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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education

2007

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Psychology

Articles 1 - 3 of 3

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock Jan 2007

It Only Takes Once: Influence Of Sexual Risk Status, Social Comparison, And A Public Service Announcement On Absent-Exempt Cognitions, Michelle Leigh Stock

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study is an extension of an ongoing program of research, based on the Prototype/Willingness Model (Gibbons, Gerrard, & Lane, 2003), which suggests that peer-based prevention messages may reinforce absent-exempt thinking, rather than reduce it (Stock et al., 2007). Absent-exempt thinking is the belief that if one has not experienced negative health consequences, in spite of having engaged in risky behavior, then one is unlikely to do so in the future (Weinstein, 1984, 1987). The present study provided an experimental demonstration of how social comparison prompted by a health message influences health cognitions (endorsement of absent-exempt thinking, willingness to engage in risky sex, prevalence estimates of risky sex on campus, favorability of risky sex prototypes, and perceptions of vulnerability to STDs). College students (N = 222) at either high or low risk of contracting STDs were randomly assigned to: (a) listen to a social comparison target who was a STD-positive student, despite engaging in low-risk sexual behavior (i.e., sex with one partner only a few times without a condom); (b) to hear a Public Service Announcement (PSA) that emphasized "it only takes one time" or (c) to hear no information about STDs. Participants then completed a questionnaire that assessed their risk-promoting cognitions and were then given the opportunity to read information on an STD.;It was predicted that high-risk participants in the social comparison group would report the highest levels of risk cognitions, whereas high-risk participants in the control condition would report lower levels of the risk promoting cognitions ...


Success In The Sciences: Potential Influences Of Sex Role Conflict, Self-Efficacy, And Role Modeling On Women's Career Aspirations, Anna Frances Rudroff Jan 2007

Success In The Sciences: Potential Influences Of Sex Role Conflict, Self-Efficacy, And Role Modeling On Women's Career Aspirations, Anna Frances Rudroff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A discrepancy exists between the number of men and women pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To investigate this discrepancy, this study examined a model assessing the potential influence of multiple variables on the career aspirations of women pursuing these degrees. Two hundred thirty-two first and second-year women majoring in STEM fields completed measures assessing quality and quantity of role modeling relationships, STEM self-efficacy, STEM interests, sex role conflict, and career aspirations. Quality of role modeling relationships and STEM self-efficacy significantly predicted career aspirations. STEM self-efficacy did not mediate the relation between quality of role modeling relationships ...


Evaluation Of Virtual Reality Snowplow Simulation Training, Christopher Michael Masciocchi Jan 2007

Evaluation Of Virtual Reality Snowplow Simulation Training, Christopher Michael Masciocchi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effectiveness of virtual reality snowplow simulator training for current Iowa Department of Transportation employees was examined. Operators received approximately two hours of training, which included several drives in a driving simulator designed to emulate a snowplow. Performance on a test scenario was compared for operators who had received this training versus those who were trained after the test scenario. Participants also completed a variety of personality and training questionnaires designed to measure personality tendencies, as well as their opinions of training and the realism of the simulator. Responses to these questionnaires were generally positive: operators reported that the features ...