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Articles 1 - 30 of 109

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Elephants At Work, Jamie Lorimer, Khatijah Rahmat Jan 2020

Elephants At Work, Jamie Lorimer, Khatijah Rahmat

Animal Sentience

Baker & Winkler (B&W) propose rewilding Asian elephants in a model in which they are rescued, rehabilitated and then given work with their mahouts in ecological restoration and ecotourism. In a sympathetic critique, we explore the status that B&W’s analysis accords to work. Types of work and working conditions need to be differentiated. We caution against a model of conservation that would make the future of life conditional on participating in the workforce.


A Moral Panic Over Cats, William S. Lynn, Francisco J. Santiago-Ávila, Joann Lindenmayer, John Hadidian, Arian D. Wallach, Barbara J. King Aug 2019

A Moral Panic Over Cats, William S. Lynn, Francisco J. Santiago-Ávila, Joann Lindenmayer, John Hadidian, Arian D. Wallach, Barbara J. King

Stray and Feral Animal Populations Collection

Some conservationists believe that free-ranging cats pose an enormous risk to biodiversity and public health and therefore should be eliminated from the landscape by any means necessary. They further claim that those who question the science or ethics behind their arguments are science deniers (merchants of doubt) seeking to mislead the public. As much as we share a commitment to conservation of biodiversity and wild nature, we believe these ideas are wrong and fuel an unwarranted moral panic over cats. Those who question the ecological or epidemiological status of cats are not science deniers, and it is a false analogy ...


Protecting Biodiversity In British Columbia: Recommendations For Developing Species At Risk Legislation, Alana R. Westwood, Sarah P. Otto, Arne Mooers, Chris Darimont, Karen E. Hodges, Chris Johnson, Brian M. Starzomski, Cole Burton, Kai M. A. Chan, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Shaun Fluker, Sumeet Gulati, Aerin L. Jacob, Dan Kraus, Tara G. Martin, Wendy J. Palen, John D. Reynolds, Jeannette Whitton Jan 2019

Protecting Biodiversity In British Columbia: Recommendations For Developing Species At Risk Legislation, Alana R. Westwood, Sarah P. Otto, Arne Mooers, Chris Darimont, Karen E. Hodges, Chris Johnson, Brian M. Starzomski, Cole Burton, Kai M. A. Chan, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Shaun Fluker, Sumeet Gulati, Aerin L. Jacob, Dan Kraus, Tara G. Martin, Wendy J. Palen, John D. Reynolds, Jeannette Whitton

Threatened and Endangered Animal Populations Collection

British Columbia has the greatest biological diversity of any province or territory in Canada. Yet increasing numbers of species in British Columbia are threatened with extinction. The current patchwork of provincial laws and regulations has not effectively prevented species declines. Recently, the Provincial Government has committed to enacting an endangered species law. Drawing upon our scientific and legal expertise, we offer recommendations for key features of endangered species legislation that build upon strengths and avoid weaknesses observed elsewhere. We recommend striking an independent Oversight Committee to provide recommendations about listing species, organize Recovery Teams, and monitor the efficacy of actions ...


Just Preservation, A. Treves, F. J. Santiago-Ávila, W. S. Lynn Jan 2019

Just Preservation, A. Treves, F. J. Santiago-Ávila, W. S. Lynn

Anthropogenics and Population Decline Collection

We are failing to protect the biosphere. Novel views of conservation, preservation, and sustainability are surfacing in the wake of consensus about our failures to prevent extinction or slow climate change. We argue that the interests and well-being of non-humans, youth, and future generations of both human and non-human beings (futurity) have too long been ignored in consensus-based, anthropocentric conservation. Consensus-based stakeholder-driven processes disadvantage those absent or without a voice and allow current adult humans and narrow, exploitative interests to dominate decisions about the use of nature over its preservation for futurity of all life. We propose that authentically non-anthropocentric ...


Zoo Animal Welfare: The Human Dimension, Justine Cole, David Fraser Oct 2018

Zoo Animal Welfare: The Human Dimension, Justine Cole, David Fraser

Zoo and Aquarium Animal Populations Collection

Standards and policies intended to safeguard nonhuman animal welfare, whether in zoos, farms, or laboratories, have tended to emphasize features of the physical environment. However, research has now made it clear that very different welfare outcomes are commonly seen in facilities using similar environments or conforming to the same animal welfare requirements. This wide variation is almost certainly due, at least in part, to the important effects of the actions of animal care staff on animal welfare. Drawing mostly on the farm animal literature, we propose that this “human dimension” of animal welfare involves seven components: (1) positive human–animal ...


