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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Comparison Of Traditional And Nontraditional Students Attending Historically Black Or Predominantly White Institutions, Courtney H. Podesta Jul 2009

A Comparison Of Traditional And Nontraditional Students Attending Historically Black Or Predominantly White Institutions, Courtney H. Podesta

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Previous studies have demonstrated that there are benefits for some African American students in attending an Historically Black College or University (HBCU) over a Predominantly White Institution (PWI); however, studies have not considered how results might be impacted by student status, traditional vs. nontraditional, or the degree to which a student is considered to be nontraditional (minimally, moderately, or highly nontraditional). The current study addressed this gap in research by examining differences between the HBCU and PWI environments for 336 African American traditional and nontraditional students for the following variables: social support, academic self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy, role strain, ethnic identity ...


Test Anxiety And Other Factors As Predictors Of Outcome For An Undergraduate University's Examination Of Writing Competency, Carrie D. Smith Jul 2009

Test Anxiety And Other Factors As Predictors Of Outcome For An Undergraduate University's Examination Of Writing Competency, Carrie D. Smith

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Testing in American schools has increased dramatically in recent years (Cizek & Burg, 2006), increasing the need for research in test anxiety (TA). Writing apprehension, a subcategory of TA, may be of particular concern among students at all levels of education given the recent addition of writing assessments on the SAT and GRE tests.

Very few recent studies have examined demographic correlates of TA and the demographics of students in higher education have been changing for some time. These changes include an increase in all categories of nontraditional students. Nontraditional students, by definition, face a particular set of challenges in attending college. They tend to have significant family responsibilities, work and/or other obligations beyond those of traditional students (Ryan, 2003), leaving less time and energy to focus on academics. The research findings on age trends have been variable. However, some research shows a slight decline in the prevalence of TA in the college years (Hembree, 1988; Zeidner, 1998). Early studies have shown that African American students, in general, show higher levels of TA than Caucasian students (Payne, Smith, & Payne, 1983; Rhine & Spaner, 1983).

There is minimal research that examines TA specifically for writing exams, or writing apprehension. Earlier studies found that writing apprehension is highly negatively correlated with performance on writing competency assessments and general essays (Daly, 1978; Faigley, Daly, & White, 1981). Given this, it is important to consider the factors that impact writing competency. Graham and Harris (2000) noted much support in the literature for the impact of transcription, or handwriting abilities, on writing competency but also point to self-regulation as another key factor in writing competency. They observed that skilled writers tend to have better self-regulation skills than less skilled writers. In ...


A Grounded Theory Of School Counselors' Conceptualizations Of Their Training Regarding Adolescent Mental Health Issues, Cynthia Theresa Walley Apr 2009

A Grounded Theory Of School Counselors' Conceptualizations Of Their Training Regarding Adolescent Mental Health Issues, Cynthia Theresa Walley

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

There is a paucity of research regarding master's level school counselors' conceptualizations of their training regarding recognizing and responding to adolescent mental health issues. The purpose of this study was to propose develop a theory that illuminates new school counselors' conceptualizations of their training related to gaining knowledge in recognizing and responding to adolescent mental health issues. To accomplish this, eight school counselors in the southeastern Virginia area participated in two rounds of individual interviews and a reflective writing activity. Utilizing a qualitative grounded theory design, both the interviews and the reflective writing were analyzed to extrapolate themes about ...


Experiences Of School Counselors During And After Making Suspected Child Abuse And Neglect Reports, April Sikes Apr 2009

Experiences Of School Counselors During And After Making Suspected Child Abuse And Neglect Reports, April Sikes

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of school counselors during or after making suspected child abuse and neglect reports. The survey population for this study consisted of all members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) who identified themselves as working in elementary, elementary/middle, middle/junior high, middle/secondary, secondary/high school, and K-12 work settings. Email addresses were obtained from the ASCA online member directory during the summer of 2008. A total of 847 surveys were completed and returned. A total of 11,113 ASCA members were sent surveys. Of those sent, 7,021 ...


Reflective Visual Journaling During Art Therapy And Counseling Internships, Sarah P. Deaver Apr 2009

Reflective Visual Journaling During Art Therapy And Counseling Internships, Sarah P. Deaver

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

Visual journaling is thought to promote students' critical reflection upon their previous learning, their current experiences, and their ongoing professional growth. Research supports the value of written journals as educational tools that encourage reflection, but the potential for visual journaling to facilitate reflection has not been explored through systematic inquiry until now.

This qualitative multiple case study explored four art therapy students' and four counseling students' responses to visual journaling during their internships. They maintained their journals throughout one 15-week academic semester, and were interviewed four times over the course of the study. Data consisted of transcribed interviews and photographs ...


Attitudes And Beliefs Of Counselor Educators Toward Gatekeeping, Joanna W. Campbell Apr 2009

Attitudes And Beliefs Of Counselor Educators Toward Gatekeeping, Joanna W. Campbell

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes and beliefs of counselor educators toward gatekeeping, which become overt in gatekeeping decisions in the context of stringent and less stringent decisions made at seven gates that counselors-in-training must pass though to graduate, and factors extraneous to counselor-in-training competence that may influence gatekeeping decisions. A total of 84 counselor educators participated in this study. Results showed that counselor educators are most stringent at the admissions gate; that less stringent gatekeeping decisions are made by counselor educators who have experience as a professional counselor prior to becoming a counselor educator at the ...


