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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Role Of Inspiration In Scientific Scholarship And Discovery: Views Of Theistic Scientists, Kari Ann O'Grady Dec 2007

The Role Of Inspiration In Scientific Scholarship And Discovery: Views Of Theistic Scientists, Kari Ann O'Grady

Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative research study examined the ways those who identify themselves as theistic scientists and scholars experience inspiration, as defined as divine guidance or influence, in their scientific scholarship and discovery. It also explored participants' beliefs about how scientists and scholars can seek and prepare to receive inspiration in their work. Open-ended surveys of 450 participants from the behavioral and natural sciences and from a variety of religious backgrounds were analyzed for content themes in the areas of experiences with inspiration, preparing to receive inspiration, and further thoughts on inspiration in science. The themes extracted indicated that these scientists and ...


Women's Perceptions Of Parents, Peers, Romantic Partner And God As Predictive Of Symptoms Severity Among Women In Treatment For Eating Disorders At An Inpatient Facility, Samuel B. Tobler Dec 2007

Women's Perceptions Of Parents, Peers, Romantic Partner And God As Predictive Of Symptoms Severity Among Women In Treatment For Eating Disorders At An Inpatient Facility, Samuel B. Tobler

Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined whether perceptions of parents, peers, romantic partners and God were predictive of eating disorder symptom severity among women in treatment for eating disorders. The sample included 417 women (ages 12 to 56 years) at an inpatient treatment facility for eating disorders. Participants completed a battery of assessment measures at intake and discharge. Change scores were also computed on all measures. Measures included indices of eating disorder symptomology, parental relationships, peer relationships, romantic partner relationships, and religious well-being. Multiple regression analysis showed perceptions of peers and romantic partner to be significant predictors in all analyses; however perceptions ...


Existing Practice And Proposed Changes In Cognitive Assessment Of Utah Students Identified As Deaf And Hard Hearing, Leah Voorhies Dec 2007

Existing Practice And Proposed Changes In Cognitive Assessment Of Utah Students Identified As Deaf And Hard Hearing, Leah Voorhies

Theses and Dissertations

This study presented the past, current, and proposed practice of intelligence testing with a unique population, students identified as deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH). As a basis for describing the cognitive ability of Utah's D/HH students and to improve practice guidelines, 61 D/HH students served by Utah Schools for the Deaf and the Blind (USDB) were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) standard battery and the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). Based on these data, composite score distributions were described and compared with national standardization ...


Description Of The Trio/Upward Bound Students' Construction Of Vocations Using George Kelly's Rep Test Method, Maraia Sokia Weingarten Dec 2007

Description Of The Trio/Upward Bound Students' Construction Of Vocations Using George Kelly's Rep Test Method, Maraia Sokia Weingarten

Theses and Dissertations

The Information Age is revolutionizing the way we communicate, acquire knowledge, and perform work. Society is shifting from occupations rooted in industrial production to those associated with knowledge and information, requiring the development of new skills for changing occupations and updating old educational methods. Educators need to be aware of economic and social changes and have a vision for how to design career education to respond to those changes. Individuals must also be prepared to learn on their own as careers evolve and change. The training necessary to adapt to the changing career culture needs to be made available to ...


Dreamwork With Children: Perceptions And Practice Of School-Based Mental Health Professionals, Rosalia Rodriguez Huermann Nov 2007

Dreamwork With Children: Perceptions And Practice Of School-Based Mental Health Professionals, Rosalia Rodriguez Huermann

Theses and Dissertations

Forty nine public school mental health practitioners (i.e., school counselors, school psychologists, and school social workers) completed a survey about working with dreams when counseling students. Most practitioners in this sample reported having at least one student bring up dreams during counseling and spent some time in counseling working with students' dreams. Practitioners addressed dreams more frequently in situations where the student was having troubling dreams or nightmares, and/or was dealing with death and grief. They also acknowledged working with dreams with students who were diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, were emotionally disturbed, suffered from recurrent dreams ...


A 17-Year Longitudinal Study Of Spiritual Development And Psychological Correlates In A Sample Of College Students, Jeremy Daniel Bartz Sep 2007

A 17-Year Longitudinal Study Of Spiritual Development And Psychological Correlates In A Sample Of College Students, Jeremy Daniel Bartz

Theses and Dissertations

In 1984, 1987 and 2001 data were collected on a religiously devout group of college students in an effort to better understand the process of religious development and the relationship between religiosity and mental health. This study analyzes that data by examining the stability of two different religious development styles that were identified in 1984, the stability of religious motivations over the course of adulthood, and the relationship between devoutness and psychopathology. This study found that (a) the religious developmental styles did not remain consistent from 1984 to 2001, (b) the participants' religious motivations remained stable over the course of ...


