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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Service Quality Assessment Of Hospital Libraries: A Libqual+ Survey, Hamed Nasibi-Sis, Saeideh Valizadeh-Haghi, Soheila Zare, Abdolvahed Orazi Sep 2019

Service Quality Assessment Of Hospital Libraries: A Libqual+ Survey, Hamed Nasibi-Sis, Saeideh Valizadeh-Haghi, Soheila Zare, Abdolvahed Orazi

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Objective: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the hospital libraries service quality of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from the users’ perspectives based on the LibQUAL+ model. Furthermore, is to make a comparison between library services of general hospitals versus specialized one. Materials and methods: The survey used the LibQUAL+ model to evaluate service quality of libraries of general as well as specialized hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (12 libraries) (Iran). The data were collected from library clients by administering the LibQUAL+ questionnaire in a printed format. Results: It has been revealed that hospital ...


Serendipity On Information Searching Behavior In Use E-Journal Collection, Dyah Puspitasari Srirahayu Mrs, Maisyah Su’Adaa Irfana Mrs, Endang Fitriyah Mannan Mrs, Esti Putri Anugrah Miss May 2019

Serendipity On Information Searching Behavior In Use E-Journal Collection, Dyah Puspitasari Srirahayu Mrs, Maisyah Su’Adaa Irfana Mrs, Endang Fitriyah Mannan Mrs, Esti Putri Anugrah Miss

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study aims to determine the behavior of serendipity information seeking among Airlangga University lecturers in the collection of e-journal of Airlangga University library. The method used in this research is quantitative descriptive. In this case the researcher will describe serendipity in information seeking behavior, as well as see the extent to which the form of library e-journal collection is used. The object of this research is among lecturers in the Airlangga University environment. Serendipity in information search behavior of e-journal collection is supported by the experience of lecturers in conducting information searches, as well as support from the e-journal ...


Returns On Library Investment: A Study Of The Leading Engineering And Technology Institutes In India, Shivendra Singh, Ramesh Pandita Mr. May 2019

Returns On Library Investment: A Study Of The Leading Engineering And Technology Institutes In India, Shivendra Singh, Ramesh Pandita Mr.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The study is based on the secondary data compiled by the Ministry of Human Resource & Development, Govt., of India for the period 2012-13, 2013-14 & 2014-15 and was released as the ranking list of Institutes of Engineering and Technology in India for the year 2016. The study aims to assess the Returns on Investment (ROI) of the twenty leading libraries of the Institutes of Engineering and Technology in India in the form of institutional research output. An attempted has also been made to rank the each individual library on the basis of seven different parameters chosen for the study and worked ...


Perception And Use Of Semantic And Social Features Of Digital Libraries Among Library And Information Professionals And Users: A Comparative Study, Shweta Gupta, Reseach Scholar, Shriram Pandey, Assistant Professor, May 2019

Perception And Use Of Semantic And Social Features Of Digital Libraries Among Library And Information Professionals And Users: A Comparative Study, Shweta Gupta, Reseach Scholar, Shriram Pandey, Assistant Professor,

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The paper identifies the perception and use of Semantic and Social Features of the digital library among library and Information professionals (LISPs) and Users and presents a comparative study of their competencies in tune with the semantic and social features. As part of the survey of the special libraries in NCR of Delhi, the questionnaires and personal visits were made to 48 libraries (spread over 16 categories) to collect the primary data. The requisite data of 48 special libraries, were collected, collated and analyzed accordingly. The study has made clear that library and information professionals and users of digital libraries ...


A Consolidation Of Challenges Faced By School Libraries In Developing Countries, Liah Shonhe Mar 2019

A Consolidation Of Challenges Faced By School Libraries In Developing Countries, Liah Shonhe

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Achieving quality education is a challenge for many developing countries. One of the problems leading to this challenge is the inability of governments to invest in the development and management of effective school libraries. The school library is a hub of knowledge for students and teachers. Thus, it plays a paramount role in the ability of students to achieve the desired level of literacy and numeracy. As a result, school libraries need to be fully equipped and have effective library services to support the teaching and learning process. This paper enumerates the problems that hinder effective school library services in ...


