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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Us School Counselor State Licensure Requirements For Program Evaluation, Michael S. Trevisan, John C. Carey, Ian Martin, Narayankripa Sundararajan Nov 2020

Us School Counselor State Licensure Requirements For Program Evaluation, Michael S. Trevisan, John C. Carey, Ian Martin, Narayankripa Sundararajan

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

Using qualitative content analysis (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007), we examined the expectations of states in the US regarding program evaluation content for school counselor licensure. Results show that 43 states maintain some form of program evaluation expectations for licensure, up from the 19 identified by Trevisan (2000). Twenty-eight states require licensure tests that purportedly align with CACREP, ASCA, or maintain a state developed licensure test that measures program evaluation content. Twenty-one states explicitly mention alignment of their curriculum with CACREP, ASCA, or both. The depth and scope of the program evaluation requirements that could be identified are ambiguous and unconnected ...


Transition Services: Building Successful Collaborations Among School Professionals, Kimberly F. Frazier, Kristi Perryman, Suzanne Kucharczyk Nov 2020

Transition Services: Building Successful Collaborations Among School Professionals, Kimberly F. Frazier, Kristi Perryman, Suzanne Kucharczyk

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

Students who have significant disabilities have the same aspirations as their non-disabled peers: living productive, enriched, and self-determined lives. Adolescent-to-adulthood transition services have the potential to help position students with disabilities to obtain the best possible outcomes, thereby helping them lead full and included adult lives. It is vital that school and community-based support professionals act in concert with students with significant disabilities and their families to develop and implement successful transition services. This article discusses how partnerships across disciplines can help position students with disabilities for the best possible outcomes during the crucial period of their transition from the ...


A Phenomenological Study Of Teachers And Mental Health Paraprofessionals Implementing The Jesse Lewis Choose Love Program, Kristi Perryman, Erin Popejoy, Julia Conroy Nov 2020

A Phenomenological Study Of Teachers And Mental Health Paraprofessionals Implementing The Jesse Lewis Choose Love Program, Kristi Perryman, Erin Popejoy, Julia Conroy

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This study examined the lived experience of teachers and mental health paraprofessionals implementing the Jesse Lewis Choose Love curriculum in an alternative school setting. Social emotional learning curriculum implementation within the unique structure of alternative schools is important to investigate in order to better understand the unique needs of those providing services to students in this setting. This study utilized open-ended written prompts and two focus groups with teachers and mental health paraprofessionals for 10 weeks of implementation of this social emotional learning program. Participants reported changes in students and themselves and an increase in group cohesion. Five identified themes ...


Development Of The Taxonomy Of Policy Levers To Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling: An Initial Test Of Its Utility And Comprehensiveness, Oyaziwo Aluede, Barb Brady, Yuan Ying Jin, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed, John C. Carey Nov 2020

Development Of The Taxonomy Of Policy Levers To Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling: An Initial Test Of Its Utility And Comprehensiveness, Oyaziwo Aluede, Barb Brady, Yuan Ying Jin, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed, John C. Carey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article is the second of a two-part series that describes the development of the Taxonomy of Policy Levers to Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling. A previous article (Morshed & Carey, in press) described the development of the Taxonomy using content analysis of existing published descriptions of policy levers used to promote quality school-based counseling. This present article tested the utility and comprehensiveness of the Taxonomy by having experts from South Korea, Nigeria, and West Virginia review policies in their regions.. They analyzed the utility and comprehensiveness of the Taxonomy by using it to describe the school-based counseling policy landscape in ...


Development Of A Taxonomy Of Policy Levers To Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed, John Carey Nov 2020

Development Of A Taxonomy Of Policy Levers To Promote High Quality School-Based Counseling, Mohammad Mahboob Morshed, John Carey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

There is a lack of an established framework or taxonomy in the academic literature to systematically analyze school counseling policies. This study was conducted to fill in this gap. Specifically, the researchers propose an initial taxonomy developed based on review of relevant school counseling policy documents and research. The proposed taxonomy has 21 policy levers grouped under seven policy foci covering school counselors’ initial competence, continuing competence, effective school counseling practices, planning and evaluation of school counseling, distinct school counselor roles, hiring of school counselors, and the continual improvement of school counseling system. The Taxonomy is still in a developmental ...


