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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Evidence Around Engaging Men In Hiv Prevention And Treatment, Julie Pulerwitz, Ann Gottert, Jerry Okal, Sanyukta Mathur Apr 2020

Evidence Around Engaging Men In Hiv Prevention And Treatment, Julie Pulerwitz, Ann Gottert, Jerry Okal, Sanyukta Mathur

HIV and AIDS

No abstract provided.


Evidence To Support Hiv Prevention For Adolescent Girls And Young Women (Agyw) And Their Male Partners: Results From Malawi Dreams Studies With Agyw, Male Partners Of Agyw, Men Living With Hiv, And Program Implementing Partners, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Victor Mwapasa, Effie Chipeta, Wanangwa Chimwaza, Nrupa Jani, Tracy Mcclair, Lyson Tenthani, Sanyukta Mathur Feb 2020

Evidence To Support Hiv Prevention For Adolescent Girls And Young Women (Agyw) And Their Male Partners: Results From Malawi Dreams Studies With Agyw, Male Partners Of Agyw, Men Living With Hiv, And Program Implementing Partners, Nanlesta Pilgrim, Victor Mwapasa, Effie Chipeta, Wanangwa Chimwaza, Nrupa Jani, Tracy Mcclair, Lyson Tenthani, Sanyukta Mathur

HIV and AIDS

Project SOAR, led by the Population Council, in partnership with the Center of Reproductive Health at the University of Malawi College of Medicine, conducted a research portfolio to generate evidence to reduce HIV risk among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) and their male partners. The objectives of this implementation research were to generate evidence for describing HIV-related risk factors among AGYW; assess the extent to which the overall DREAMS project contributed toward the goal of reducing HIV risk among AGYW; and understand the characteristics of male partners and how to link them to HIV services, as well as retain ...


Community-Based Hiv Treatment Service Delivery Model For Female Sex Workers In Tanzania: Evaluation Findings, Lung Vu, Waimar Tun, Louis Apicella, Jeremiah Kidola, Caterina Casalini, Gasper Mbita, Neema Makyao, Todd Koppenhaver, Erick Mlanga Feb 2020

Community-Based Hiv Treatment Service Delivery Model For Female Sex Workers In Tanzania: Evaluation Findings, Lung Vu, Waimar Tun, Louis Apicella, Jeremiah Kidola, Caterina Casalini, Gasper Mbita, Neema Makyao, Todd Koppenhaver, Erick Mlanga

HIV and AIDS

Project SOAR in collaboration with the National AIDS Control Program of the Government of Tanzania, National Institute of Medical Research, and Jhpiego’s Sauti Program, conducted an implementation science study to investigate the delivery of community-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) services to female sex workers (FSWs) in Tanzania. Studies from sub-Saharan Africa have shown improved HIV treatment outcomes, such as uptake of HIV services, retention in care, and increased dignity and quality of life, by using community-based delivery of HIV services. As detailed in this Project SOAR final report, the study assessed the effectiveness of the community-based ART delivery intervention in ...


Strengthening Capacity For Assessment Of Hiv-Related Data Needs Among Key Populations To Inform Evidence-Based Responses, Amrita Rao, Nikita Viswasam, Stefan Baral Feb 2020

Strengthening Capacity For Assessment Of Hiv-Related Data Needs Among Key Populations To Inform Evidence-Based Responses, Amrita Rao, Nikita Viswasam, Stefan Baral

HIV and AIDS

Defining the HIV prevention and treatment needs of key populations who have disproportionate HIV acquisition and transmission risks has been particularly difficult in the context of generalized HIV epidemics where less attention has historically been placed on the HIV prevention and treatment needs of these groups. There is a gap in our understanding of the specific needs of—and ultimately the investment case for the added value of supporting—disproportionately burdened key populations in these settings. In response to this gap, Johns Hopkins University under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Project SOAR implemented a project in ...


Associations Between Fgm/C And Hiv In Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, And Sierra Leone: A Limited Analysis Of Demographic And Health Survey Data, Yetunde A. Noah Pinheiro, Zhuzhi Moore, David Gathara Jan 2019

Associations Between Fgm/C And Hiv In Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, And Sierra Leone: A Limited Analysis Of Demographic And Health Survey Data, Yetunde A. Noah Pinheiro, Zhuzhi Moore, David Gathara

Reproductive Health

Studies investigating the association between male circumcision and HIV have demonstrated the protective effect of male circumcision. In some settings, FGM/C and male circumcision are considered “equivalent” procedures. This working paper presents findings of a study that investigates the effect of FGM/C on the likelihood of HIV infection for women in practicing communities in Ethiopia, Gambia, Kenya, and Sierra Leone.


