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Life Sciences

1991

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Ua66/6/3/1 Biennial Report, Kentucky Gamma, Alpha Epsilon Delta Dec 1991

Ua66/6/3/1 Biennial Report, Kentucky Gamma, Alpha Epsilon Delta

Student Organizations

Biennial report created by and about the Kentucky Gamma Chapter of Alpha Epsilon Delta premedical honor society sponsored by WKU Biology.


Ua12/2/1 All Creatures Great & Small, Wku Student Affairs Dec 1991

Ua12/2/1 All Creatures Great & Small, Wku Student Affairs

WKU Archives Records

Special magazine edition of the College Heights Herald:

  • Hadley, Kim. Each Day is Something Extra – Reg Laswell, AIDS, HIV
  • Baldwin, Paul. You Have to Love Animals to Work Here – Bowling Green/Warren County Animal Shelter



Health Insurance For Employees, Neil E. Harl Dec 1991

Health Insurance For Employees, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

The rising cost of medical and hospital care and the cost of insurance coverage have led to increased interest in ways to make such costs fully deductible without the benefits being includible in income for the taxpayer. Through 1991 (and the first six months of 1992 if the President signs the bill extending the deduction through June 1992), a 25 percent deduction is allowed for health and accident amounts for self-employed individuals provided — (1) the taxpayer is not eligible to participate in any subsidized health plan maintained by an employer for the taxpayer or the taxpayer's spouse and (2 ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Dec 1991

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Cumulative Index: Vol 1, Nos. 13–24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 1991

Cumulative Index: Vol 1, Nos. 13–24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Economic Situation For Iowa Farmers, Michael Duffy Dec 1991

Economic Situation For Iowa Farmers, Michael Duffy

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The 1990s will be a period of uncertainty for Iowa farmers. With the uncertainty will come challenges and opportunities. The farmer who is able to adjust and successfully deal with the changes will be profitable. Those who do not will either just hold on or will exit farming. This paper focuses on three areas that will impact the economic situation of Iowa farmers in the 1990s. Other areas could be developed and the ones presented will not be covered in depth. The idea is to discuss three of the major phenomena that will impact the economic situation of Iowa farmers ...


A General Equilibrium Model Of Agricultural Trade: An Intertemporal Optimizing Approach With Implications For Tariffication, Walter Enders Dec 1991

A General Equilibrium Model Of Agricultural Trade: An Intertemporal Optimizing Approach With Implications For Tariffication, Walter Enders

GATT Research Papers

The paper develops a theoretical model such that the performance of the macroeconomy is consistent with optimizing the behavior of rational individuals. It demonstrates that, in principle, it is possible to convert existing trade barriers into tariffs by using the price-gap method. In practice, however, tariff and nontariff barriers are not equivalent; replacing policies that result in a price gap of x percent with a tariff of x percent will generally yield different trade volumes. U.S. farm exports will initially decline in anticipation of a reduction in foreign trade barriers. Current demand for U.S. agricultural exports is likely ...


Specifying Interdatabase Dependencies In A Multidatabase Environment, Marek Rusinkiewicz, Amit P. Sheth, George Karabatis Dec 1991

Specifying Interdatabase Dependencies In A Multidatabase Environment, Marek Rusinkiewicz, Amit P. Sheth, George Karabatis

Kno.e.sis Publications

The problem of interdatabase dependencies and the effect they have on applications updating interdependent data are addressed. A model that allows specifications of constraints among multiple databases in a declarative fashion is proposed. The separation of the constraints from the application programs facilitates the maintenance of data constraints and allows flexibility in their implementation. It allows investigation of various mechanisms for enforcing the constraints, independently of the application programs. By grouping the constraints together, it is possible to check their completeness and discover possible contradictions among them. The concepts of polytransactions, which use interdatabase dependencies to generate a series of ...


