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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Space And Defense – Volume Twelve – Number Two – Summer 2021, Space And Defense Journal Oct 2021

Space And Defense – Volume Twelve – Number Two – Summer 2021, Space And Defense Journal

Space and Defense

No abstract provided.


Crest Or Trough? How Research Libraries Used Emerging Technologies To Survive The Pandemic, So Far, Scout Calvert Oct 2021

Crest Or Trough? How Research Libraries Used Emerging Technologies To Survive The Pandemic, So Far, Scout Calvert

Faculty Publications, UNL Libraries

Introduction

In the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, it was impossible to tell if we were at the crest of a wave of new transmissions, or a trough of a much larger wave, still yet to peak. As of this writing, as colleges and universities prepare for mostly in-person fall 2021 semesters, case counts in the United States are increasing again after a decline that coincided with easier access to the COVID vaccine. Plans for a return to campus made with confidence this spring may be in doubt, as we climb the curve of what is already the second ...


Detecting Driver Drowsiness With Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Combined With Machine Learning, Hovannes Kulhandjian Oct 2021

Detecting Driver Drowsiness With Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Combined With Machine Learning, Hovannes Kulhandjian

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

In this research work, we develop a drowsy driver detection system through the application of visual and radar sensors combined with machine learning. The system concept was derived from the desire to achieve a high level of driver safety through the prevention of potentially fatal accidents involving drowsy drivers. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, drowsy driving resulted in 50,000 injuries across 91,000 police-reported accidents, and a death toll of nearly 800 in 2017. The objective of this research work is to provide a working prototype of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems that can be installed in ...


Incorporating Virtual Reality Training In An Introductory Public Speaking Course, Kevin Kryston, Henry Goble, Allison Eden Sep 2021

Incorporating Virtual Reality Training In An Introductory Public Speaking Course, Kevin Kryston, Henry Goble, Allison Eden

Journal of Communication Pedagogy

This study presents the results of two studies using a virtual reality (VR) public-speaking training simulation as an instructional aid in a basic communication course. Results from the first study suggest that VR practice was associated with higher subsequent speech delivery grades in the course compared to no practice. However, VR practice did not reduce public speaking anxiety (PSA). In a follow-up study, VR practice was compared with other forms of lab-based practice including in front of a mirror and a recorded video session. All forms of lab practice (VR, mirror, or video) were associated with higher speech grades than ...


Human-Robot Teaming Configurations: A Study Of Interpersonal Communication Perceptions And Affective Learning In Higher Education, Bryan Abendschein, Chad Edwards, Autumn P. Edwards, Varun Rijhwani, Jasmine Stahl Sep 2021

Human-Robot Teaming Configurations: A Study Of Interpersonal Communication Perceptions And Affective Learning In Higher Education, Bryan Abendschein, Chad Edwards, Autumn P. Edwards, Varun Rijhwani, Jasmine Stahl

Journal of Communication Pedagogy

Technology encourages collaboration in creative ways in the classroom. Specifically, social robots may offer new opportunities for greater innovation in teaching. In this study, we combined the established literature on co-teaching teams with the developing field of machine actors used in education to investigate the impressions students had of different team configurations that included both a human and a robot. Participants saw one of three teams composed of a human and a social robot with different responsibilities present a short, prerecorded lecture (i.e., human as lead teacher-robot as teaching assistant, robot as lead teacher-human as teaching assistant, human and ...


A New Era Of Education: Incorporating Machine Teachers Into Education, Jihyun Kim Sep 2021

A New Era Of Education: Incorporating Machine Teachers Into Education, Jihyun Kim

Journal of Communication Pedagogy

This editorial briefly discusses the potential of machine agents in education that can assist in creating more positive and meaningful teaching and learning environments. Then, it introduces three articles, two empirical research studies and one research-based instructional activity, compromising a special section on “Machine Teachers in Education” of Journal of Communication Pedagogy. Collectively, these articles help us better understand the role of machines in education and facilitate intellectual dialogues.


