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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Formal And Informal Labeling Of Adolescents: The Consequences Of Cumulative Disadvantage On Deviance During Emerging Adulthood, Chijioke Onyekonwu Aug 2022

Formal And Informal Labeling Of Adolescents: The Consequences Of Cumulative Disadvantage On Deviance During Emerging Adulthood, Chijioke Onyekonwu

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Despite the recent developments in labeling theory, there are still a lot of gaps in research on this theory. To begin with, studies continue to attach too much attention to the effects of formal labeling to the neglect of informal labeling. Secondly, prior research has not paid full attention to a variety of mediating factors involved in the relationship between informal labeling, formal labeling and delinquency.

This study seeks to address these limitations by investigating the overall effects that formal and informal labeling has on young people while considering the differential impact of mediating variables. The data for the study ...


Defining The Police Mission, Devin Neal Jul 2022

Defining The Police Mission, Devin Neal

Criminology Student Work

Directives and duties of law enforcement have changed drastically over time. Today there is little agreement within society regarding what is needed and wanted from police. Even within the police ranks, it is unclear whether there is a single view of what “good” police work is (and if so, what that looks like). An officer may learn what “good” policing is from numerous channels including departmental missions, informal cultures, personal characteristics, and community contexts. Officers’ opinions may also derive from personal beliefs about policing, personality traits, and/or attitudes toward police work. The purpose of this study is to determine ...


Cities Of God Under Occupation: Settler Colonial Practices And Pacification In The Favelas Of Rio De Janeiro And The Occupied Palestinian Territories, Amanda Pimenta Da Silva Jul 2022

Cities Of God Under Occupation: Settler Colonial Practices And Pacification In The Favelas Of Rio De Janeiro And The Occupied Palestinian Territories, Amanda Pimenta Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

The 2002 film ‘City of God’ tells an anecdotal story of violence in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, and is a reminder that the societies we tend to take for granted can actually be a luxury. The film portrays the daily life of the peripheries of Rio and its relation with drug trafficking, crime, and poverty, and how it has deteriorated into a war zone so dangerous that anyone risk being shot to death. Thousands of miles away from the Brazilian slums there is another so-called city of God, or the city chosen by God to be the home ...


The Apostrophic Impasse: Diacritical Remarks On The Stories Of International Law, Legal Decolonial Genealogy And Antony Anghie’S Historiography, Britt L.A.Q. (Haadiya) Hendrix Jun 2022

The Apostrophic Impasse: Diacritical Remarks On The Stories Of International Law, Legal Decolonial Genealogy And Antony Anghie’S Historiography, Britt L.A.Q. (Haadiya) Hendrix

Theses and Dissertations

The (hi)stories of international law have strengthened the tentacles of coloniality in the legal regime as they continue to taunt the precarious lifeworlds of people, our planet and social imaginaries of an otherwise. The flow of coloniality has similarly rematerialized in decolonial legal theories and the postcolonial historiographical accounts of international law. I intend to demonstrate this colonial revival in the groundbreaking text of Antony Anghie Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Creation of International Law (2005) which challenged the (hi)stories of traditional jurisprudence. The latter was not necessarily a rejection nor negation of Western thought, because I argue that ...


Facebook For Law Enforcement, Stephen Carlisle Jun 2022

Facebook For Law Enforcement, Stephen Carlisle

Certified Public Manager® Applied Research

This article introduces what some law enforcement agencies have done to mitigate trust issues by utilizing social media as a form of community policing. There is a silent majority out there that support law enforcement. As a pioneer of using Facebook as a platform for community policing, taking criticism from my law enforcement peers was unavoidable. However, these same peers would turn to Facebook shortly after for personal and professional use. The key is to reach out and to educate the public to help gain trust in law enforcement, and using modern social media platforms to reach the masses only ...


Nudging Users Towards Data Privacy, Ossama Hanafy Jun 2022

Nudging Users Towards Data Privacy, Ossama Hanafy

Theses and Dissertations

The internet challenges users' privacy in unpreceded ways. Technology companies collect massive amounts of data from online users. They use algorithms that can track and analyze each activity by each user. Even though many users worry about their online privacy, they keep revealing more personal data. This study explores the causes behind online privacy erosion. While tech companies and governments aim to achieve economic and political goals, users are motivated by social motives. Online Privacy erosion leads to many harms to individuals and societies while collecting, processing, and disseminating data. Moreover, this study argues that the current legal approaches, especially ...