Characteristics Of The Crop-Paulownia System In China, Qingbin Wang, Jason F. Shogren Dec 1991

Characteristics Of The Crop-Paulownia System In China, Qingbin Wang, Jason F. Shogren

CARD Working Papers

This paper reviews the crop-paulownia (Paulownia elongata) system in China. We focus on the system's characteristics and the impact of government policies on its development. When paulownia is intercropped with winter wheat, their different growth periods and root distributions result in more efficient use of water and other limited resources. In addition to timber production, paulownia trees on cropland enhance the microclimate and therefore improve wheat yield and quality. Intercropping also stabilizes farm income and reduces farm risk by diversifying agricultural activities and providing windbreaks and shelters that stabilize crop production over time. China's rural reform initiated in ...


Handling Commodity Futures Transactions, Neil E. Harl Nov 1991

Handling Commodity Futures Transactions, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

In the same manner as other merchants and manufacturers, farm and ranch taxpayers buy and sell commodity futures to hedge against fluctuating prices. Likewise, farm and ranch taxpayers buy and sell commodity futures as speculators. The principal matter of concern from an income tax perspective in the farm and ranch area is the line between hedging and speculation.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Nov 1991

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Generation Skipping—Planning Principles, Neil E. Harl Nov 1991

Generation Skipping—Planning Principles, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

For may farm and ranch families, generation skipping is not part of their estate plans. However, for those wishing to limit the right of one or more succeeding generations to manage the property or the right to dispose of the property, generation skipping may figure into the estate planning effort. For the latter group, several additional guidelines or planning principles should be considered.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Nov 1991

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Efficient Algorithm For Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Problems, Aziz Bouzaher, John B. Braden, Gary V. Johnson, Susan E. Murley Nov 1991

Efficient Algorithm For Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Problems, Aziz Bouzaher, John B. Braden, Gary V. Johnson, Susan E. Murley

CARD Working Papers

A dynamic programming algorithm is proposed for a class of nonpoint source pollution control problems. The inherently combinatorial nature of these problems--stemming from the discrete nature of the decision variables, which are production and conservation practices--gives them a special knapsack structure with multiple right hand sides and additional multiple choice constraints.

This paper focuses on the computer implementation of this algorithm and its numerical testing and behavior compared with standard integer programming codes. The results show the robustness and relative efficiency of the approach.

Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that dynamic programming can be used to generate sensitivity analysis information for ...


The Influence Of Location On Productivity: Manufacturing Technology In Rural And Urban Areas, Sheila A. Martin, Richard Mchugh, Stanley R. Johnson Nov 1991

The Influence Of Location On Productivity: Manufacturing Technology In Rural And Urban Areas, Sheila A. Martin, Richard Mchugh, Stanley R. Johnson

CARD Working Papers

Policies to counter the growing discrepancy between economic opportunities in rural and urban areas have focused predominantly on expanding manufacturing in rural areas. Fundamental to the design of these strategies are the relative costs of production and productivity of manufacturing in rural and urban areas. This study aims to develop information that can be used to assess the productivity of manufacturing in rural and urban areas. Production functions are estimated in the meat products and household furniture industries to investigate selected aspects of the effect of rural, small urban, and metropolitan location on productivity. The results show that the effect ...


An Analysis Of The Ec Commission Plan For Cap Reform, Patrick C. Westhoff Nov 1991

An Analysis Of The Ec Commission Plan For Cap Reform, Patrick C. Westhoff

GATT Research Papers

The Commission of the European Community has proposed a restructuring of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that is independent of the ongoing General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations. This study analyzes the proposal in terms of the flexibility it would grant EC negotiators at the GATT. The results indicate that adopting the proposal would sharply reduce the volume of EC cereal, meat, and dairy product exports. EC negotiators at the GATT would be able to offer significant reductions in export subsidies, a primary concern of the United States and other exporting countries. By reducing production, the proposal would ...