Political Populations Of Large Carnivores, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, Adrian Treves, Kyle A. Artelle Jun 2018

Political Populations Of Large Carnivores, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, Adrian Treves, Kyle A. Artelle

Wildlife Population Management Collection

No abstract provided.


The Private And Free Roaming Street Dog Population In Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, Tamara Kartal, Amit Chaudhari Jun 2018

The Private And Free Roaming Street Dog Population In Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, Tamara Kartal, Amit Chaudhari

Stray and Feral Animal Populations Collection

Humane Society International - India (HSI- India) together with Humane Animal Society (HAS) and a team of volunteers conducted two dog population surveys in 100 wards of Coimbatore, India (The 2011 census provides a human population of 10507211; An estimate from 2017 estimates a human population of 18900002). The first was a street dog survey and the other was a household survey of the private (pet) dog population and their owners.


The Behavioural Response Of Migrating Humpback Whales To A Full Seismic Airgun Array, Rebecca A. Dunlop, Michael J. Noad, Robert D. Mccauley, Eric Kniest, Robert Slade, David Paton, Douglas H. Cato Dec 2017

The Behavioural Response Of Migrating Humpback Whales To A Full Seismic Airgun Array, Rebecca A. Dunlop, Michael J. Noad, Robert D. Mccauley, Eric Kniest, Robert Slade, David Paton, Douglas H. Cato

Anthropogenics and Population Decline Collection

Despite concerns on the effects of noise from seismic survey airguns on marine organisms, there remains uncertainty as to the biological significance of any response. This study quantifies and interprets the response of migrating humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to a 3130 in3 (51.3l) commercial airgun array. We compare the behavioural responses to active trials (array operational; n = 34 whale groups), with responses to control trials (source vessel towing the array while silent; n = 33) and baseline studies of normal behaviour in the absence of the vessel (n = 85). No abnormal behaviours were recorded during the trials. However, in ...


Mismeasured Mortality: Correcting Estimates Of Wolf Poaching In The United States, Adrian Treves, Kyle A. Artelle, Chris T. Darimont, David R. Parsons Oct 2017

Mismeasured Mortality: Correcting Estimates Of Wolf Poaching In The United States, Adrian Treves, Kyle A. Artelle, Chris T. Darimont, David R. Parsons

Wildlife Population Management Collection

Measuring rates and causes of mortalities is important in animal ecology and management. Observing the fates of known individuals is a common method of estimating life history variables, including mortality patterns. It has long been assumed that data lost when known animals disappear were unbiased. We test and reject this assumption under conditions common to most, if not all, studies using marked animals. We illustrate the bias for 4 endangered wolf populations in the United States by reanalyzing data and assumptions about the known and unknown fates of marked wolves to calculate the degree to which risks of different causes ...


Surveys Of The Street And Private Dog Population: Jamnagar, Gujarat India, Tamara Kartal, Amit Chaudhari Oct 2017

Surveys Of The Street And Private Dog Population: Jamnagar, Gujarat India, Tamara Kartal, Amit Chaudhari

Stray and Feral Animal Populations Collection

Humane Society International (HSI) conducted two dog population surveys in all 4 Zones of Jamnagar (human population of 609,613). One was a street dog survey and the other was a survey of the private (pet) dog population.


Marine Mammals In Asian Societies; Trends In Consumption, Bait, And Traditional Use, Lindsay Porter, Hong Yu Lai Feb 2017

Marine Mammals In Asian Societies; Trends In Consumption, Bait, And Traditional Use, Lindsay Porter, Hong Yu Lai

Anthropogenics and Population Decline Collection

In Asia many marine mammal species are consumed as food or for other purposes. The prevalence of this exploitation appears to increase from west to east. An escalating use of marine mammals and the emergence of commercialization of a trade in marine mammals is supported by:

  • Regular documentation of both open and covert trade;
  • A shift in focus in some diminishing traditional hunts to other marine mammal species;
  • A possible revival in some targeted hunts, which had previously ceased;
  • The recent implication of some cultures, which have little history of marine mammal consumption previously, in targeted hunts; and
  • The growing ...