What Is The Relationship Between Language And Thought?: Linguistic Relativity And Its Implications For Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo Sep 2021

What Is The Relationship Between Language And Thought?: Linguistic Relativity And Its Implications For Copyright, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

To date, copyright scholarship has almost completely overlooked the linguistics and cognitive psychology literature exploring the connection between language and thought. An exploration of the two major strains of this literature, known as universal grammar (associated with Noam Chomsky) and linguistic relativity (centered around the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis), offers insights into the copyrightability of constructed languages and of the type of software packages at issue in Google v. Oracle recently decided by the Supreme Court. It turns to modularity theory as the key idea unifying the analysis of both languages and software in ways that suggest that the information filtering associated ...


Human-Machine Communication: Complete Volume. Volume 3. Diffusion Of Human-Machine Communication During And After The Covid-19 Pandemic Sep 2021

Human-Machine Communication: Complete Volume. Volume 3. Diffusion Of Human-Machine Communication During And After The Covid-19 Pandemic

Human-Machine Communication

This is the complete volume of HMC Volume 3. Diffusion of Human-Machine Communication During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic


What Will Affect The Diffusion Of Ai Agents?, James W. Dearing Sep 2021

What Will Affect The Diffusion Of Ai Agents?, James W. Dearing

Human-Machine Communication

For billions of people, the threat of the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its variants has precipitated the adoption of new behaviors. Pandemics are radical events that disrupt the gradual course of societal change, offering the possibility that some rapidly adopted innovations will persist in use past the time period of the event and, thus, diffuse more rapidly than in the absence of such an event. Human-machine communication includes a range of technologies with which many of us have quickly become more familiar due to stay-athome orders, distancing, workplace closures, remote instruction, home-bound entertainment, fear of contracting COVID-19, and boredom. In ...


The Role Of Vidura Chatbot In The Diffusion Of Knowcovid-19 Gateway, Kerk F. Kee, Prasad P. Calyam, Hariharan Regunath Sep 2021

The Role Of Vidura Chatbot In The Diffusion Of Knowcovid-19 Gateway, Kerk F. Kee, Prasad P. Calyam, Hariharan Regunath

Human-Machine Communication

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global emergency. Clinicians and medical researchers are suddenly thrown into a situation where they need to keep up with the latest and best evidence for decision-making at work in order to save lives and develop solutions for COVID-19 treatments and preventions. However, a challenge is the overwhelming numbers of online publications with a wide range of quality. We explain a science gateway platform designed to help users to filter the overwhelming amount of literature efficiently (with speed) and effectively (with quality), to find answers to their scientific questions. It is equipped with a chatbot ...


Communicative Development And Diffusion Of Humanoid Ai Robots For The Post-Pandemic Health Care System, Do Kyun David Kim, Gary Kreps, Rukhsana Ahmed Sep 2021

Communicative Development And Diffusion Of Humanoid Ai Robots For The Post-Pandemic Health Care System, Do Kyun David Kim, Gary Kreps, Rukhsana Ahmed

Human-Machine Communication

As humanoid robot technology, anthropomorphized by artificial intelligence (AI), has rapidly advanced to introduce more human-resembling automated robots that can communicate, interact, and work like humans, we have begun to expect active interactions with Humanoid AI Robots (HAIRs) in the near future. Coupled with the HAIR technology development, the COVID-19 pandemic triggered our interest in using health care robots with many substantial advantages that overcome critical human vulnerabilities against the strong infectious COVID-19 virus. Recognizing the tremendous potential for the active application of HAIRs, this article explores feasible ways to implement HAIRs in health care and patient services and suggests ...


Our Future Arrived: Diffusion Of Human-Machine Communication And Transformation Of The World For The Post-Pandemic Era, Do Kyun David Kim, Gary Kreps, Rukhsana Ahmed Sep 2021

Our Future Arrived: Diffusion Of Human-Machine Communication And Transformation Of The World For The Post-Pandemic Era, Do Kyun David Kim, Gary Kreps, Rukhsana Ahmed

Human-Machine Communication

The world is getting into a new phase in history. For the first time, humans are verbally communicating and developing meaningful relationships with non-living objects. AI is a wormhole to open a gateway to the new world, and the COVID-19 pandemic prepared the world to transform its system to be an open system that responds to, communicates with, and utilizes the remnants coming out of the wormhole of the new world. Now, we urgently need to create a holistic discourse on how we can recognize, develop, or shape the identities of communicable machines as people develop a partnership with them ...