Criminal Justice And Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University Jun 2022

Criminal Justice And Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News

  • GS Criminal Justice Named #2 by Technology For You


Utilizing Organizational Theory To Improve Education Opportunities In Correctional Facilities, Kelly Sullenberger Jun 2022

Utilizing Organizational Theory To Improve Education Opportunities In Correctional Facilities, Kelly Sullenberger

The Scholarship Without Borders Journal

With 2.3 million people incarcerated, the United States is one of the most highly concentrated prison systems in the world (Sawyer & Wagner, 2020). In order to be in a position to improve that, the system of incarceration needs to genuinely care and invest in the lives of the inmates living in these facilities. The opportunity to receive an education is one way that allows for true rehabilitation and often can give an inmate a greater sense of purpose. This paper examines current programs in California that allow inmates to work towards and/or receive a bachelor’s degree while ...


The Cop In Your Head: Criminal Justice Education, Liberalism, And The Carceral State, Nicole Haiber Jun 2022

The Cop In Your Head: Criminal Justice Education, Liberalism, And The Carceral State, Nicole Haiber

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis centers policing ideology in higher education and the way it is constructed and fortified through criminal justice programs. In 1968, the Law Enforcement Education Program (LEEP) made funds available to police officers to attend college and awarded grants to universities to create criminal justice programs. The program effectively funneled federal money into the project of professionalizing the police and developed criminal justice as a field devoted to conducting crime research, as defined by the federal government. Criminal justice programs exploded across the country with the availability of LEEP funding, and the City University of New York’s (CUNY ...


Investigating The Mechanisms Driving Mercury Reduction And Emissions In Soil, Hamil Patel Jun 2022

Investigating The Mechanisms Driving Mercury Reduction And Emissions In Soil, Hamil Patel

Student Theses

The water-induced emission of mercury from soil has been studied, but a complete understanding of the mechanisms driving mercury reduction and emission in soil has not been reached. The current understanding is an immediate expulsion of soil gaseous mercury upon water treatment and an upward transport of dissolved soil ionic mercury as the water evaporates. We analyzed emissions from several types of samples using various methods to further our understanding on the mechanisms involved. Light-induced emissions from aqueous samples of humic acid (HA) spiked with mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2) showed that at higher concentrations of HA, less mercury was ...


Online Legal Help-Seeking For Victims Of Intimate Partner Violence During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Christina S. Walker Jun 2022

Online Legal Help-Seeking For Victims Of Intimate Partner Violence During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Christina S. Walker

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Legal, court, and criminal justice professionals regularly navigate court procedures and processes through online portals. They know where to locate applicable court rules, such as a specific section on a court website or a departmental contact. However, these tasks can be extremely daunting for laypersons seeking court assistance, especially for victims of violence who have limited time away from the abuser. To determine how state judicial branches make information available about protective order procedures and general information to a layperson, especially to victims of intimate partner violence, this study assessed court websites of five states where intimate partner violence (IPV ...


The Influence Of Parole Case Characteristics And Construal Level On Parole Decisions And Perceived Humanness, Yi Sin Goh May 2022

The Influence Of Parole Case Characteristics And Construal Level On Parole Decisions And Perceived Humanness, Yi Sin Goh

Student Theses

Despite the low rate of discretionary parole release in New York, much is still unknown about the processes underpinning parole decisions. The present paper delves into how aggravating and mitigating parole case characteristics (e.g. institutional behavior) relate to parole decisions and the perceived humanness of parole applicants. The paper also examines how construal level can moderate the above relationships. Finally, a moderated mediation model outlining the pattern of these relationships is posited and tested. 122 New York residents were recruited online and randomly assigned to read either an abstractly or concretely construed transcript for an interview with a parole ...