A Virtual Internship To Prepare High School Students For Civic And Political Action, Jason A. Chen, Jeremy D. Stoddard Oct 2020

A Virtual Internship To Prepare High School Students For Civic And Political Action, Jason A. Chen, Jeremy D. Stoddard

School of Education Articles

We explored the impact of participating in a Virtual Internship (VI) computer-supported collaborative learning simulation, on high school students’ (n = 43) development of knowledge and skills for critiquing the political media with which they engage. Second, we evaluated the effect of this intervention on students’ self-efficacy for using specific media strategies to take political action. Finally, we explored the epistemic (knowledge-seeking) and non-epistemic aims that students set for themselves while participating within our VI, which was designed specifically to address students’ epistemic cognition. Analyses of both the quantitative and qualitative data revealed that students: (1) evinced gains in knowledge about ...


Managing Stress In A Time Of Increased Pressure: Perspectives From University Presidents, Russell S. Thacker, Sydney Freeman, Jr. Jun 2020

Managing Stress In A Time Of Increased Pressure: Perspectives From University Presidents, Russell S. Thacker, Sydney Freeman, Jr.

The William & Mary Educational Review

The modern university presidency continues to become more complex, resulting in numerous personal and professional stresses placed on a president. This study explores the sources, impacts, and successful prevention and management of stress in the position. Data for the study comes from qualitative phenomenological interviews with five sitting presidents of public and private universities in the United States. Using a theoretical lens derived from executive stress theory, the authors examine the degree to which a need for personal control and stability play a role in producing stress and motivating certain stress responses. Meaningful relationships, positive mindsets, and repeatable practices of ...


Kenyan Professional Counsellors’ Role Perceptions And Responsibilities, Chika Eucharia Eze, Alice Nzangi, Francis Obaweiki May 2020

Kenyan Professional Counsellors’ Role Perceptions And Responsibilities, Chika Eucharia Eze, Alice Nzangi, Francis Obaweiki

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article presents the results of survey research on Kenyan professional school-based counsellor’s perceptions of roles and appropriate activities. Data were collected from 47 Kenyan counsellors using the International Survey of School-Based Counselling Activities. Mean subscale scores and standard deviations were employed to analyse data across five dimensions of the school-based counsellor role practice: Counselling Services; Advocacy and Systemic Improvement; Prevention Programs; Administrator Role; and Educational Career Planning. Results indicated that Kenyan counsellors’ highest scale of preference for role/responsibility they perform was Counselling Services (one-to-one counselling service and group counselling aimed at improving children and adolescences’ mental health ...


Structural Validity Of The International Survey Of School Counselor’S Activities (Issca) When Applied With Counseling And Guidance Personnel In Primary Schools In Hong Kong, Shui Wai Wong, Mantak Yuen May 2020

Structural Validity Of The International Survey Of School Counselor’S Activities (Issca) When Applied With Counseling And Guidance Personnel In Primary Schools In Hong Kong, Shui Wai Wong, Mantak Yuen

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This paper reports results of a recent exploratory study using the International Survey of School Counselor’s Activities with two separate but equivalent samples of guidance professionals from primary schools in Hong Kong. An exploratory factor analysis using data from one sample (n = 76) identified 7 factors representing guidance and counseling roles: counseling services; practice improvement; services to parents; prevention programs; advocacy and systemic improvement; educational and career planning; and, discipline and administration. Confirmatory factor analysis using data from the second sample (n = 76) supported this 7-factor solution. A previous international study involving school-based counselors from 10 countries had identified ...


Practices And Priorities Of School-Based Counselors In Venezuela And Costa Rica, Ian Martin, George Vera May 2020

Practices And Priorities Of School-Based Counselors In Venezuela And Costa Rica, Ian Martin, George Vera

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article reports findings from surveys collected from practicing school-based counselors in Venezuela (N = 30) and Costa Rica (N = 107) using the International Survey of School-Based Counseling Activities (ISSCA). Analyses identified striking similarities between these two countries and major differences when compared to the other 10 countries within this special issue. The discussion is focused on explaining how school-based counseling policies and educational policies in Venezuela and Costa Rica influenced the development of counseling practices over time.