People-Focused And Near-Term Public Transit Performance Analysis, Alex Karner Sep 2021

People-Focused And Near-Term Public Transit Performance Analysis, Alex Karner

Journal of Public Transportation

Public transit ridership forecasts have long played a role in understanding the potential success of a policy or investment, but their limitations have led researchers and practitioners to identify other performance analysis approaches. Accessibility, or the ease of reaching opportunities, has become very popular and widely used for this purpose. But commonly used accessibility measures also embody weaknesses that are seldom acknowledged; these limit their utility for truly understanding the benefits of transit investments. In this paper, we identify the pros and cons of these competing approaches and offer a third strategy. Specifically, we describe how revealed travel behavior data ...


Novel Pilot Development Of A Closed-Loop Sustainable System Between Biogas Renewable Energy, Distilling, And Aquaculture By Vermiculture Of Stillage Wastes, Samuel C. Kessler Sep 2021

Novel Pilot Development Of A Closed-Loop Sustainable System Between Biogas Renewable Energy, Distilling, And Aquaculture By Vermiculture Of Stillage Wastes, Samuel C. Kessler

The Cardinal Edge

This study provides a mixed-methods approach in analyzing a potential closed-loop system between renewable biogas production from anaerobic digestion, vermiculture production, aquaculture production, and organic wastes with a particular focus on stillage wastes. Such system may hold significant promise for significantly reducing organic carbon and methane emissions from its components, and should be assessed for such. The 2021 IPCC report essentially identified methane reduction as the single fastest way to slow global warming (IPCC, 2021), making the study and implementation of methane-reducing systems and supportive policy for them critical. Knowledge gaps to implementing this system were qualitatively identified as disconnect ...


The Impact Of Cloud Computing On Academic Libraries, Sivankalai S Sep 2021

The Impact Of Cloud Computing On Academic Libraries, Sivankalai S

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

With the introduction of computers and other forms of communication technology, library services have undergone a significant transformation. Libraries have been automated, networked, and are currently being converted into virtual or paperless libraries. This article is dedicated to many aspects of cloud computing, including different kinds and applications. There is a discussion about the advantages and drawbacks of cloud computing in academic libraries. The article also includes recommendations for professional librarians and academic libraries across the globe on how to take advantage of cloud computing resources. This article may be of use in the development of cloud-based services for university ...


“Surviving And Growing Up With Illegal Status”: The Analysis Of Socio–Economic Household, Potential Conflict, The Environmental Damage, And Vulnerability Of Local Community To Disaster, Sofyan Syahnur, Yossi Diantimala Aug 2021

“Surviving And Growing Up With Illegal Status”: The Analysis Of Socio–Economic Household, Potential Conflict, The Environmental Damage, And Vulnerability Of Local Community To Disaster, Sofyan Syahnur, Yossi Diantimala

Journal of Sustainable Mining

This study aims to analyze, from social-economics and environmental perspectives, how illegal gold mining survives and grows with its illegal status. Generally, illegal mining has a positive impact on the socio-economy of all parties involved. However, mining activities cause environmental damage and pollution so that the local community is vulnerable to disaster and potential conflict. This research was conducted at an illegal mining site in Aceh, the western province of Indonesia. To describe the primary data, it employs a descriptive qualitative method. The purposive sampling method is used to select key informants. The results show an increasing income of all ...


Book Reviews, Usawc Press Aug 2021

Book Reviews, Usawc Press

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


Assessing Risk At The National Strategic Level: Visualization Tools For Military Planners, Wade A. Germann, Heather S. Gregg Aug 2021

Assessing Risk At The National Strategic Level: Visualization Tools For Military Planners, Wade A. Germann, Heather S. Gregg

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

The reemergence of great power competition, conflict with near-peer competitor states below the level of armed conflict, and persisting threats from nonstate actors with transnational ambitions and global reach pose challenges for strategists planning, executing, and assessing military operations and strategy. Building on current visualization tools, two proposed models—the National Strategic Risk Abacus and the National Strategic Risk Radar Chart—address these challenges and better depict how the US military may inadvertently contribute to risk at the national strategic level.