Diverse Students' Perceptions Of Cultural Congruity And Environment At A University, Effie J. Thacker Aug 2007

Diverse Students' Perceptions Of Cultural Congruity And Environment At A University, Effie J. Thacker

Theses and Dissertations

The Culturally Responsive Special Education/English as a Second Language (ESL) program was designed to assist students from diverse backgrounds in being academically successful in a large western private university. Utilizing the Cultural Congruity Scale (CCS) and University Environment Scale (UES), this study analyzed the perceptions of 28 students who are ethnically diverse and enrolled in the Culturally Responsive Special Education/ESL Program. The data will be used to evaluate the program's success in addressing the barriers that have historically kept students who are ethnically diverse from succeeding in higher education. Participating students completed CCS and UES surveys questioning ...


Longitudinal Course Of Body Dissatisfaction In Undergraduate Females At Brigham Young University, Joy Wiechmann Jul 2007

Longitudinal Course Of Body Dissatisfaction In Undergraduate Females At Brigham Young University, Joy Wiechmann

Theses and Dissertations

This research project examined the longitudinal course of body dissatisfaction among undergraduate females at Brigham Young University (BYU) using the Body Satisfaction Questionnaire (BSQ).The research also examined what percentage of undergraduate females have BSQ ratings in the clinically significant range and whether body dissatisfaction ratings varied based on the environment in which the student lived. Results indicate that no significant change in body dissatisfaction occurred over time, nor did living environment appear to play a role in BSQ scores. Results also showed that at any given time over 34% of women on BYU campus have BSQ scores in the ...


The Relationship Between Family Composition And Social Behavior For Students With Mild Disabilities In Schools, Amanda Clark Jul 2007

The Relationship Between Family Composition And Social Behavior For Students With Mild Disabilities In Schools, Amanda Clark

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research identifies significant differences in children's problem behavior across various family structures, particularly noting more challenging behaviors in children from single parent families. Utilizing a pre-existing data set of Behavioral Objective Sequence (BOS) scores, this study investigated teacher ratings of social behavioral skills in students with mild disabilities, focusing on differences between groups of students from a variety of family compositions. Results indicated no significant difference in social behavioral skills among children from different family groups, taking into account the student's age. The covariate of age was significant on each of six BOS subscales, suggesting that children ...


The Effect Of Video Self-Modeling On The Compliance Rates Of High School Students With Developmental Disabilities, Jacob Ammon Aukai Figueira Jul 2007

The Effect Of Video Self-Modeling On The Compliance Rates Of High School Students With Developmental Disabilities, Jacob Ammon Aukai Figueira

Theses and Dissertations

People with developmental disabilities must develop the ability to maintain socially acceptable behavior in order to become contributing, accepted members of society at large. Research indicates that compliance, or following directions, is a keystone behavior, which, if learned, may significantly decrease the occurrence of behavior difficulties in students. Many studies of individuals with disabilities have shown a dramatic increase across a wide range of academic and social skills using video self-modeling (VSM), a technique in which students watch edited videos of themselves performing skills correctly or at high rates. Despite the importance of compliance for individuals with disabilities and the ...


Teacher Perceptions Of The Social Validity Of The Peaceable Schools Model, Rachelle Marie Pieper Jul 2007

Teacher Perceptions Of The Social Validity Of The Peaceable Schools Model, Rachelle Marie Pieper

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the social validity of the Peaceable Schools model, which includes positive behavior support and social skills training. Data were collected through subjective evaluation using an open-ended survey given to teachers at two secondary schools. Results show that teachers perceived evidence of social validity in the areas of social significance, comprehensiveness, relevance, treatment integrity, and social acceptability. While weaknesses were also expressed in the areas of social acceptability, feasibility, and practicality, teachers perceived overall improvement in students' social skills and saw more strengths than weaknesses. Outcomes suggest that the Peaceable Schools model has ...


Factors Contributing To The Shortage Of Speech-Language Pathologists In Utah Schools, Stephanie Harris Jul 2007

Factors Contributing To The Shortage Of Speech-Language Pathologists In Utah Schools, Stephanie Harris

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined factors contributing to Utah's critical shortage of school-based speech-language pathologists. Specifically, this study focused on the following three constructs: (a) stress levels among professionals currently in the field, (b) attrition and the reasons professionals leave their positions, and (c) factors at the university level. Stress among Utah's speech-language pathologists was assessed using the Speech-Language Pathologist Stress Inventory (Fimian, Lieberman, & Fasteneau, 1991). Of the 230 potential participants, 97 completed and returned questionnaires. Results indicated that Utah's school-based speech-language pathologists experience less overall stress than a normative sample of speech-language pathologists throughout the United States; however, Utah's professionals reported significantly greater stress related to caseload, salary, and use of prescription drugs. However, overall stress was not related to caseload size or the number of service delivery sites. In regard to ...