Degree Of Satisfaction Of Elderly About The Services Provided To Them In Social Care Houses In White Beds Association, Yousef Mohammed Al-Shurman, Ferdous Hasan Omari May 2022

Degree Of Satisfaction Of Elderly About The Services Provided To Them In Social Care Houses In White Beds Association, Yousef Mohammed Al-Shurman, Ferdous Hasan Omari

Al-Balqa Journal for Research and Studies البلقاء للبحوث والدراسات

This study aims at identifying the degree of satisfaction of the elderly about the (social, health, entertainment, psychological) services provided to them in social care houses. The sample of the study includes all residents of the White Beds Association for the care of the elderly in Amman. The researcher designed a questionnaire to use in the interviews with the elderly. The questionnaire has four items, and each item includes a group of questions about the service provided to them. The researcher interviewed all the members of the White Beds Association, whose health condition allowed this, (75 elderly people: 44 men ...


Decarceration's Inside Partners, Seema Saifee May 2022

Decarceration's Inside Partners, Seema Saifee

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article examines a hidden phenomenon in criminal punishment. People in prison, during their incarceration, have made important, sometimes extraordinary, strides toward reducing prison populations. In fact, stakeholders in many corners, from policymakers to researchers to abolitionists, have harnessed the legal and conceptual strategies generated inside the walls to pursue decarceral strategies outside the walls that were once considered impossible. Despite this outside use of inside moves, legal scholarship has directed little attention to theorizing the potential of looking to people on the inside as partners in the long-term project of decarceration.

Building on the change-making agency and revolutionary ideation ...


Reported Experiences With Plea Bargaining: A Theoretical Analysis Of The Legal Standard, Krystia Reed, Allison Franz, Vincent Calderon, Alisha Meschkow, Valerie F. Reyna May 2022

Reported Experiences With Plea Bargaining: A Theoretical Analysis Of The Legal Standard, Krystia Reed, Allison Franz, Vincent Calderon, Alisha Meschkow, Valerie F. Reyna

West Virginia Law Review

Although the majority of criminal cases in the United States are settled with plea bargains, very little empirical evidence exists to explain how defendants make life-altering plea bargain decisions. This Article first discusses the psychologicalfactors involved in plea bargaining decisions. Next, this Article empirically examines the factors involved in plea decisions of real-life defendants within the legal and psychological contexts. Finally, this Article highlights the psychological issues that need to be further examined in pleabargaining literature.


America: The World’S Police—How The Defund The Police Movement Frames An Analysis For Defunding The Military, Anya Kreider May 2022

America: The World’S Police—How The Defund The Police Movement Frames An Analysis For Defunding The Military, Anya Kreider

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

In this article, the author examines the tenets of the Defund the Police movement and applies them to the American military to make the argument that not only should the police be defunded, but so should the American military. The purpose of this piece is to push the conversation regarding policing beyond American borders to examine American influence internationally. The article incorporates various Critical Race Theories to explore the intersection of policing and the military. The Defund the Police Movement also provides a framework for critiquing the American military because the American police and military are inextricably connected. Part I ...


Predictors Of Intensive Supervision Placement Among Committed Youths Within A Maximum-Security Residential Facility, Tiffany Harris May 2022

Predictors Of Intensive Supervision Placement Among Committed Youths Within A Maximum-Security Residential Facility, Tiffany Harris

Master's Theses

Some youths committed to juvenile justice residential facilities struggle to adjust and may exhibit institutional rule violations that necessitate an intensive supervision placement (ISP). ISPs require substantial institutional resources and may result in additional negative outcomes for these committed youths (e.g., additional charges, longer commitment). To date, only two studies have examined factors that place committed youths at greater risk of ISPs, and it was found that commitment length, number of arrests, age at admission, impulsive/reactive and psychopathic traits, and anger-irritability were predictive of ISPs (Taylor et al., 2007; Butler et al., 2007). The present study considered additional ...


The Effect Of Peer Relationships And Cyberbullying Victimization On Young Adults' Propensity To Cyberbully, Taaj Weraphorn Orr May 2022

The Effect Of Peer Relationships And Cyberbullying Victimization On Young Adults' Propensity To Cyberbully, Taaj Weraphorn Orr

Dissertations and Theses

Technology has deeply engrained itself in our daily lives, leading us to develop a reliance on social media to interact with those in our inner circle and stay connected with what happens around the world. However, with all these changes in technology and how we socialize with one another, we find ourselves exposed to the dangers of cybercrime, cyberbullying. General Strain Theory (GST) could be a useful framework for understanding why cyberbullying exists and why it may be difficult to address it. I collected data through a survey, after recruiting college students, and conducted correlation, mediation, and multiple regression analyses ...