Great (Soft) Power Competition: Us And Chinese Efforts In Global Health Engagement, Michael W. Wissemann Aug 2021

Great (Soft) Power Competition: Us And Chinese Efforts In Global Health Engagement, Michael W. Wissemann

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Global health engagement, an underutilized strategy rooted in the strengths of soft power persuasion, can lead to more military-to-military cooperation training, help establish relationships that can be relied on when crises develop, stabilize fragile states, and deny violent extremist organizations space for recruiting and operations. Examining Chinese efforts worldwide to curry favor and influence and the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, this article shows health as a medium is a very compelling and advantageous whole-of-government approach to national security policy concerns.


Hope Versus Reality: The Efficacy Of Using Us Military Aid To Improve Human Rights In Egypt, Gregory L. Aftandilian Aug 2021

Hope Versus Reality: The Efficacy Of Using Us Military Aid To Improve Human Rights In Egypt, Gregory L. Aftandilian

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Using US military aid as a lever to achieve human rights reforms has proven only marginally effective. This article examines the approaches employed by the Obama and Trump administrations to US military aid to Egypt and proposes practical steps that can be taken by policymakers and the military personnel on the ground to advance US human rights values.


Samuel Huntington, Professionalism, And Self-Policing In The Us Army Officer Corps, Brian Mcallister Linn Aug 2021

Samuel Huntington, Professionalism, And Self-Policing In The Us Army Officer Corps, Brian Mcallister Linn

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Drawing on Samuel P. Huntington’s three phases of self-regulation used to determine if an occupation qualifies as a profession, this article focuses on the third phase of policing and removing those who fail to uphold the standards set forth in the first two phases. It reviews how the US Army implemented this phase following the Civil War through the post–Vietnam War years and the implications for the officer corps.


The Battalion Commander Effect, Everett Spain, Gautam Mukunda, Archie Bates Aug 2021

The Battalion Commander Effect, Everett Spain, Gautam Mukunda, Archie Bates

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

Statistical evidence suggests Army battalion commanders are significant determinants of the retention of their lieutenants—especially high-potential lieutenants. Further, this so-called Battalion Commander Effect should be included in brigadier general promotion board assessments and used to inform officer professional military education curricula.


The Evolution Of Hybrid Warfare: Implications For Strategy And The Military Profession, Ilmari Käihkö Aug 2021

The Evolution Of Hybrid Warfare: Implications For Strategy And The Military Profession, Ilmari Käihkö

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

The concept of hybrid war has evolved from operational-level use of military means and methods in war toward strategic-level use of nonmilitary means in a gray zone below the threshold of war. This article considers this evolution and its implications for strategy and the military profession by contrasting past and current use of the hybrid war concept and raising critical questions for policy and military practitioners.


Agent-Based Activity Generation Of Runners For City Infrastructure Planning, Quang Le Aug 2021

Agent-Based Activity Generation Of Runners For City Infrastructure Planning, Quang Le

REU Final Reports

Since the pandemic started, many gyms and indoor classes have been shut down to mitigate the spread of Coronavirus. Many people have been forced to get onto pavement streets to get some fresh air while running around and coping with the new reality. There are over 60 million runners in the U.S., and that number is growing rapidly during this time without any sign of stopping once life gets back to normal. In this project, an agent-based model has been developed to generate a set of routes that runners would take in their daily run in a neighborhood of ...


Forensic Artifact Finder (Forensicaf): An Approach & Tool For Leveraging Crowd-Sourced Curated Forensic Artifacts, Tyler Balon, Krikor Herlopian, Ibrahim Baggili, Cinthya Grajeda-Mendez Aug 2021

Forensic Artifact Finder (Forensicaf): An Approach & Tool For Leveraging Crowd-Sourced Curated Forensic Artifacts, Tyler Balon, Krikor Herlopian, Ibrahim Baggili, Cinthya Grajeda-Mendez

Electrical & Computer Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Publications

Current methods for artifact analysis and understanding depend on investigator expertise. Experienced and technically savvy examiners spend a lot of time reverse engineering applications while attempting to find crumbs they leave behind on systems. This takes away valuable time from the investigative process, and slows down forensic examination. Furthermore, when specific artifact knowledge is gained, it stays within the respective forensic units. To combat these challenges, we present ForensicAF, an approach for leveraging curated, crowd-sourced artifacts from the Artifact Genome Project (AGP). The approach has the overarching goal of uncovering forensically relevant artifacts from storage media. We explain our approach ...


