Honors Program Director, Ulrich Wicks.


Regression Cubes With Lossless Compression And Aggregation, Yixin Chen, Guozhu Dong, Jiawei Han, Jian Pei, Benjamin W. Wah, Jianyong Wang Dec 2006

Regression Cubes With Lossless Compression And Aggregation, Yixin Chen, Guozhu Dong, Jiawei Han, Jian Pei, Benjamin W. Wah, Jianyong Wang

Kno.e.sis Publications

As OLAP engines are widely used to support multidimensional data analysis, it is desirable to support in data cubes advanced statistical measures, such as regression and filtering, in addition to the traditional simple measures such as count and average. Such new measures will allow users to model, smooth, and predict the trends and patterns of data. Existing algorithms for simple distributive and algebraic measures are inadequate for efficient computation of statistical measures in a multidimensional space. In this paper, we propose a fundamentally new class of measures, compressible measures, in order to support efficient computation of the statistical models. For ...


Implicit Online Learning With Kernels, Li Cheng, S. V. N. Vishwanathan, Dale Schuurmans, Shaojun Wang, Terry Caelli Dec 2006

Implicit Online Learning With Kernels, Li Cheng, S. V. N. Vishwanathan, Dale Schuurmans, Shaojun Wang, Terry Caelli

Kno.e.sis Publications

We present two new algorithms for online learning in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. Our first algorithm, ILK (implicit online learning with kernels), employs a new, implicit update technique that can be applied to a wide variety of convex loss functions. We then introduce a bounded memory version, SILK (sparse ILK), that maintains a compact representation of the predictor without compromising solution quality, even in non-stationary environments. We prove loss bounds and analyze the convergence rate of both. Experimental evidence shows that our proposed algorithms outperform current methods on synthetic and real data.


Prior Experience As A Stimulus Category Confound: An Example Using Facial Expressions Of Emotion, Leah H. Somerville, Paul J. Whalen Dec 2006

Prior Experience As A Stimulus Category Confound: An Example Using Facial Expressions Of Emotion, Leah H. Somerville, Paul J. Whalen

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

Facial expressions of emotion represent a stimulus set widely used to assess a broad range of psychological processes. However, a consideration of systematic differences between expression categories, other than differences relating to characteristics of the expressions themselves, has remained largely unaddressed. By collecting experience rankings in a large sample of undergraduates, we observed that the amount of reported experience individuals have had with different facial expressions of emotion systematically differed between all expression categories. These findings shed light on the potential for identifying confounds inherent to comparing some stimulus categories and, in this case, may aid in the interpretation of ...


Impacts Of The Rapid Expansion In Corn-Based Ethanol Production On Crop Acreage Needs, Grain Prices, Basis Behaivor, And Implications For Corn Users, Robert Wisner Nov 2006

Impacts Of The Rapid Expansion In Corn-Based Ethanol Production On Crop Acreage Needs, Grain Prices, Basis Behaivor, And Implications For Corn Users, Robert Wisner

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Corn processors have been producing fuel ethanol for more than two decades, but several important events have generated an unprecedented expansion in the industry in the last two years. The combination of events included:


How High Will Corn Prices Have To Go?, Mike Duffy Nov 2006

How High Will Corn Prices Have To Go?, Mike Duffy

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The recent boom in ethanol production and the planned expansion could significantly shift the demand for corn. One of the major questions is how high the market price for corn will have to rise to pull enough acres out of other crops and into corn to satisfy this new demand.