Covid-19 Behind Bars In The Mountain West, Dielle T. Telada, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. May 2022

Covid-19 Behind Bars In The Mountain West, Dielle T. Telada, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Criminal Justice

Due to overcrowding, inadequate healthcare, systemic neglect, and violence in U.S. carceral (i.e. jails or prisons) and immigration detention centers, these facilities are a hot spot for the spread of COVID-19. In March 2020, the UCLA Law “Covid Behind Bars Data Project” began tracking official agency websites for self-reported data of COVID-19 across prisons, jails, and other detention facilities in the U.S. The number of COVID-19 cases, deaths, and tests performed from 50 state correctional agencies, the District of Columbia’s Department of Corrections, the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE ...


Rescue Or Divert: The Politics Of Anti-Trafficking, Carceral Reform, And Sex Work, Anjali Mahajan May 2022

Rescue Or Divert: The Politics Of Anti-Trafficking, Carceral Reform, And Sex Work, Anjali Mahajan

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Calls for criminal justice reform in the United States have multiplied in recent years, yet advocates rarely discuss the role of punitive legislation surrounding the sex industry. Today’s anti-trafficking movement is one notorious for conflating human trafficking with consensual sex work, and it has seen striking success in pushing forward a narrative around the need for rescue. Pennsylvania—with the harshest laws governing the purchase and sale of sex in the country—serves as a useful case study for understanding the relationship between the anti-trafficking movement and the movement for sex workers’ rights. Through a comprehensive review of legislation ...


Comparing And Contrasting Campus Sexual Assault Policies And Definitions From Universities In The Southeastern Conference, Remy Heinen May 2022

Comparing And Contrasting Campus Sexual Assault Policies And Definitions From Universities In The Southeastern Conference, Remy Heinen

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the campus sexual assault policies and definitions in place at the 14 universities in the Southeastern Conference in order to compare and contrast them. Data was collected from each university’s online resources regarding sexual misconduct and an instrument based on a 2014 White House Task Force was used to compare the schools’ definitions and policies.


The Well-Being Outcomes Of Sexual Assault Survivors After Sexual Assault Kit Examinations, Brianna N. Zimmer May 2022

The Well-Being Outcomes Of Sexual Assault Survivors After Sexual Assault Kit Examinations, Brianna N. Zimmer

Honors Thesis

This study examined how the quality of a sexual assault medical forensic exam, or SAMFE, affects the well-being outcomes of sexual assault victims. A SAMFE is used to collect forensic evidence and provide comprehensive care to victims. Furthermore, SAMFEs are typically collected by a specially trained Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) or medical practitioner. It was hypothesized that a more trauma-informed and victim-centered SAMFE allowed victims to have better physical, psychological, and social well-being outcomes. In this study, a victim’s well-being outcomes were measured through the dependent variables of the TSC-40, Brief-COPE, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory scales. Furthermore, the ...


Antitrust Philosophy And Its Impact On Rural Industry, Logan Gary Johnson May 2022

Antitrust Philosophy And Its Impact On Rural Industry, Logan Gary Johnson

Honors Thesis

The United States is a nation steeped in values, and tradition. One of these values has always been the preservation of competition in the pursuit of liberty. The philosophical backing of America’s founding can be traced back to a handful of European thinkers, most notably John Locke. The connection between Locke, America’s founding, and continued struggles with antitrust enforcement are worthy of exploration. Though likely unintentional, rural communities have been left to deal with the impacts of weak antitrust enforcement in a number of key sectors. Chief of which is Agriculture. Consolidation is the new norm, with each ...


The Spatial Associations Between Crime And Economy In Chicago 2015-2020, Hongtao Huang May 2022

The Spatial Associations Between Crime And Economy In Chicago 2015-2020, Hongtao Huang

Honors Capstones

The severity of the crime is often the most intuitive reflection of whether a region is safe and the top factor for the public when evaluating a region. Economist's list of the safest cities in seven major North American cities, Chicago was ranked at six, just above Dallas. Chicago scored the lowest in personal security, which is closely tied to the crime. Against the backdrop of higher unemployment and prices, this study is interested in how property-based crimes are related to the economic decline in Chicago geographically. The study used the heterogeneity analysis tool Geodetector to investigate the correlation ...