Forensicast: A Non-Intrusive Approach & Tool For Logical Forensic Acquisition & Analysis Of The Google Chromecast Tv, Alex Sitterer, Nicholas Dubois, Ibrahim Baggili Aug 2021

Forensicast: A Non-Intrusive Approach & Tool For Logical Forensic Acquisition & Analysis Of The Google Chromecast Tv, Alex Sitterer, Nicholas Dubois, Ibrahim Baggili

Electrical & Computer Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Publications

The era of traditional cable Television (TV) is swiftly coming to an end. People today subscribe to a multitude of streaming services. Smart TVs have enabled a new generation of entertainment, not only limited to constant on-demand streaming as they now offer other features such as web browsing, communication, gaming etc. These functions have recently been embedded into a small IoT device that can connect to any TV with High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) input known as Google Chromecast TV. Its wide adoption makes it a treasure trove for potential digital evidence. Our work is the primary source on forensically ...


How Ai Is Socialized To Exhibit Bias, Andrew Treece Aug 2021

How Ai Is Socialized To Exhibit Bias, Andrew Treece

Sociology Student Work Collection

Artificial intelligence is becoming a more prevalent part of our society. This presentation seeks to explore some of the dangers of AI in relation to gender and racial bias from the sociological perspective.


Another Brick In The Wall: An Exploratory Analysis Of Digital Forensics Programs In The United States, Syria Mccullough, Stella Abudu, Ebere Onwubuariri, Ibrahim Baggili Aug 2021

Another Brick In The Wall: An Exploratory Analysis Of Digital Forensics Programs In The United States, Syria Mccullough, Stella Abudu, Ebere Onwubuariri, Ibrahim Baggili

Electrical & Computer Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Publications

We present a comprehensive review of digital forensics programs offered by universities across the United States (U.S.). While numerous studies on digital forensics standards and curriculum exist, few, if any, have examined digital forensics courses offered across the nation. Since digital forensics courses vary from university to university, online course catalogs for academic institutions were evaluated to curate a dataset. Universities were selected based on online searches, similar to those that would be made by prospective students. Ninety-seven (n = 97) degree programs in the U.S. were evaluated. Overall, results showed that advanced technical courses are missing from curricula ...


Duck Hunt: Memory Forensics Of Usb Attack Platforms, Tyler Thomas, Mathew Piscitelli, Bhavik Ashok Nahar, Ibrahim Baggili Aug 2021

Duck Hunt: Memory Forensics Of Usb Attack Platforms, Tyler Thomas, Mathew Piscitelli, Bhavik Ashok Nahar, Ibrahim Baggili

Electrical & Computer Engineering and Computer Science Faculty Publications

To explore the memory forensic artifacts generated by USB-based attack platforms, we analyzed two of the most popular commercially available devices, Hak5's USB Rubber Ducky and Bash Bunny. We present two open source Volatility plugins, usbhunt and dhcphunt, which extract artifacts generated by these USB attacks from Windows 10 system memory images. Such artifacts include driver-related diagnostic events, unique device identifiers, and DHCP client logs. Our tools are capable of extracting metadata-rich Windows diagnostic events generated by any USB device. The device identifiers presented in this work may also be used to definitively detect device usage. Likewise, the DHCP ...


The “East Side” Of Las Vegas: A Latinx Historical Framework, Nathalie Martinez Aug 2021

The “East Side” Of Las Vegas: A Latinx Historical Framework, Nathalie Martinez

Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal

Spanish heritage speakers in the United States are a reflection of everchanging linguistic and sociolinguistic pressures that result in myriad varieties across generations. This paper provides a preliminary historical framework to fill this gap of linguistic knowledge in the Spanish-speaking community of Las Vegas, Nevada. The goals were two-fold: (1) highlight the largest Spanish-speaking communities in Las Vegas and (2) explore the significance of the East Side in the history of the Latinx population of Las Vegas. Through the analysis of oral histories and historical works, the investigation highlights the Mexican, Salvadoran, and Cuban populations of Las Vegas and their ...