Namibia Has A Strong Foundation For Implementing The Treat All Guidelines And Reaching The Unaids 90-90-90 Targets, Project Soar Jan 2018

Namibia Has A Strong Foundation For Implementing The Treat All Guidelines And Reaching The Unaids 90-90-90 Targets, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

In late 2015, the World Health Organization announced new treatment guidelines recommending that anyone who has tested positive for HIV should begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) as soon as possible. In light of this policy, the Government of Namibia included “treat all” in the 2016 National Guidelines for ART, and began nationwide implementation in April 2017. Project SOAR is generating evidence on how the national rollout of the treat all guidelines and decentralization of ART services affect client-level treatment outcomes, quality of ART services, and treatment costs in Namibia. This brief highlights baseline findings that provide a snapshot of ART services ...


Female Sex Workers Living With Hiv In Tanzania Have Both A Need For Contraception And A Desire To Have Children In The Future, Project Soar Jan 2018

Female Sex Workers Living With Hiv In Tanzania Have Both A Need For Contraception And A Desire To Have Children In The Future, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

HIV-positive women often have critical family planning (FP) needs in addition to HIV-related care, treatment, and prevention concerns. In sub-Saharan Africa, unintended pregnancy is common among HIV-positive women. At the same time, many women living with HIV want to have children some day, and there are various “safer conception” strategies available to help HIV-affected individuals and couples get pregnant while minimizing the risk of HIV transmission to seronegative partners and the baby. This brief describes the fertility-related needs and desires of female sex workers living with HIV in Tanzania, highlighting results indicating that health services should help women meet both ...


Preventing Pediatric Tuberculosis: A Randomized Trial Of Symptom-Based Screening Of South African Children Exposed To Tuberculosis, Population Council Jan 2017

Preventing Pediatric Tuberculosis: A Randomized Trial Of Symptom-Based Screening Of South African Children Exposed To Tuberculosis, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

In South Africa, a country with one of the highest levels of HIV prevalence, HIV-positive adults are the source case for a large proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) cases. Unfortunately, TB index cases are not consistently asked about their child contacts, not all child contacts present to the clinic for TB screening, and it remains unknown what proportion of child contacts receive isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT)—a highly effective treatment for preventing TB in these children, long recommended by the World Health Organization. Project SOAR is assessing whether a symptom-based screening approach by TB nurses in community health clinics is ...


Strengthening Capacity In Hiv Operations Research: Reflections On A Project Soar Workshop In Johannesburg, South Africa, Project Soar Jan 2017

Strengthening Capacity In Hiv Operations Research: Reflections On A Project Soar Workshop In Johannesburg, South Africa, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Capacity strengthening (CS) to support rigorous scientific research is a globally recognized need and central to Project SOAR. Over a four-day period, SOAR conducted a CS workshop to strengthen individual and institutional capacity in HIV operations research, with a particular emphasis on the research utilization process. This brief summarizes the CS activities conducted, insights from the workshop’s organization, and participants’ views of the workshop.


Characteristics Associated With Hiv And Hsv-2 Among Adolescents In Malawi, Barbara Mensch, Erica Soler-Hampejsek Jan 2017

Characteristics Associated With Hiv And Hsv-2 Among Adolescents In Malawi, Barbara Mensch, Erica Soler-Hampejsek

HIV and AIDS

The DREAMS (Determined, Resilient, Empowered AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe) partnership aims to significantly reduce new HIV infections in adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in Malawi and other sub-Saharan African countries. To better understand the epidemiological context for the DREAMS programming, Project SOAR analyzed previously collected quantitative cohort data from the Population Council’s Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Study to identify the factors associated with the prevalence and incidence of HIV and the herpes simplex virus, commonly referred to as genital herpes. SOAR’s analysis provides a deeper understanding of the epidemiological and gendered context of the HIV epidemic in ...


Evaluation A Depression Treatment Program On Hiv Care And Mental Health Outcomes In Malawi, Project Soar Jan 2017

Evaluation A Depression Treatment Program On Hiv Care And Mental Health Outcomes In Malawi, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

This brief outlines a Project SOAR study which will provide critical evidence on the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of an integrated depression treatment model for improving retention in and adherence to HIV care in Malawi. Among people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), those with depression are a large and especially vulnerable population. Depression affects 18–30 percent of patients receiving HIV care in Africa and is an important barrier to early ART retention. Evidence revealed by the study will have implications not only for the applicability of the model in Malawi but for other countries in sub-Saharan Africa as well.