Consumption Of Solid Food By Suckling Pigs: Individual Variation And Relation To Weight Gain, Edmond A. Pajor, David Fraser, Donald L. Kramer Nov 1991

Consumption Of Solid Food By Suckling Pigs: Individual Variation And Relation To Weight Gain, Edmond A. Pajor, David Fraser, Donald L. Kramer

Feeding Behavior Collection

Individual daily consumption of supplementary solid food ('creep feed') was measured from Day 10 to weaning at Day 28 for 39 piglets in four litters, and its relationship to body weight and weight gain up to Day 42 was investigated. Individual consumption was measured by combining the weight of the feed removed from the dispensers (monitored electronically) and a video image of piglet activity at the feeder. Creep feed consumption varied greatly, both between and within litters. On average, pigs began feeding on Day 12 (range Day 10-28), intake was relatively low (usually < 5 g day ‒1) until Day 20 but increased considerably ...


Generation Skipping—The $1 Million Exemption, Neil E. Harl Oct 1991

Generation Skipping—The $1 Million Exemption, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

For most farm and ranch families, the most significant feature of the generation skipping transfer tax (GSTT) is the $1 million exemption per transferor. An exemption of $2 million was available through 1989 for transfers to grandchildren.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Oct 1991

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


1991 Scholars And Artists Bibliography, Michael Schwartz Library, Cleveland State University, Friends Of The Michael Schwartz Library Oct 1991

1991 Scholars And Artists Bibliography, Michael Schwartz Library, Cleveland State University, Friends Of The Michael Schwartz Library

Scholars and Artists Bibliographies

This bibliography was created for the annual Friends of the Michael Schwartz Library Scholars and Artists Reception, recognizing scholarly and creative achievements of Cleveland State University faculty, staff and emeriti


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Oct 1991

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Generation Skipping—Transfers Subject To Tax, Neil E. Harl Oct 1991

Generation Skipping—Transfers Subject To Tax, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

For centuries, generation skipping has been utilized by wealthy property owners and those lacking confidence in succeeding generations to manage and conserve family wealth, at least to the extent allowed by the rule against perpetuities. Until 1976, the U.S. federal estate and gift tax system did not take particular note of generation skipping as property owners were free to establish generation skipping arrangements with the usual federal estate or gift tax consequences as to the transferor, but with no further transfer tax consequence until gift by or death of the holders of the remainder interest. The Tax Reform Act ...


Santa Clara Magazine, Volume 34 Number 1, Fall 1991, Santa Clara University Oct 1991

Santa Clara Magazine, Volume 34 Number 1, Fall 1991, Santa Clara University

Santa Clara Magazine

12 - FROM SLAVERY TO SAINTHOOD? With the impending canonization of Pierre Toussaint, many feel the Church is finally beginning to recognize the contributions of its African-American worshippers. By Kathy Daile-Molle '85

18 - AND THEY SAID IT WOULDN'T LAST 4-Remembering Dave 2 Letters to the Editor 4 Santa Clara Today 10 Santa Clara Sports 32 Alumni Class Notes 42 University Calendar Tales of freshman roommates who beat the odds and stayed friends. By Kathryn Bold '81

22 - HISPANIC CALIFORNIANS AND CATHOLIC HIGHER EDUCATION The second of a two-part article featuring the diaries of a Hispanic student who attended Santa Clara ...


The Lithuanian Agricultural And Food Industry: The Setting For Economic Reforms, Natalija Kazlauskiene, William H. Meyers, Kyle J. Stephens Oct 1991

The Lithuanian Agricultural And Food Industry: The Setting For Economic Reforms, Natalija Kazlauskiene, William H. Meyers, Kyle J. Stephens

BALTIC Reports

After parliamentary elections and the formation of a new government, Lithuania declared the restoration of its independence from the USSR on March 11, 1990. Although Lithuania was not recognized as a separate state by the USSR and the world community until after the failed Moscow putsch of August 1991, the process of economic and political transformation began in 1990. The goal of the reforms is a democratic political system and a market-oriented economy. The agricultural and food industry has been emphasized in these reforms because of its historical significance and its current importance in the national economy. This report provides ...