On The Intersections Of Childhood Maltreatment, Self-Control, And Behavioral Outcomes Across The Life-Course, Ameleigh Bippen May 2022

On The Intersections Of Childhood Maltreatment, Self-Control, And Behavioral Outcomes Across The Life-Course, Ameleigh Bippen

Honors Theses

Childhood abuse and neglect are highly deleterious experiences that a number of children continue to encounter. The purpose of the current discussion is to examine the impact of childhood abuse and neglect on the growth and development of self-control in early childhood. In service of this goal, several methods were employed, including a review of the historical and current research on the development of self-control. In addition to this, specific scientific theories and their advancements were analyzed to provide further insight into the connection between poor impulse regulation (and decision-making) and downstream linkages with criminal offending. Perhaps not surprisingly, evidence ...


Lawyers That (Say They) Listen: An Exploratory Study Into Law Firms With Listening Specific Branding, Kacey Henriques May 2022

Lawyers That (Say They) Listen: An Exploratory Study Into Law Firms With Listening Specific Branding, Kacey Henriques

Honors Theses

The following investigation attempts to explore the communication dynamics between law firms and their clients. As shown in this research, clients tend to make note of poor communication skills, specifically listening skills, when they interact with attorneys. In an attempt to appeal to clients who have had negative interactions in respect to listening, several law firms across the country are utilizing branding that stresses their strengths in listening (what I term listening specific branding). In the investigation to come, three law firms are analyzed that utilize this type of branding. Additionally, three law firms that specialize in similar areas of ...


Disaster, Social Disorganization, And Crime In The Largest Cities In Texas, Daniel Augusto, Jared Linebach May 2022

Disaster, Social Disorganization, And Crime In The Largest Cities In Texas, Daniel Augusto, Jared Linebach

International Journal of Security Studies & Practice

This study uses multiple regressions and moderation analysis to examine the relationship between disaster and crime in the 10 largest cities in Texas. The regressions revealed that yearly days with disaster significantly predicted Robbery, Murder, Rape, Burglary, and Auto Theft. Additionally, social disorganization and population density were often found to predict crime. Moderation analysis revealed that social disorganization increases the effect of yearly days with disaster on Burglary rates, which serve as a proxy for looting. These findings indicate that, on average, disaster responders, public safety, and security personnel in large cities can expect increases to crime as days with ...


The Meaning And Malleableness Of Liberty From 1897-1945, Quentin E. Smith May 2022

The Meaning And Malleableness Of Liberty From 1897-1945, Quentin E. Smith

The Purdue Historian

This paper covers how the substance and meaning of liberty changed during the ending years of the Gilded Age (1870-1900) through the beginning ages of the Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968). Economic liberty took shape in the cases Allegeyer v. Louisiana (1897) and Lochner v. New York (1905). Civil liberties would take several more years to come into the Supreme Court’s jurisdiction. The case Gitlow v. New York (1925) began the establishment of incorporation of the Bill of Rights to the states, otherwise known as our fundamental liberties (note: The Supreme Court used selective incorporation, however). In the case U ...


The Dangers Of The Social Drinker: An Analysis Of Adolescent Drinking Habits At Social Gatherings, Mason Seitz May 2022

The Dangers Of The Social Drinker: An Analysis Of Adolescent Drinking Habits At Social Gatherings, Mason Seitz

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Adolescent alcohol consumption is a topic that has been well-researched to date due to the dangers it can pose. A variety of factors may work to contribute to the habits these adolescents develop. One factor that has not been extensively studied is the impact of locations on drinking decisions. Location provides a perspective on how various social factors can intersect to dictate where and when young people will choose to consume alcohol. Most previous literature has focused on the alcohol usage found at parties or bars, but the current research wishes to expand this idea to other locations, such as ...


College Students’ Perception Of Law Enforcement, Joseph Lyon May 2022

College Students’ Perception Of Law Enforcement, Joseph Lyon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

There are many ways that people can form an opinion about law enforcement even if they have had a personal interaction with someone who works in the field. This idea has always been interesting as there needs to be some type of understanding when it comes to this certain viewpoint. There can be many factors that result in having a certain perspective on law enforcement in general like their background growing up, hearsay from close relatives, friends, and whatever they have seen up close in person. This study is going to aim at a specific area of how people view ...