A Comparative Study Of Journal Of Documentation And Journal Of Knowledge Management During The Period 2005-2015, Asish Maity, Dr. Nivedita Bhattacharyya Sahu Mar 2019

A Comparative Study Of Journal Of Documentation And Journal Of Knowledge Management During The Period 2005-2015, Asish Maity, Dr. Nivedita Bhattacharyya Sahu

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This paper presents bibliometric profile of Journal of Documentation during the year 2005-2015, based on the year wise productivity, subfield wise article distribution, type of research documents published, geographical distribution of articles, Institutional wise productivity, citation distribution of articles degree of collaboration of authors. The study found that total 489 research documents published during the time period 2005-2015. Most number of articles published on the topic Information seeking behaviour. The study also revealed author productivity through the implementation of Lotka's Law of productivity.


Scientometric Analysis Of Graphene, Raashida Amin, Arshia Ayoub, Zahid Ashraf Wani Jan 2019

Scientometric Analysis Of Graphene, Raashida Amin, Arshia Ayoub, Zahid Ashraf Wani

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Purpose

The unique properties of graphene and its extensive applications has turned it an emerging area of research. Therefore, this study is an attempt to analyse the research output trends in graphene during the period 2010 – 2012 for the publications indexed by Web of Science.

Methodology

The study maps the parameters of output, journal productivity and the impact strength of publications. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science database core collection was used to retrieve the data. Quantitative analysis of quantity and quality of research out-put was undertaken to attain the objectives.

Findings

The analysis revealed a steep growth ...


A Comparison Of The Conditions Of Iran Public Libraries With The Ifla Standards, Mohammad Karim Saberi, Fatemeh Pazooki Jan 2019

A Comparison Of The Conditions Of Iran Public Libraries With The Ifla Standards, Mohammad Karim Saberi, Fatemeh Pazooki

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study aimed to compare the conditions of the public libraries in Iran with the standards of IFLA. Iran is a country in the southwest of Asia. With 1,648,669 square kilometers, it is the 18th country in the world and has a population of 79,926,270. There are more than 3000 public libraries in Iran. Under Iran’s law, the Iran public libraries Foundation, which is a non-governmental entity, is responsible for the task of establishing, constructing, equipping, developing, managing, and monitoring the public libraries across the country. In this study, the five indicators of resources, Stack ...


Citations Analysis Of Lis Theses Submitted To Kuvempu University And University Of Mysore, Vinay Kumar D, Sangeetha M Jan 2019

Citations Analysis Of Lis Theses Submitted To Kuvempu University And University Of Mysore, Vinay Kumar D, Sangeetha M

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

A Citation analysis on 8289 citations cited in 59 LIS doctoral theses submitted to Kuvempu University (15 theses) and University of Mysore (44 theses) has been carried out to know the citation pattern. The data was collected using Shodhganga e-theses database. The study found that a total of 6883 journal citations were cited in 59 theses. The journal ‘Scientometrics’ has been cited 651 times and stands first in the rank list of journals. Annals of Library and Information Studies which is an Indian LIS journal stands in the third position in the rank list with 130 citations. The Bradford’s ...


Identifying Electronic Information Resources In Economics: A Content Analysis, Suboohi Siddiqui Oct 2018

Identifying Electronic Information Resources In Economics: A Content Analysis, Suboohi Siddiqui

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The purpose of this paper is to explore the availability of various types of E-resources in the field of Economics on select library websites of Universities in Delhi. It highlights both the common and different types of E-resources available on three different library websites with special reference to Economics. The paper is primarily based on a content analysis conducted to explore the Library Websites/Subject Portal of the three select Universities in Delhi for finding out the availability of E-resources in the field of Economics.