A Pilot Study To Explore The Use Of Expressive Writing To Reduce Anxiety And Psychological Threat In An Academic Setting, Cynthia Delores Jenkins Apr 2009

A Pilot Study To Explore The Use Of Expressive Writing To Reduce Anxiety And Psychological Threat In An Academic Setting, Cynthia Delores Jenkins

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate if the use of Pennebaker's short-term expressive writing intervention would have a positive effect on the academic performance of a group of third semester underperforming freshmen. This is a relatively brief and simple intervention pioneered by J. W. Pennebaker (1997) who conducted numerous studies using the procedure. Most of the research has involved having subjects write about traumatic, stressful or emotional events for 15–20 minutes (the maximum) over 3–5 days. In contrast, the studies by Wilson (2006) and Cohen et al (2006) used self-affirmations for writing. For this study ...


A Phenomenological Case Study Of The Multicultural Counseling Experience Of Students And Faculty In Relation To Their Perceptions Of Their Multicultural Competency And Cacrep Standards, Nial P. Quinlan Apr 2009

A Phenomenological Case Study Of The Multicultural Counseling Experience Of Students And Faculty In Relation To Their Perceptions Of Their Multicultural Competency And Cacrep Standards, Nial P. Quinlan

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

The shifting population demographics of the United States are an unmistakable sign that the work of professional counselors and educators will continue to see an increase in the diversity of their client populations. It can be surmised, that paralleling this population change will be a subsequent increase in the demand for multicultural sensitive education and counseling, with particular attention being given to oppressed and marginalized groups who have been traditionally underserved. The counseling profession, guided by the American Counseling Association's (ACA) Code of Ethics, has unequivocally stated that professional counselors need to be proficient at providing multicultural competent counseling ...


Teaching Social And Emotional Competence In Early Childhood, Rita Coombs Richardson, Steve P. Myran, Steve Tonelson Jan 2009

Teaching Social And Emotional Competence In Early Childhood, Rita Coombs Richardson, Steve P. Myran, Steve Tonelson

Communication Disorders & Special Education Faculty Publications

This study evaluated the impact of a social skills curriculum on the social behaviors of students in two pre-kindergarten classrooms. Participating were 30 students in a program based at a university child study center. The average age of the participants was four years ten months. The income levels of the families varied from low social economic status to high middle economic status. Two examiners independently completed the Social Skills and Attitude Scale (SSAS) for each child. The examiners observed the children and recorded children's pre and post intervention behaviors on a checklist. The study yielded positive evidence that the ...


Community College Online Course Retention And Final Grade: Predictability Of Social Presence, Simon Y. Liu, Joel Gomez, Cherng-Jyh Yen Jan 2009

Community College Online Course Retention And Final Grade: Predictability Of Social Presence, Simon Y. Liu, Joel Gomez, Cherng-Jyh Yen

Educational Foundations & Leadership Faculty Publications

This study employed a quantitative research design to examine the predictive relationships between social presence and course retention as well as final grade in community college online courses. Social presence is defined as the degree of one's feeling, perception and reaction to another intellectual entity in the online environment. Course final grades included A, B. C, D, F, I, or W. Course retention was defined as successfully completed a course with an A to C grade. The results of the binary and ordinal logistic regression analyses suggest that social presence is a significant predictor of course retention and final ...


A Meta-Analysis Of Supplemental Educational Services (Ses) Provider Effects On Student Achievement, Shanan L. Chappell Jan 2009

A Meta-Analysis Of Supplemental Educational Services (Ses) Provider Effects On Student Achievement, Shanan L. Chappell

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The 2001 renewal of the United States' Title I program, which provides federal funds to schools with large populations of low-income students, instituted the Supplemental Educational Services (SES) program in which schools in their third year of failing to make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) are required to offer after-school tutoring in core subjects to low-income students, provided by public or private tutoring agencies. States are responsible for implementing, overseeing, and evaluating the SES programs; currently, several states and large local school districts have performed evaluations, with many more in the process of publishing results from statewide SES studies. Although state ...


A Model Of Responses To Race-Based And Gender-Based Stereotype Threat In Computer Science, Lara Tedrow Jan 2009

A Model Of Responses To Race-Based And Gender-Based Stereotype Threat In Computer Science, Lara Tedrow

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The perception of stereotype threat among computer science students was examined at two universities. A model of stereotype threat was developed and tested among students enrolled in three undergraduate computer science courses at two universities. The goal of this model was to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which stereotype threat works.

The study tested relationships among the following variables: race-based stereotype threat, gender-based stereotype threat, goal orientation, CS self-efficacy, active coping, behavioral disengagement, effort, and performance. Structural equation modeling was used to test the measurement model and a series of nested structural models. Findings supported the proposed ...


An Examination Of Section 504 In Practice: Dark Days For Student Rights, Ann S. Maydosz Jan 2009

An Examination Of Section 504 In Practice: Dark Days For Student Rights, Ann S. Maydosz

Communication Disorders & Special Education Theses & Dissertations

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a broadly worded statement that addresses discrimination in schools and other settings. Enacted at about the same time as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Section 504 has been used sparingly in elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 presents an opportunity to redress educational inequities for struggling students because it can provide support for students with disabilities and impairments not covered by IDEA. However, due to vague wording, unclear case law, and limited training for school divisions and practitioners, schools are unsure how to implement and to comply with Section ...