School-Based Counseling In The United States: Mode Of Practice And International Comparisons Related To Five Dimensions Of Practice, John C. Carey May 2020

School-Based Counseling In The United States: Mode Of Practice And International Comparisons Related To Five Dimensions Of Practice, John C. Carey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This study used the five dimensions of practice identified by Carey, Fan, He, and Jin (2020) to describe the preferred mode of practice of US school-based counselors and compare this mode of practice with nine other countries. A total of 380 US school counselors completed the International Survey of School Counselor Activities-United States. Mean item ratings and mean BART scores were used for both descriptions and comparisons. US counselors indicated that Counseling Services; Advocacy and Systemic Improvement; Prevention Programs; and, Educational and Career Planning were all important aspects of their role. In comparison to international counterparts, US counselors placed greater ...


School-Based Counsellors' Role As Perceived By Nigerian Counsellors, Oyaziwo Aluede, Andrew A. Adubale May 2020

School-Based Counsellors' Role As Perceived By Nigerian Counsellors, Oyaziwo Aluede, Andrew A. Adubale

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This study assessed the perceptions of Nigerian counsellors regarding the appropriateness of a range of school counsellors’ activities and determined how Nigerian school counsellors viewed the appropriateness of the five dimensions of counselling practice. School counsellors from the Association of Professional Counsellors in Nigeria (n = 176) completed the International Survey of School-based Counselor Activities. Results were compared to those of counsellors from nine other nations. Findings revealed some commonalities and some potentially important differences. Nigerian counsellors considered the Educational and Career Planning dimension the most important dimension. In contrast to all the other national groups, Nigerian counsellors considered Administrative Activities ...


Comparing Maltese School-Based Counselling With Nine Other Countries, Ruth Falzon, Silvia Galea, Maud Muscat May 2020

Comparing Maltese School-Based Counselling With Nine Other Countries, Ruth Falzon, Silvia Galea, Maud Muscat

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This research identifies activities that Maltese School-based Counsellors (MSC) engage in and perceived as appropriate for their role. The article also compared Maltese schoolbased counselling with counselling in other countries. The results reflect both (a) the influence of the American and British models of counselling and (b) the unique cultural context. MSCs evidenced congruence with regard to perceptions of appropriateness and actual activities carried out. However some activities, which they considered as appropriate, were not being carrying out. This may mean either that counsellors’ workloads were untenable, or that the job descriptions, remits and boundaries of the psychosocial team in ...


Role Of School Counselors And The Factors That Affect Their Practice In India, Elizabeth Thomas, Anjali M. Dey May 2020

Role Of School Counselors And The Factors That Affect Their Practice In India, Elizabeth Thomas, Anjali M. Dey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article summarizes the responses of the sample of Indian school-based counselors who contributed data to the international factor analysis that identified five dimensions of practice. Forty-five complete surveys (i.e., the International Survey of School Counselor’s Activities) were obtained from Indian school-based counselors most of whom had a Master’s degree in counseling psychology. Counseling Services, Advocacy and Systemic Improvement, Preventive Programs, and Educational and Career Planning were all considered important components of role. Activities related to the Administrative Role were considered as inappropriate. Compared to the other countries, the scores from India suggest that the school-based counselors ...


Five Dimensions Of School-Based Counseling Practice: Factor Analysis Identification Using The International Survey Of School Counselors’ Activities, John C. Carey, Kuiyuan Y. Fan, Lijuan He, Yuan Ying Jin May 2020

Five Dimensions Of School-Based Counseling Practice: Factor Analysis Identification Using The International Survey Of School Counselors’ Activities, John C. Carey, Kuiyuan Y. Fan, Lijuan He, Yuan Ying Jin

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This article describes a factor analytic study designed to identify the underlying dimensions of school-based counseling practice that will be useful in describing cross-national differences in school-based counseling practice and in enabling comparative research on school-based counseling policy and effectiveness. Practicing school-based counselors (N = 2913) from 10 countries (China, Costa Rica, India, Kenya, South Korea, Malta, Nigeria, Turkey, the United States, and Venezuela) used the International Survey of School-Based Counseling Activities (ISSCA) to rate the centrality of 40 activities to the role of a school-based counselor. Factor analysis determined that five dimensions adequately described the school-based counselor role: Counseling Services ...