Implications Of A Production Entitlement Guarantee (Peg) Program For World Commodity Markets, 1992-2000, Patrick C. Westhoff, Michael D. Helmar, Deborah L. Stephens Oct 1991

Implications Of A Production Entitlement Guarantee (Peg) Program For World Commodity Markets, 1992-2000, Patrick C. Westhoff, Michael D. Helmar, Deborah L. Stephens

GATT Research Papers

A Production Entitlement Guarantee (PEG) program would replace existing agricultural policies with a program that would allow governments to subsidize only a fixed proportion of each farmer's historical production. World supply and demand conditions would determine the price farmers receive for any production in excess of the guaranteed PEG quality because all import barriers and export subsidies would be eliminated. A dynamic multicountry, multicommodity model is used to evaluate the impact of replacing current agricultural policies in the United States, the European Community, Japan, and Canada with a PEG program. For all countries and commodities, the guaranteed PEG quantity ...


Optimal Trade Policies For A Developing Country Under Uncertainty, Eun Kwan Choi, Harvey E. Lapan Oct 1991

Optimal Trade Policies For A Developing Country Under Uncertainty, Eun Kwan Choi, Harvey E. Lapan

GATT Research Papers

This paper investigates optimal trade policies for a developing, small open economy that faces international price uncertainly. Trade taxes are used to finance provision of a public good, which enters the utility function of consumers. If demands for private goods are independent of the public good, the optimal composite tariff dominates the optimal quota. If the optimal state-contingent tariff increases with the foreign price, the optimal specific tariff also dominates the optimal quota, regardless of risk aversion. However, the ranking of the optimal specific tariff and the optimal quota generally depends on risk attitudes as well as ordinal preferences.


Implications Of A Gatt Agreement On Agriculture: The Known, The Unknown And The Unknowable, Patrick C. Westhoff Oct 1991

Implications Of A Gatt Agreement On Agriculture: The Known, The Unknown And The Unknowable, Patrick C. Westhoff

GATT Research Papers

International negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) seek to set rules governing trade in agricultural products as well as a wide variety of other products and services. The outcome of the negotiations is uncertain at this time, but it seems that if there is to be an agreement for agriculture, it will require countries to make modest reductions in internal support measures, export subsidies, and import barriers. The consequences of a GATT agreement for world agriculture cannot be known with certainty, especially if the specific terms of an agreement remain unknown. Research conducted by the Center ...


Analysis Of Agricultural And Food Price Policy In Haiti: An Adaptive Policy Simulation Model, Helen H. Jensen, Kamal Banskota, Stanley R. Johnson, Justo Manrique Oct 1991

Analysis Of Agricultural And Food Price Policy In Haiti: An Adaptive Policy Simulation Model, Helen H. Jensen, Kamal Banskota, Stanley R. Johnson, Justo Manrique

CARD Technical Reports

In early 1986, the government of Haiti began a series of economic reforms in agriculture designed to reduce the degree of government price intervention, to increase efficiencies in the agricultural sector, and to reduce restrictions on the quantities of food imports. The critical extent of hunger and malnutrition in Haiti has underscored concerns by USAID and other donor organizations for the need to consider the impacts of agricultural policies and food aid on the agricultural sector, government finances, and food availability.

The 1987 economic reforms eliminated export taxes (on coffee), broke up government trading monoppolies, and removed most quantity restrictions ...


The Structure Of Ec Agriculture: Implications For Cap Reform And Gatt, Patrick C. Westhoff, David Hennessy Oct 1991

The Structure Of Ec Agriculture: Implications For Cap Reform And Gatt, Patrick C. Westhoff, David Hennessy

GATT Research Papers

Statistics demonstrate the diversity of EC agriculture. Agriculture in southern Europe is characterized by many small farms, most of which emphasize crop production. In northern Europe, farms are larger and more likely to emphasize livestock production. More than 70 percent of all EC farms are in southern Europe, but northern Europe accounts for more than 60 percent of all agricultural production and public expenditures on agriculture. The proposed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform would reduce agricultural support prices and impose additional supply control measures. Small-scale producers would be exempt from supply control provisions and would receive direct payments to compensate ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Sep 1991

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.