Animal Ethics And Animal Consciousness, Bernard E. Rollin Jan 2017

Animal Ethics And Animal Consciousness, Bernard E. Rollin

Ethics and Animal Welfare Collection

Commentary on Marino and Allen (2017) The Psychology of Cows


Under Pressure: Cetaceans And Fisheries Co-Occurrence Off The Coasts Of Ghana And Côte D’Ivoire (Gulf Of Guinea), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Koen Van Waerebeek, Geert Aarts Sep 2016

Under Pressure: Cetaceans And Fisheries Co-Occurrence Off The Coasts Of Ghana And Côte D’Ivoire (Gulf Of Guinea), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Koen Van Waerebeek, Geert Aarts

Anthropogenics and Population Decline Collection

Within the Gulf of Guinea high levels of fisheries-related cetacean mortality (bycatch and direct-capture) has been documented. For locally rare species such removals could potentially lead to significant population level effects. However, information on the cetacean abundance and distribution is scarce. Similarly, it remains largely unreported where fishing fleets operate offshore. A cetacean survey took place during geophysical surveys (2013–2014) along the coasts of Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. This provided a unique opportunity to study both offshore cetacean and fishing communities. Due to large group-sizes, melon-headed whales were the most abundant (0.34 animals km−1) followed by ...


The Utilization Of Aquatic Bushmeat From Small Cetaceans And Manatees In South America And West Africa, A. Mel Cosentino, Sue Fisher Sep 2016

The Utilization Of Aquatic Bushmeat From Small Cetaceans And Manatees In South America And West Africa, A. Mel Cosentino, Sue Fisher

Anthropogenics and Population Decline Collection

Aquatic bushmeat can be defined as the products derived from wild aquatic megafauna (e.g., marine mammals) that are used for human consumption and non-food purposes, including traditional medicine. It is obtained through illegal or unregulated hunts as well as from stranded (dead or alive) and bycaught animals. In most South American and West African countries aquatic mammals are or have been taken for bushmeat, including 33 small cetaceans and all three manatee species. Of these, two cetacean species are listed in the IUCN red list as “near threatened,” and one as “vulnerable,” as are all manatee species. Additionally, 22 ...


The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani Aug 2016

The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani

Wildlife Population Management Collection

Since its establishment in 1946 as the international body intended to manage whaling, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has expanded its areas of interest to ensure the wider conservation of whales. Several key conservation topics have been taken forward under its auspices including climate change, chemical and noise pollution, marine debris and whale watching. Work on each of these topics at the IWC has grown substantially since the 1990s and remains ongoing. Important developments were the establishment of the Standing Working Group on Environmental Concerns in 1996 and the IWC’s Conservation Committee in 2003. Trying to address this diverse ...


Does The Seal Licensing System In Scotland Have A Negative Impact On Seal Welfare?, Laetitia Nunny, Fritha Langford, Mark P. Simmonds Aug 2016

Does The Seal Licensing System In Scotland Have A Negative Impact On Seal Welfare?, Laetitia Nunny, Fritha Langford, Mark P. Simmonds

Wildlife Population Management Collection

This study examined the licensing system that permits seal shooting in Scotland, which was established under Part 6 Conservation of Seals of the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010. Four approaches were used: data were collated and analyzed from both the Scottish Government and Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme; a survey was sent to current license holders and informal interviews were conducted with key stakeholder types. Between February 2011 and the end of October 2015, 1229 gray seals, and 275 common seals were reported shot under license to the Scottish Government. The numbers of seals reported as shot has reduced year-on-year since ...


Report Of Roaming Dog Survey Of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh, Amit Chaudhari Jan 2016

Report Of Roaming Dog Survey Of Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh, Amit Chaudhari

Stray and Feral Animal Populations Collection

In January 2016, Humane Society International (HSI) conducted a dog population survey of Dhaka City to estimate abundance of roaming dogs in the city, including both North and South City Corporation areas. Abundance is the total population size in a given area. A “roaming dog” is defined to mean any dog that may move freely at times on the city streets or other public areas, such as a “stray”, “community dog” or unconfined owned dog.


Wildlife In U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals, John Hadidian Nov 2015

Wildlife In U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals, John Hadidian

Conservation Collection

Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in ...


Promoting Predators And Compassionate Conservation, Arian D. Wallach, Marc Bekoff, Michael Paul Nelson, David Ramp Oct 2015

Promoting Predators And Compassionate Conservation, Arian D. Wallach, Marc Bekoff, Michael Paul Nelson, David Ramp

Conservation Collection

No abstract provided.