Review Of Structure And Basement Control Of The Lapstone Structural Complex, Sydney Basin, Eastern New South Wales, C. L. Fergusson Nov 2006

Review Of Structure And Basement Control Of The Lapstone Structural Complex, Sydney Basin, Eastern New South Wales, C. L. Fergusson

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

In the western Sydney Basin, the Lapstone Structural Complex is a major north-trending association of monoclines and faults that forms the frontal ridge of the Blue Mountains Plateau. At Kurrajong Heights, the Lapstone Structural Complex is dominated by an east-facing monocline with a gently dipping central limb containing several different homoclinal segments. At the Hawkesbury Lookout section, strata are steeply dipping to near vertical along the main east-facing monocline. The Lapstone Structural Complex has been related to either steep east-dipping extensional faulting or to moderate to steep west-dipping contraction faults. Strike-slip displacement may also have played a role in its ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Nov 2006

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

Since the earliest days of like-kind exchanges,1 the line between real property and depreciable tangible personal property has been indistinct, at best.2 Interestingly, the dichotomy between real and personal property is a creature of the Treasury regulations,3 not of the statute. The statute merely refers to “property”4 other than for separate provisions for real property and personal property indicating that foreign property is not “like-kind” to property located in the United States.5 Actually, the relevant authority has identified three classes of property eligible for like-kind exchange treatment – (1) real property,6 (2) depreciable tangible personal ...


What Is "Like-Kind" For Real Estate?, Neil E. Harl Nov 2006

What Is "Like-Kind" For Real Estate?, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Since the earliest days of like-kind exchanges,1 the line between real property and depreciable tangible personal property has been indistinct, at best.2 Interestingly, the dichotomy between real and personal property is a creature of the Treasury regulations,3 not of the statute. The statute merely refers to “property”4 other than for separate provisions for real property and personal property indicating that foreign property is not “like-kind” to property located in the United States.5 Actually, the relevant authority has identified three classes of property eligible for like-kind exchange treatment – (1) real property,6 (2) depreciable tangible personal ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Nov 2006

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Health And Accident Insurance For "2%" S Corporation Shareholders, Neil E. Harl Nov 2006

Health And Accident Insurance For "2%" S Corporation Shareholders, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Recent developments1 have called into question the availability of the “above-the-line” deduction for federal income tax purposes for “2 percent” shareholders of S corporations under certain circumstances.2 The problem is particularly acute for sole shareholders of S corporations.3


{Ontology: Resource} X {Matching : Mapping} X {Schema : Instance} :: Components Of The Same Challenge, Amit P. Sheth Nov 2006

{Ontology: Resource} X {Matching : Mapping} X {Schema : Instance} :: Components Of The Same Challenge, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

Ontologies enable us to elevate syntactic and structural processing in an information system/Web to an information system/Web powered with semantic processing. Experience has shown that monolithic and tightly coupled approaches seldom succeed, and majority of information systems and applications will need to deal with plurality of ontologies in a loosely coupled environment (i.e., independently evolving ontologies and inter-ontology relationships, existence of different contexts for different users/applications etc.) Development of such loosely-coupled multi-ontology environments entails development of techniques for ontology mapping/alignment, multi-ontology query processing, and much more.


Active Semantic Electronic Medical Record, Amit P. Sheth, S. Agrawal, Jonathan Lathem, Nicole Oldham, H. Wingate, K. Gallagher Nov 2006

Active Semantic Electronic Medical Record, Amit P. Sheth, S. Agrawal, Jonathan Lathem, Nicole Oldham, H. Wingate, K. Gallagher

Kno.e.sis Publications

The healthcare industry is rapidly advancing towards the widespread use of electronic medical records systems to manage the increasingly large amount of patient data and reduce medical errors. In addition to patient data there is a large amount of data describing procedures, treatments, diagnoses, drugs, insurance plans, coverage, formularies and the relationships between these data sets. While practices have benefited from the use of EMRs, infusing these essential programs with rich domain knowledge and rules can greatly enhance their performance and ability to support clinical decisions. Active Semantic Electronic Medical Record (ASEMR) application discussed here uses Semantic Web technologies to ...