The Impact Of Video Self-Modeling On Conversational Skills With Adolescent Students With Severe Disabilities, Megan Elizabeth Sangster Jul 2007

The Impact Of Video Self-Modeling On Conversational Skills With Adolescent Students With Severe Disabilities, Megan Elizabeth Sangster

Theses and Dissertations

Video self-modeling has been found to be effective in increasing appropriate behaviors, increasing task fluency, and decreasing inappropriate behaviors. During video self-modeling, a student is filmed completing a task and then mistakes, prompts, and negative behaviors are edited from the video. When the edited video is viewed by the subject student, the student views a perfect model of him or herself successfully completing the given task. Video self-modeling has been used predominately with participants with autism spectrum disorder. This study is a replication of a previous study in which the effectiveness of video self-modeling and video peer modeling was compared ...


Self-Esteem As A Predictor Of Treatment Outcome Among Women With Eating Disorders, Suzanne F. Plowman Jun 2007

Self-Esteem As A Predictor Of Treatment Outcome Among Women With Eating Disorders, Suzanne F. Plowman

Theses and Dissertations

Current empirical evidence suggests that true recovery from eating disorders is not possible without a corresponding improvement in body image and self-esteem. Ten studies in current literature evaluate this relationship between self-esteem and clinical eating disorders during inpatient treatment or during follow-up studies but do not provide both pre- (baseline) and post-treatment self-esteem scores. As a result, many questions about the nature of the relationship between eating disorders and self-esteem remain unanswered. The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate whether a comprehensive measure of self-esteem, given to women at the beginning of inpatient treatment for eating disorders, reliably ...


Utah School Psychologists: Self-Reported Reasons For Retention And Job Satisfaction, Lisa A. Dickison Jun 2007

Utah School Psychologists: Self-Reported Reasons For Retention And Job Satisfaction, Lisa A. Dickison

Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the level of job satisfaction reported by Utah school psychologists and their reasons for staying in their profession. An existing survey was modified and distributed to 119 of the 238 licensed school psychologists in Utah to obtain information on this topic. Sixty-nine school psychologists completed and returned the questionnaire (58% return rate). Based on their feedback, the top five reasons Utah school psychologists stay in their profession were (a) feeling the success and joy of helping students, (b) counseling with students, (c) working one-on-one with students, (d) taking vacation time during summers and holidays, and (e ...


The Correlation Between The Eating Attitudes Test And Body Shape Questionnaire, Maren L. Kanekoa May 2007

The Correlation Between The Eating Attitudes Test And Body Shape Questionnaire, Maren L. Kanekoa

Theses and Dissertations

This research examined the relationship between eating attitudes and body image dissatisfaction using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Three cohorts of almost 2,000 undergraduate females from Brigham Young University were given the EAT and BSQ twice a year for two to four years, depending upon their year of entrance to BYU. The data collected were analyzed using correlational statistics. Results indicated that a high positive correlation between the EAT and BSQ existed across semesters and cohorts.


Culturally Adapted Mental Health Treatments: A Meta-Analysis, Derek Griner Mar 2007

Culturally Adapted Mental Health Treatments: A Meta-Analysis, Derek Griner

Theses and Dissertations

In recent years psychologists have increased awareness and concern regarding the quality of mental health services provided to people of color. For several reasons clients of color often find traditional mental health services foreign or unhelpful. To help diminish obstacles faced by clients of color, several authors have advocated traditional mental health treatments be modified to better match clients' cultural contexts. Researchers have also begun investigating outcomes associated with culturally modified mental health treatments, often contrasting them with traditional mental health services. Recently numerous studies containing empirical data have been published. To date there has been no attempt to review ...


Stability Of A Normal Heterosexual Female Response To Affinity 2.0, Kara L. Harmon Mar 2007

Stability Of A Normal Heterosexual Female Response To Affinity 2.0, Kara L. Harmon

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the temporal stability of a normal heterosexual female response to the Affinity 2.0, a newly standardized viewing time (VT) instrument that purports to measure sexual interest. Participants were 120 female undergraduate and graduate students from a private university (mean age = 21.67 years) who met inclusion criteria of non-pedophilic interest/history, identified as “Exclusively Heterosexual" on the Kinsey Scale, and who took the Affinity 2.0 both at test and at retest (approximately two weeks later). Participants also filled out a questionnaire following the retest composed of demographic questions, a ...


Legislation, Litigation, Regulation, And Implementation Of Paraprofessional Supervision In School Settings, Sungti Hsu Mar 2007

Legislation, Litigation, Regulation, And Implementation Of Paraprofessional Supervision In School Settings, Sungti Hsu

Theses and Dissertations

Since the reauthorization of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2002 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004, there is a strong emphasis on the supervision of paraprofessionals who provide instructional assistance to classroom teachers. Scholars have stressed and litigation has highlighted the importance of paraprofessional supervision. However, there is limited information regarding the definition of supervision, who should and how that supervision should happen. The NCLB and IDEIA legislation leaves room for states to establish state regulation and litigation to interpret supervision. This study explored the current litigation and scholarly works concerning how ...