Unowned Cat Management In The State Of Ohio: Elements Of Best Practice In Public-Private Collaborative Efforts, Daniel D. Spehar Jul 2015

Unowned Cat Management In The State Of Ohio: Elements Of Best Practice In Public-Private Collaborative Efforts, Daniel D. Spehar

HSU STUDENT THESES AND CAPSTONE PROJECTS

A contentious debate over the management of free-roaming cat populations is ongoing. Nevertheless, disparate groups of stakeholders share a common goal of fewer community cats. Unowned cat management typically necessitates a choice between utilization of lethal or non-lethal measures. Research has indicated strong public support for employment of non-lethal methods, like trap-neuter-return (TNR). Collaborative TNR programs are experiencing success in a growing number of communities. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify new or underutilized public-private collaborative practices, and associated elemental factors, that have the potential to be used as—or incorporated into—templates of best practice for ...


Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Guam, John D. Boone Dec 2014

Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Guam, John D. Boone

Stray and Feral Animal Populations Collection

As is the case for many inhabited islands in Pacific region, dogs are common, including freeroaming street dogs that may be owned or unowned. Reproduction among dogs is largely unchecked, and many owned dogs do not receive adequate levels of basic care in the home or veterinary care when needed. For all of these reasons, Humane Society International (HSI) is exploring options for improving the management of street dog populations and promoting better treatment and care of all dogs on Guam and on the nearby islands of Rota and Saipan. One of the initial steps in this process was to ...


Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Haryana State, India, Amit Chaudhari Nov 2014

Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Haryana State, India, Amit Chaudhari

Stray and Feral Animal Populations Collection

This report describes a systematic dog survey program that was performed by Humane Society International (HSI) in Haryana state, India, in June and October 2014. This survey was conducted in support of the National Rabies Control (NRC) program, with its primary goals being to:

(1) Collect baseline data prior to initiation of a program of humane dog population management (DPM) and rabies control,

(2) Establish a standardized survey framework for future monitoring of DPM program impact, and

(3) Generate a population size estimate for street dogs to assist in strategic and logistic planning for the DPM and NRC programs in ...


Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds Jan 2014

Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds

Laws and Legislation Collection

On 31 March 2014, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that Japan’s whaling activities in Antarctica did not comply with Article VIII of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), which permits whaling for scientific purposes. Copious and confusing media commentary followed the decision. This included seemingly conflicting reports from within Japan, which initially indicated whole-hearted compliance with the ruling, which required this whaling to cease, but later suggested that implementation by Japan might be limited to a brief halt followed by a launch of a new Antarctic ‘research’ programme including lethal take.


Grizzly Bear Monitoring By The Heiltsuk People As A Crucible For First Nation Conservation Practice, William G. Housty, Anna Noson, Gerald W. Scoville, John Boulanger, Richard M. Jeo, Chris T. Darimont, Christopher E. Filardi Jan 2014

Grizzly Bear Monitoring By The Heiltsuk People As A Crucible For First Nation Conservation Practice, William G. Housty, Anna Noson, Gerald W. Scoville, John Boulanger, Richard M. Jeo, Chris T. Darimont, Christopher E. Filardi

Wildlife Population Management Collection

Guided by deeply held cultural values, First Nations in Canada are rapidly regaining legal authority to manage natural resources. We present a research collaboration among academics, tribal government, provincial and federal government, resource managers, conservation practitioners, and community leaders supporting First Nation resource authority and stewardship. First, we present results from a molecular genetics study of grizzly bears inhabiting an important conservation area within the territory of the Heiltsuk First Nation in coastal British Columbia. Noninvasive hair sampling occurred between 2006 and 2009 in the Koeye watershed, a stronghold for grizzly bears, salmon, and Heiltsuk people. Molecular demographic analyses revealed ...


Personhood, Ethics, And Animal Cognition: Situating Animals In Hare’S Two-Level Utilitarianism, By Gary E. Varner / The Philosophy Of Animal Minds, Edited By Robert W. Lurz., Kristin Andrews Jan 2014

Personhood, Ethics, And Animal Cognition: Situating Animals In Hare’S Two-Level Utilitarianism, By Gary E. Varner / The Philosophy Of Animal Minds, Edited By Robert W. Lurz., Kristin Andrews

Sentience Collection

It seems to be a widely held belief that we should not try to trap, kill, and eat any creature that can relate the story of its close call. While this turns out to be a good rule from the perspective of R. M. Hare’s version of utilitarianism, other intuitive-level rules about the proper treatment of sentient beings require revision, or so Gary Varner argues in his recent book Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition. After defending Hare’s two-level utilitarianism in the first section, Varner turns to the question of the kinds of beings who worthy of kinds of ...