Discounting Spotted Apples: Investigating Consumers' Willingness To Accept Cosmetic Damage In An Organic Product, Chengyan Yue, Frode Alfnes, Helen H. Jensen Nov 2006

Discounting Spotted Apples: Investigating Consumers' Willingness To Accept Cosmetic Damage In An Organic Product, Chengyan Yue, Frode Alfnes, Helen H. Jensen

CARD Working Papers

Organic producers have limited methods of avoiding plant diseases that result in cosmetic damage to produce. Therefore, the appearance of organic produce is often less than perfect. We use an experimental auction to investigate how cosmetic damage affects consumers’ willingness to pay for organic apples. We find that 75% of the participants are willing to pay more for organic than for conventional apples given identical appearance. However, at the first sight of any imperfection in the appearance of the organic apples, this segment is significantly reduced. Furthermore, we find that there is a significant effect of interaction between cosmetic damage ...


An Analysis Of The Link Between Ethanol, Energy, And Crop Markets, Simla Tokgoz, Amani E. Elobeid Nov 2006

An Analysis Of The Link Between Ethanol, Energy, And Crop Markets, Simla Tokgoz, Amani E. Elobeid

CARD Working Papers

This study analyzes the impact of price shocks in three input and output markets critical to ethanol: gasoline, corn, and sugar. We investigate the impact of these shocks on ethanol and related agricultural markets in the United States and Brazil. We find that the composition of a country's vehicle fleet determines the direction of the response of ethanol consumption to changes in the gasoline price. We also find that a change in feedstock costs affects the profitability of ethanol producers and the domestic ethanol price. In Brazil, where two commodities compete for sugarcane, changes in the sugar market affect ...


The Long-Run Impact Of Corn-Based Ethanol On The Grain, Oilseed, And Livestock Sectors: A Preliminary Assessment, Amani E. Elobeid, Simla Tokgoz, Dermot J. Hayes, Bruce A. Babcock, Chad E. Hart Nov 2006

The Long-Run Impact Of Corn-Based Ethanol On The Grain, Oilseed, And Livestock Sectors: A Preliminary Assessment, Amani E. Elobeid, Simla Tokgoz, Dermot J. Hayes, Bruce A. Babcock, Chad E. Hart

CARD Briefing Papers

The ongoing growth of corn-based ethanol production raises some fundamental questions about what impact continued growth will have on U.S. and world agriculture. Estimates of the long-run potential for ethanol production can be made by calculating the corn price at which the incentive to expand ethanol production disappears. Under current ethanol tax policy, if the prices of crude oil, natural gas, and distillers grains stay at current levels, then the break-even corn price is $4.05 per bushel. A multi-commodity, multi-country system of integrated commodity models is used to estimate the impacts if we ever get to $4.05 ...


Policy Tools For Smart Growth In New England, New England Environmental Finance Center Nov 2006

Policy Tools For Smart Growth In New England, New England Environmental Finance Center

Smart Growth

Across New England communities have been experiencing a rapid outward surge of development away from our community and downtown centers. Effects of sprawl include a loss of wildlife habitat, farm and timber lands; increased costs of community services and higher taxes; auto-dependency, longer commutes, and increased congestion; increases in air and water pollution; a sedentary lifestyle and increased obesity; and losses to one’s sense of place and social ties.

State-level responses to sprawl have surfaced throughout New England in recent years. This report describes 11 examples of these responses, representing all six New England states and a diversity of ...


Effects And Value Of Verifiable Information In A Controversial Market: Evidence From Lab Auctions Of Genetically Modified Food, Matthew Rousu, Wallace Huffman, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene Nov 2006

Effects And Value Of Verifiable Information In A Controversial Market: Evidence From Lab Auctions Of Genetically Modified Food, Matthew Rousu, Wallace Huffman, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

Food products containing genetically modified (GM) ingredients have entered the market over the past decade. The biotech industry and environmental groups have disseminating conflicting private information about GM foods. This paper develops a unique methodology for valuing independent third-party information in such a setting and applies this method to consumers’ willingness to pay for food products that might be GM. Data are collected from real consumers in an auction market setting with randomized information and labeling treatments. The average value of third-party information per lab participant is small, but the public good value across U.S. consumers is shown to ...