Updating The People Living With Hiv Stigma Index, Project Soar Jan 2017

Updating The People Living With Hiv Stigma Index, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

In October 2015, supported by USAID/PEPFAR, Project SOAR established a small working group (SWG) with representatives from a variety of nongovernmental organizations, and several experts within and external to SOAR. The SWG outlined a process for evaluating and updating the Stigma Index, launched in 2008, that would be transparent and incorporate as many perspectives as possible in the process. The Stigma Index is both a data collection tool and an empowering intervention for the interviewers collecting data and the interviewees who are sharing their experiences of stigma. Since the Stigma Index was launched, there have been shifts in the ...


Are We Meeting The Hiv Service Needs Of People Living In Informal Settlements In Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa?, Project Soar Jan 2017

Are We Meeting The Hiv Service Needs Of People Living In Informal Settlements In Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa?, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

This brief summarizes the characteristics and circumstances of approximately 1,500 men and women living in 18 informal settlements in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The data come from a baseline survey conducted in mid-2017 as part of an evaluation of the PEPFAR/USAID-funded Asibonisane Community Responses program. Project SOAR/Population Council conducted the evaluation in partnership with the MatCH Research Unit at the University of Witwatersrand. The findings presented here highlight the need for HIV treatment services to be more responsive to residents living with HIV in informal settlements. Furthermore, continued efforts are needed to reduce HIV risk and intimate partner ...


A Systems Approach To Improving Delivery And Update Of Facility-Based Hiv Testing And Linkage To Care In South Africa, Project Soar Jan 2017

A Systems Approach To Improving Delivery And Update Of Facility-Based Hiv Testing And Linkage To Care In South Africa, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Project SOAR is examining the current delivery of HIV testing (HTS) and linkages to care (LTC) services—including barriers, facilitators, and infrastructure—in Ekurhuleni District, South Africa which has the second-highest district-level HIV prevalence in the country. Based on these formative findings, the project will develop and test tailored approaches to increase patients’ uptake of HTS and subsequent LTC, if positive. The project expects to find evidence of HTS coverage outside of antenatal care; document key systems-level barriers to HTS and LTC; assess potentially generalizable clinic-level strategies to increase HTS delivery and assess LTC needs; and identify the added value ...


Adolescent Girls And Young Women’S Perceptions Of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Introduction In Tanzania: Findings From Implementation Science Research, Population Council Jan 2017

Adolescent Girls And Young Women’S Perceptions Of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Introduction In Tanzania: Findings From Implementation Science Research, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

The Population Council, in collaboration with the National AIDS Control Programme and CSK Research Solutions Ltd., conducted implementation science research in Tanzania to identify key considerations for introducing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) antiretroviral medication to adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) at substantial risk of HIV infection. This brief presents results from qualitative in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with AGYWs. Based on the findings, the brief recommends including sensitization and education of communities, parents, and male partners of AGYWs in demand-creation activities; training providers to deliver adequate education about PrEP to avoid misperceptions about its intended use, side effects, and ...


Assessing Hiv-Related Outcomes Among Key Populations Accessing Community-Based Test And Start Services In Nigeria, Project Soar Jan 2017

Assessing Hiv-Related Outcomes Among Key Populations Accessing Community-Based Test And Start Services In Nigeria, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

This activity brief describes a research study Project SOAR is conducting to better understand how to use existing key population community platforms in Nigeria to expand access to HIV treatment, the cost of such care provided outside of clinical health facilities, and the extent to which false positive misclassification may occur in outreach settings. Given the global “treat all” emphasis and the need to effectively scale up test and start services and minimize misclassification rates, these findings will be important in expanding timely antiretroviral treatment coverage in vulnerable communities in Nigeria and elsewhere.


Assessment Of Comprehensive Hiv-Risk Reduction Programming For Adolescent Girls And Young Women: Implementation Science Research In Kenya, Population Council Jan 2017

Assessment Of Comprehensive Hiv-Risk Reduction Programming For Adolescent Girls And Young Women: Implementation Science Research In Kenya, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

The Population Council is conducting implementation research to build needed evidence to inform decisionmaking around effective implementation of community-based, girl-centered interventions and to assess their effectiveness in reducing HIV vulnerability among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW)—a population in which AIDS is the leading cause of death in the region. Learnings from this study in Kenya and similar ones in Zambia and Malawi will be valuable for informing each country and the region how to implement AGYW programming that goes beyond the health sector to reduce AGYW’s vulnerability to HIV.