Measuring Humaneness: Can It Be Done, And What Does It Mean If It Can?, John Hadidian, Bernard Unti, John Griffin Jan 2014

Measuring Humaneness: Can It Be Done, And What Does It Mean If It Can?, John Hadidian, Bernard Unti, John Griffin

Humane Treatment of Animals Collection

Differences over what constitutes humaneness in the control of wildlife have traditionally presented a roadblock to understanding, not to mention agreement, between animal welfare and wildlife damage management professionals. Complaints that a proposed action or given program is not humane can refer to everything from specific techniques to broader administrative justifications. A number of concepts have been used to describe welfare standards and measurements, and different assessment metrics have been developed in attempts to bring objectivity to what might prove, in the end, to be an intractably subjective domain. Some of the most widely used and serviceable of the concepts ...


Confronting Uncertainty In Wildlife Management: Performance Of Grizzly Bear Management, Kyle A. Artelle, Sean C. Anderson, Andrew B. Cooper, Paul C. Paquet, John D. Reynolds, Chris T. Darimont Nov 2013

Confronting Uncertainty In Wildlife Management: Performance Of Grizzly Bear Management, Kyle A. Artelle, Sean C. Anderson, Andrew B. Cooper, Paul C. Paquet, John D. Reynolds, Chris T. Darimont

Wildlife Population Management Collection

Scientific management of wildlife requires confronting the complexities of natural and social systems. Uncertainty poses a central problem. Whereas the importance of considering uncertainty has been widely discussed, studies of the effects of unaddressed uncertainty on real management systems have been rare. We examined the effects of outcome uncertainty and components of biological uncertainty on hunt management performance, illustrated with grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in British Columbia, Canada. We found that both forms of uncertainty can have serious impacts on management performance. Outcome uncertainty alone – discrepancy between expected and realized mortality levels – led to excess mortality in 19% of ...


A Framework To Evaluate Wildlife Feeding In Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism And Recreation, Sara Dubois, David Fraser Oct 2013

A Framework To Evaluate Wildlife Feeding In Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism And Recreation, Sara Dubois, David Fraser

Wildlife Population Management Collection

Feeding of wildlife occurs in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and in opportunistic ways. A review of examples shows that although feeding is often motivated by good intentions, it can lead to problems of public safety and conservation and be detrimental to the welfare of the animals. Examples from British Columbia illustrate the problems (nuisance animal activity, public safety risk) and consequences (culling, translocation) that often arise from uncontrolled feeding. Three features of wildlife feeding can be distinguished: the feasibility of control, the effects on conservation and the effects on animal welfare. An evaluative framework incorporating these three ...


Local Attitudes Towards Bear Management After Illegal Feeding And Problem Bear Activity, Sara Dubois, David Fraser Sep 2013

Local Attitudes Towards Bear Management After Illegal Feeding And Problem Bear Activity, Sara Dubois, David Fraser

Wildlife Population Management Collection

The “pot bears” received international media attention in 2010 after police discovered the intentional feeding of over 20 black bears during the investigation of an alleged marijuana-growing operation in Christina Lake, British Columbia, Canada. A two-phase random digit dialing survey of the community was conducted in 2011 to understand local perspectives on bear policy and management, before and after a summer of problem bear activity and government interventions. Of the 159 households surveyed in February 2011, most had neutral or positive attitudes towards bears in general, and supported the initial decision to feed the food-conditioned bears until the autumn hibernation ...


Explaining China’S Wildlife Crisis: Cultural Tradition Or Politics Of Development, Peter J. Li Jan 2013

Explaining China’S Wildlife Crisis: Cultural Tradition Or Politics Of Development, Peter J. Li

Threatened and Endangered Animal Populations Collection

This chapter is about China’s wildlife crisis. As the following sections attempt to demonstrate, abuse of and assault on wildlife in captivity and in the wild have reached an unprecedented level on the Chinese mainland in the reform era (1978–present). Shocking brutality against wildlife animals has been frequently exposed by Chinese and international media. To readers outside East Asia, they ask if the Chinese are culturally indifferent to animal suffering. Indeed, does the Chinese culture sanction cruelty to animals? Or is it the contemporary politics of economic development that is more directly responsible for the crisis?