Satisfaction Of Library Services By Catholic Religious In Ss. Peter And Paul Seminary, Ibadan, Nigeria, Oyedele Abimbola Ojeniyi Mr. Oct 2018

Satisfaction Of Library Services By Catholic Religious In Ss. Peter And Paul Seminary, Ibadan, Nigeria, Oyedele Abimbola Ojeniyi Mr.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Libraries not only acquire, organize, retrieve and disseminate information but also provide some services such as references services, current awareness, selective dissemination of information, document delivery services and inter-library loan services. Others include internet, audiovisual, reprographic, customer relation and user education services. The sole aim of these services is to satisfy the information needs of the users and clienteles of the library. The catholic religious who are studying to become priests have information needs not only for their academics but also for their pastoral training, which is given a greater priority towards their eligibility as priests. Therefore, they need to ...


Awareness Of Web 2.0 Technology In The Academic Libraries : An Islamabad Perspective, Abid Hussain Hussain Aug 2018

Awareness Of Web 2.0 Technology In The Academic Libraries : An Islamabad Perspective, Abid Hussain Hussain

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to determine the awareness and extent use of Web 2.0 technology in the academic libraries of Islamabad, Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey research methods was employed in this exploratory study through google forms on Awareness of Web 2.0 tools, the questionnaire were distributed among 100 library professionals of 43 Public and private sector universities based on Islamabad were selected for this study,72 questionnaires were received, showing a response rate of 72% per cent , the data were scrutinized and tabulated using MS Excel 2010 and SPSS.

Findings –The ...


Understanding The Role Of Institutional Repository In Digital Preservation In Academic Libraries: A Review Of Literature, Om Prakash Saini Jul 2018

Understanding The Role Of Institutional Repository In Digital Preservation In Academic Libraries: A Review Of Literature, Om Prakash Saini

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

One of the leading objectives of the libraries is to provide the latest and timely information to its clientele and keep them updated with the new arrivals related to their subject areas. However, a limited storage capacity of libraries is throwing a challenge before librarians from the beginning of libraries. The latest developments in the libraries for information management, preservation, and dissemination involve a high rate of computer technologies. Institutional Repository (IR) is a new breed which has the potential to store any amount of information in little space and preserve it for a long-term perspective. Therefore, many of the ...


Assessing Of Iranian Medical English Journals Based On Journal Selection Criteria In Scopus, Shahram Sedghi, Somayeh Ghaffari Jun 2018

Assessing Of Iranian Medical English Journals Based On Journal Selection Criteria In Scopus, Shahram Sedghi, Somayeh Ghaffari

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Journals which have been indexed in universal citation databases can introduce their countries’ scientific productions to the world’ scientific communications. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate Iranian Medical English Journals (IMEJ) based on Scopus’ journal selection criteria. This is a descriptive quantitative study which deals with the last issues of 52 numbers of IMEJ which have not been indexed in Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Data is collected using a researcher-developed checklist whose validity was confirmed by faculty members. Microsoft Office Excel was used to analyze data. According to our findings, the studied journals were in compliance ...


Women In Prison And Their Information Needs: South – South Prison Libraries Perspective, Atanda S. Sambo, Nnebuogor Lauretta Ojei Apr 2018

Women In Prison And Their Information Needs: South – South Prison Libraries Perspective, Atanda S. Sambo, Nnebuogor Lauretta Ojei

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

study aims at identifying the information needs of women in South-South Prison, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. The census sampling technique was adopted for this study. Four objectives were set for the study and the interview was used to elicit information from respondents. Findings showed that Akwa-Ibom Prison topped the highest (21%) of the women in South-South Prison, followed by Cross River Prison (19%), Delta Prison (18%), Edo Prison/Rivers Prison (17%) and Bayelsa Prison (8%). Findings also reveal that the information needs of prisoner’s women covered medical information (98%), education/security information (97 ...