Introduction To This Special Issue On Cross-National Differences In School-Based Counseling Practice, John C. Carey May 2020

Introduction To This Special Issue On Cross-National Differences In School-Based Counseling Practice, John C. Carey

Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation

This special issue of the Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation presents the outcomes of the research of a team of international scholars seeking to better understand the nature of the variability of school-based counseling practice across countries and the contextual determinants of this variability. A lead article describes a large, ten-nation, factor analytic study of school-based counselors’ ratings on the International Survey of School-Based Counseling Activities (ISSCA) that identified five dimensions that describe cross-national variability. Five articles use this five-dimensional framework to describe the mode of practice for school-based counseling within a single country (India, Kenya, Malta, Nigeria ...


Learning About Learning With Deep Learning: Satellite Estimates Of School Test Scores, Heather M. Baier May 2020

Learning About Learning With Deep Learning: Satellite Estimates Of School Test Scores, Heather M. Baier

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Convolutional neural networks are deep-learning models commonly applied when analyzing imagery. Convolutional neural networks and satellite imagery have shown potential for the global estimation of key factors driving socioeconomic ability to adapt to global change. Unlike more traditional approaches to data collection, such as surveys, approaches based on satellite data are low cost, timely, and allow replication by a wide range of parties. We illustrate the potential of this approach with a case study estimating school test scores based solely on publicly available imagery in both the Philippines (2010, 2014) and Brazil (2016), with predictive accuracy across years and regions ...


What Europe Learns About Itself: Political Differences And Their Effects On Citizenship Education About The European Union In England, Scotland And Nordrhein-Westfalen, William Moore May 2020

What Europe Learns About Itself: Political Differences And Their Effects On Citizenship Education About The European Union In England, Scotland And Nordrhein-Westfalen, William Moore

Undergraduate Honors Theses

How government opinion can influence the creation of citizenship education content has long been a significant question in the field of political socialization. In recent years, the European Union has become a particularly relevant institution and target in this process, as the EU has grown in its political salience. But have governments attempted to influence the attitudes of citizenship education content about the EU for potential political benefits? In this study, I use a combination of spatial content analysis and textual analysis on party manifestos and citizenship education textbooks from England, Scotland, and Nordrhein-Westfalen to highlight whether political opinions on ...


Bilingualism And Emotion: How Do Spanish-English Bilinguals Experience The Two Languages Differently?, Caitlyn Whitesell May 2020

Bilingualism And Emotion: How Do Spanish-English Bilinguals Experience The Two Languages Differently?, Caitlyn Whitesell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Previous literature has suggested that bilingual people react to emotional statements with varying degrees of intensity due to their personal experience with each language. Potential factors affecting emotional differences between languages included fluency, culture, age of acquisition, amount of exposure, language learning environment, and motivation. Isolating the impact of these factors on emotional experience challenges research because the factors cannot be easily controlled or separated. The current study investigated how the factors of age of acquisition, length of language exposure, and language-learning environment played a role in emotional reactions to similar stimuli by manipulating the language of the emotional stimuli ...


Task Force On Textbook Affordability Final Report, Marian Taliaferro, Paul D. Heideman, Asia Randolph Feb 2020

Task Force On Textbook Affordability Final Report, Marian Taliaferro, Paul D. Heideman, Asia Randolph

W&M Libraries Publications

Costs of textbooks and course materials for undergraduates are estimated nationally at up to $1200 per student per year. With that estimate, the aggregate costs for William & Mary’s 6250 undergraduates may approach $7.5 million per year; graduate students may add $1-2 million to that total. Course books and materials increase costs of college attendance, and for some students are barriers to success. The Textbook Affordability Taskforce (TATF) composed of W&M faculty, staff, and students was formed in August 2019. The TATF was charged with examining the issue of textbook affordability and with developing and delivering near-term and long-term recommendations for making textbooks more affordable for W&M students ...


W&M Student Textbook Survey Executive Summary, Marian Taliaferro, Asia Randolph, Jessica Ramey Feb 2020

W&M Student Textbook Survey Executive Summary, Marian Taliaferro, Asia Randolph, Jessica Ramey

W&M Libraries Publications

Presents key findings from the textbook survey. The main objectives for issuing the textbook survey in fall 2019 were to understand the textbook spending practices as well as related preferences of W&M students so that the campus administrators would have information useful for programs designed to increase course materials affordability. Specifically, survey objectives were to:

• Understand current costs of textbooks and course materials for W&M students

• Understand methods W&M students take to lower textbook costs

• Understand the viability of implementing an “inclusive access” textbook pilot

• Identify student suggestions for reducing textbook costs