Assessment Of Comprehensive Hiv-Risk Reduction Programming For Adolescent Girls And Young Women: Implementation Science Research In Zambia, Population Council Jan 2017

Assessment Of Comprehensive Hiv-Risk Reduction Programming For Adolescent Girls And Young Women: Implementation Science Research In Zambia, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

The Population Council is conducting implementation research to build needed evidence to inform decisionmaking around effective implementation of community-based, girl-centered interventions and to assess their effectiveness in reducing HIV vulnerability among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW)—a population in which AIDS is the leading cause of death in the region. Learnings from this study in Zambia and similar ones in Kenya and Malawi will be valuable for informing each country and the region how to implement AGYW programming that goes beyond the health sector to reduce AGYW's vulnerability to HIV.


Assessment Of The Implementation Of The Treat-All Guidelines (Test And Start) In Namibia, Project Soar Jan 2017

Assessment Of The Implementation Of The Treat-All Guidelines (Test And Start) In Namibia, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

The Government of Namibia has adopted “treat-all” guidelines, commonly referred to as test and start (TnS), as a national policy effective April 2017. These guidelines recommend that anyone who has tested positive for HIV should begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) as soon as possible. This brief describes the proposed research of a study team led by the Population Council to generate evidence on how the national rollout of the TnS guidelines and decentralization of ART services affect client-level treatment outcomes, quality of ART services, and treatment costs in Namibia. The results of this study will inform the implementation and scale-up of ...


Considerations For Prep Introduction To Adolescent Girls And Young Women: Implementation Science Research In Tanzania, Population Council Jan 2017

Considerations For Prep Introduction To Adolescent Girls And Young Women: Implementation Science Research In Tanzania, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

In collaboration with the National AIDS Control Programme and CSK Research Solutions Ltd., a Tanzania-based research organization, the Population Council is conducting implementation science research in Tanzania to build needed evidence to inform decisionmaking around the introduction of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to adolescent girls and young women (AGYW), ages 15–24. This research will actively engage key stakeholders throughout the study, including gaining their insights on key study questions, interpreting the findings, crafting initial programming recommendations based on findings, and supporting their adoption in Tanzania and beyond. Findings from this study and other observational studies and demonstration trials in ...


Effect Of A Family-Centered Model Of Hiv Care On Viral Suppression And Care Retention Among Hiv-Positive Children In Swaziland, Project Soar Jan 2017

Effect Of A Family-Centered Model Of Hiv Care On Viral Suppression And Care Retention Among Hiv-Positive Children In Swaziland, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) has been supporting the Kingdom of Swaziland since 2003 to prevent mother-to-child transmission and to provide care and treatment services to HIV-positive children and adults. Project SOAR and the Swaziland Ministry of Health are leveraging EGPAF’s establishment of a family-centered care service delivery program (FAM-CARE) and a national rollout of viral load monitoring to assess their implementation and effect on viral suppression and retention in care among children living with HIV. This implementation science study is important because it will provide critical data to national and global policymakers about the model’s ...


Effective Engagement Of Male Partners Of Adolescent Girls And Young Women In Hiv Services: Implementation Science Research In Swaziland, Population Council Jan 2017

Effective Engagement Of Male Partners Of Adolescent Girls And Young Women In Hiv Services: Implementation Science Research In Swaziland, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

The Population Council is conducting implementation research in Swaziland, in collaboration with local partner organizations, to learn more about men’s relationships with adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) and how HIV services can better engage them—two neglected areas of research. Similar studies are being conducted in South Africa, Uganda, and Malawi. Learnings from these studies will be valuable for informing ongoing programming in Swaziland and the region, as well as HIV prevention, care, and treatment efforts for AGYW and their male partners globally, particularly in this era of test and start.


Effective Engagement Of Male Partners Of Adolescent Girls And Young Women In South Africa, Population Council Jan 2017

Effective Engagement Of Male Partners Of Adolescent Girls And Young Women In South Africa, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

The Population Council is conducting implementation research in South Africa, in collaboration with local partner organizations, to learn more about men’s relationships with adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) and how HIV services can better engage them—two neglected areas of research. Similar studies are being conducted in Uganda, Swaziland, and Malawi. Learnings from these studies will be valuable for informing ongoing programming in South Africa and the region, as well as HIV prevention, care, and treatment efforts for AGYW and their male partners globally, particularly in this era of test and start.


Evaluating Community-Facility Linkage Models To Promote Mother-Infant Retention Along The Hiv Care Continuum, Project Soar Jan 2017

Evaluating Community-Facility Linkage Models To Promote Mother-Infant Retention Along The Hiv Care Continuum, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

In Malawi, and other resourced-constrained, sub-Saharan African countries with a high HIV burden, several service delivery models have emerged to increase prevention of mother-to-child transmission care retention by strengthening connections between health facilities and their surrounding communities. Yet there has been little documentation of the unique characteristics of each model and their comparative impact on mother-infant pair (MIP) care retention and other health outcomes. This brief describes how Project SOAR is responding to these knowledge gaps by conducting research to identify components of community-based MIP support that are associated with maternal care retention and infant HIV-free survival. This research will ...