Development Of Multilingual Resource Management Mechanisms For Libraries, Sukumar Mandal Apr 2018

Development Of Multilingual Resource Management Mechanisms For Libraries, Sukumar Mandal

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Multilingual is one of the important concept in any library. This study is create on the basis of global recommendations and local requirement for each and every libraries. Select the multilingual components for setting up the multilingual cluster in different libraries to each user. Development of multilingual environment for accessing and retrieving the library resources among the users as well as library professionals. Now, the methodology of integration of Google Indic Transliteration for libraries have follow the five steps such as (i) selection of transliteration tools for libraries (ii) comparison of tools for libraries (iii) integration Methods in Koha for ...


Role Of Principal Supervision On The Relationship Between Students’ Personnel Services And Academic Achievement In Secondary Schools: A Preliminary Report, Yusuf Suleiman Apr 2018

Role Of Principal Supervision On The Relationship Between Students’ Personnel Services And Academic Achievement In Secondary Schools: A Preliminary Report, Yusuf Suleiman

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study investigates the role principal supervision on the relationship between students’ personnel services and academic achievement in secondary school via mixed-method approaches (quantitative and qualitative). Sample size of 100 students in one of the secondary schools formed the respondents for the quantitative study, while principals (junior and senior section) of the selected school formed the informants for the qualitative study. Questionnaire tagged “Students’ Personnel Services and Supervision Questionnaire (SPSPQ)” was used to elicit data from students while interview protocol tagged “Principal Supervision, Students’ Personnel Services and Academic Achievement (PSA)” was used to collect relevant data from the principals. Data ...


Authorship Patterns And Collaborative Research In Astrobiology, 2012-2017, Kotti Thavamani Apr 2018

Authorship Patterns And Collaborative Research In Astrobiology, 2012-2017, Kotti Thavamani

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This paper presents a bibliometric study of Astrobiology during the period of 2012-2017. A total of 519 articles and 3048 authors in the journal were examined by year to ascertain authorship patterns, author productivity, and degree of collaboration. The average number of authors per paper is 5.872 % and the average productivity per author is 0.170%. The average degree of collaboration is 0.861, which clearly indicates its dominance upon multi authored contributions.


Measuring Co- Authorship Pattern In Research Output Of Chromosome Anomalies, Jeyshankar -. Ramalingam -, Nishavathi Elangovan Mar 2018

Measuring Co- Authorship Pattern In Research Output Of Chromosome Anomalies, Jeyshankar -. Ramalingam -, Nishavathi Elangovan

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This article studies about the collaborative measures of published documents in the field of chromosome anomalies. It discusses about inadequacies of collaborative measures in analyzing the collaborating behavior and strength of collaboration in a discipline. It also suggests centrality measures, as degree centrality, closeness, and betweenness in analyzing the collaboration among the researchers and scientists in the field of chromosome anomalies. The bibliographical database PubMed is used as sources for bibliometrics and 35912 citations examined for co – authorship pattern, collaborative behavior of the scientists. Centrality measures were used to construct a network for co – authorship in chromosome anomalies research during ...


Analysis Of Factors That Influence Users’ Willingness To Pay For The Services Of Iranian Academic Libraries By Using The Contingent Valuation Method, Vida Seifouri, Fahimeh Babalhavaeji, Fatemeh Nooshin Fard, Dariush Matlabi Mar 2018

Analysis Of Factors That Influence Users’ Willingness To Pay For The Services Of Iranian Academic Libraries By Using The Contingent Valuation Method, Vida Seifouri, Fahimeh Babalhavaeji, Fatemeh Nooshin Fard, Dariush Matlabi

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Background: The demand for evaluation methods of Academic libraries has resulted from the fact that universities are being recognized as an important economic asset of national competitiveness. This realization has led to an attempt to verify the effectiveness of investment in higher education, and Academic libraries also have had a chance to reconsider and promote the importance of their existence to their universities.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to estimate the economic value of a variety of academic library services and identify demographic, individual, sociological and technology factors affecting users’ willingness to pay by using the contingent valuation ...


Effect Of Strategic Management On Users’ Satisfaction, Library Competitiveness, Learning/Innovation Process And Internal Process Effectiveness In Academics Libraries., David O. Okhakhu Mr. Mar 2018

Effect Of Strategic Management On Users’ Satisfaction, Library Competitiveness, Learning/Innovation Process And Internal Process Effectiveness In Academics Libraries., David O. Okhakhu Mr.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study looked into the Effect of Strategic Management on Customer Satisfaction, libraries competition, learning/innovation process and internal process effectiveness in Manufacturing Enterprises.

Methodology: The librarians in southwest Nigeria formed the population of study, from which a sample of 162 librarians, or 25% the population was strategically randomly selected for the study by a combined purposive and systematic random sampling techniques. The survey research design was used and data were collected through the use of questionnaires and structured interviews were necessary. The data collected were analysed using Analysis of Variances (ANOVA), correlation and descriptive analysis in pursuance of the ...


Learning About The Information Seeking Behavior Of Allied Medical Sciences Students: Advices For Libraries Of Multidisciplinary Colleges, Saeideh Valizadeh-Haghi, Shahabedin Rahmatizadeh Mar 2018

Learning About The Information Seeking Behavior Of Allied Medical Sciences Students: Advices For Libraries Of Multidisciplinary Colleges, Saeideh Valizadeh-Haghi, Shahabedin Rahmatizadeh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Libraries will have satisfactory performance in terms of providing services to users if they firstly identify the information needs of their clients and then, they seek to meet these needs. To accomplish this aim, identifying the information seeking behavior of users seems necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the methods and motives of information seeking by students of allied medical sciences. The population of the study included the postgraduate students of Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences accepted to the university in 2015 to 2016.

The results indicated that the ...


Perceived Influence Of Library Services On Students’ Academic Achievement In Secondary Schools In Kwara State, Nigeria, Yusuf Suleiman, Zahyah Hanafi, Muhajir Tanslikhan Mar 2018

Perceived Influence Of Library Services On Students’ Academic Achievement In Secondary Schools In Kwara State, Nigeria, Yusuf Suleiman, Zahyah Hanafi, Muhajir Tanslikhan

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Library is considered as an important input needed to implement school programs. In the light of the foregoing, this study examined the perceived influence of library services on students’ academic achievement in secondary schools. Non-probability techniques (stratified, purposive and convenience sampling techniques) were used to select 20 schools and its principals from three senatorial districts in Kwara State. The research design used combined both interview and observational checklist to collect relevant data for the study. Nvivo software (version 10) was used to analyse the data collected. Findings of the study revealed that library services positively influenced students’ academic achievement. Findings ...


Flow Of Business Newspaper Information In Scholarly Publications: A Study On The Wall Street Journal Newspaper Indexed In Web Of Science, Angom Jeevan Singh, Dr. S. Ravikumar Mar 2018

Flow Of Business Newspaper Information In Scholarly Publications: A Study On The Wall Street Journal Newspaper Indexed In Web Of Science, Angom Jeevan Singh, Dr. S. Ravikumar

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

No abstract provided.


Examining The Problems And Inconsistencies In The Interpolation Of English Transliterated Names Of Persian Language Researchers In Citation Databases, Azar Mohammadzadeh Sarab, Maryam Kazerani (Corresponding Author), Maryam Shekofteh Mar 2018

Examining The Problems And Inconsistencies In The Interpolation Of English Transliterated Names Of Persian Language Researchers In Citation Databases, Azar Mohammadzadeh Sarab, Maryam Kazerani (Corresponding Author), Maryam Shekofteh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

English Transliterated names of Non-Roman language researchers have been indexed in citation databases in various ways and do not follow a specific rule. For this reason, all the works of a specific writer are not retrieved while searching. This problem is also evident in the transliterating the names of Persian language researchers widely. This study has examined the problems and inconsistencies in the interpolation of English Transliterated names of 1301 faculty members of SBMU [1] were indexed in Scopus and ISC[2] citation databases The results showed that 193 (15%) faculty members have not had indexed scientific production in both ...