Evaluation Of The “One Community” Program In Malawi, Project Soar Jan 2017

Evaluation Of The “One Community” Program In Malawi, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

“One Community” is the United States Agency for International Development’s flagship community-based response to Malawi’s HIV epidemic. The primary objective of One Community is to support the government’s efforts to reduce new infections and to mitigate the impact of HIV among orphans and vulnerable children, out-of-school adolescent girls and young women, and other at-risk populations in eight districts in the southern region of Malawi. Project SOAR is conducting a rigorous evaluation of One Community in five of the eight program districts. The results from this evaluation will be used to inform Malawi’s support strategies for at-risk ...


Evaluation Of The Pepfar/Usaid Asibonisane Community Responses Program In Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Project Soar Jan 2017

Evaluation Of The Pepfar/Usaid Asibonisane Community Responses Program In Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Few programs intended to improve HIV outcomes or modulate gender norms have been rigorously evaluated in South Africa’s informal settlements where nearly 400,000 people live in KwaZulu Natal province alone. There is limited evidence on how to implement large-scale HIV-prevention programming in these contexts. Project SOAR and partners are addressing these knowledge gaps by conducting an evaluation of the PEPFAR/USAID-funded Asibonisane Community Responses Program in South Africa. Specifically, the study will assess the effectiveness of this community-based HIV-prevention program in informal settlements throughout KwaZulu-Natal—one of four provinces where the program is being carried out. This study ...


Improving Uptake Of Hiv Testing Services And Linkage To Care After Diagnosis In Kenya, Project Soar Jan 2017

Improving Uptake Of Hiv Testing Services And Linkage To Care After Diagnosis In Kenya, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Project SOAR is conducting two complementary research activities in Kenya, to 1) understand the barriers to and facilitators of HIV testing among men seeking HIV testing services, and 2) to develop and pilot test an HIV post-test assessment tool to promote linkage to HIV care and treatment among newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients. This study will provide needed information to help Kenya and other countries that are scaling up test and start programs to develop effective strategies to increase uptake of HIV testing services among men and linkage to care and treatment among all newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients.


Men's Perceptions Of Prep Use By Their Adolescent And Young Adult Female Partners In Tanzania In Tanzania: Findings From Implementation Science Research, Population Council Jan 2017

Men's Perceptions Of Prep Use By Their Adolescent And Young Adult Female Partners In Tanzania In Tanzania: Findings From Implementation Science Research, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

Prevailing gender norms about sexuality and relationship power dynamics have been shown to affect how women make decisions about the use of sexual and reproductive health products, including microbicides, condoms, and other contraceptives. It is therefore important to understand male partners’ views of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to inform how to effectively introduce PrEP among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in Tanzania to ensure they use it correctly and consistently. The Population Council, in collaboration with the National AIDS Control Programme and CSK Research Solutions Ltd., conducted implementation science research in Tanzania to identify key considerations for introducing PrEP ...


Optimizing Community Services For An Improved Continuum Of Hiv Care, Project Soar Jan 2017

Optimizing Community Services For An Improved Continuum Of Hiv Care, Project Soar

HIV and AIDS

Project SOAR, together with Aurum Institute, is conducting research in Ekurhuleni District and Bojanala District in South Africa to improve the availability of effective care continuum services to meet the communities’ HIV treatment needs. The two districts have a combined population of 3.6 million inhabitants and approximately 350 public clinics and hospitals. Through improved information on community HIV care services and their relationship to care continuum outcomes, the study will provide valuable new knowledge about service gaps and approaches to planning and delivering services that best achieve HIV treatment goals.


Parents' And Guardians' Perceptions Of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Introduction In Tanzania: Findings From Implementation Science Research, Population Council Jan 2017

Parents' And Guardians' Perceptions Of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Introduction In Tanzania: Findings From Implementation Science Research, Population Council

HIV and AIDS

The Population Council, in collaboration with the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) and CSK Research Solutions Ltd., conducted implementation science research in two research sites in Tanzania to identify key considerations for introducing oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). The NACP and members of the study’s research utilization committee recognized the importance of learning about parents’ and guardians’ attitudes and perceptions of PrEP use by their adolescent and young adult daughters and peers to inform the PrEP implementation process in Tanzania. Moreover, existing research in Tanzania finds that parents communicate with their children about ...