An Assessment Of The Impact And Visibility Of United Arab Emirates Journals, Shakil Ahmad, Abu Waris, Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid, Md Sohail Mar 2018

An Assessment Of The Impact And Visibility Of United Arab Emirates Journals, Shakil Ahmad, Abu Waris, Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid, Md Sohail

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This research reviews well cited United Arab Emirates Research Journals as per journal bibliometric quality indicators and scientometric protocols. Complex algorithms and trustworthy databases were used in judging journals quality ranking level.

The main objective of this research work is to assess currently employed (2015) scientific journal quality indices with emphasis on recognised indicators that include: Journal Impact Factor (JIF), Eigenfactor Score (ES), SCImago Journal Rank indicator (SJR) and H5-index. United Arab Emirates Research Journals were chosen from their category within Web of Science. JIFs and ESs are acquired from Journal Citation Report and the SJR from the SCImago Journal ...


The Strategy Of University Library In Indonesia To Support World Class University (Wcu), Dyah Puspitasari Srirahayu Mar 2018

The Strategy Of University Library In Indonesia To Support World Class University (Wcu), Dyah Puspitasari Srirahayu

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This research aims to provide the detailed description of the implementation of library’s roles in supporting the World Class University in Universitas Airlangga and to give an overview of the obstacles that will be faced by the library of Universitas Airlangga in carrying out its role to support World Class University. This research used descriptive-qualitative research method to describe the implementation of library role in supporting world class university especially in providing information to support academic community research. The subject of this research is the activities conducted by five (5) libraries to support world class university such as Universitas ...


The Investigation Of Utilization Of Research Findings In Humanities: The Effects Of Individual Characteristics Of Faculty Members On Their Viewpoints, Oranus Tajedini, Mohammad Azami, Ali Sadatmoosavi Mar 2018

The Investigation Of Utilization Of Research Findings In Humanities: The Effects Of Individual Characteristics Of Faculty Members On Their Viewpoints, Oranus Tajedini, Mohammad Azami, Ali Sadatmoosavi

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Abstract

Purpose: As the interaction between the practical users and researchers in different fields, from defining the research topic to publishing the research, knowledge translation (TM) is a method through which exploitation of knowledge is more probable. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationship between individual characteristics of members of humanities faculties of Iran and their viewpoints on knowledge translation.

Methodology: This research would undergo the category of applied researches and was conducted with an analytical survey method. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire based on the knowledge translation model presented by National Institute on ...


Pedagogy In Library And Information Science Programme In Nigeria, Francisca Chinyeaka Mbagwu, Ifenyinwa Blessing Okoye, Augustine I. Anyanwu Mar 2018

Pedagogy In Library And Information Science Programme In Nigeria, Francisca Chinyeaka Mbagwu, Ifenyinwa Blessing Okoye, Augustine I. Anyanwu

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Abstract

The attitude of some of the library and information science instructors (LISIs) to continue to teach students with pedagogies not aligned with the changing trend in today’s information environment has been identified as one of the reasons why there is low job performance among librarians in their workplaces in Nigeria. This study is aimed to find out the most preferred pedagogy adopted by LISIs in the University based library and information science school programme in South East, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to 138 librarians with the help of research assistants by face to face ...


Influence Of Career Choice On Professional And Job Commitment Of Librarians In Selected Libraries In Oyo And Ogun States, Nigeria, Monsuru Quadri Mar 2018

Influence Of Career Choice On Professional And Job Commitment Of Librarians In Selected Libraries In Oyo And Ogun States, Nigeria, Monsuru Quadri

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study examined the influence of career choice on professional and job commitment, factors influencing career choice, the perceptions on professionalization and the extent to which career choice has influenced the growth, job and professional commitment of librarians in selected libraries in Oyo and Ogun states of Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted with questionnaire as the research instrument. The reliability co-efficient of the instrument was 0.83. The statistical methods used to analyze the data obtained were descriptive statistics of frequency distribution counts, percentages and tables for the demographic variables and standard deviation for research questions. Findings revealed ...