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Archaeological Anthropology

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Rediscovering Brazil: The Marajoara Style In Modernist Art And Design, Alyson Brandes May 2019

Rediscovering Brazil: The Marajoara Style In Modernist Art And Design, Alyson Brandes

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

During the Portuguese rule of Dom Pedro II until 1889, through the years of the First Brazilian Republic (1889-1930) and into the First Vargas Regime (1930-1945), Brazil struggled to solidify a strong national identity that would finally unify the country and legitimize its rich cultural heritage. The discovery and excavation of Marajó Island in the 1870s provided evidence of a great, ancient civilization, and inspired Brazilian Art Deco and early Modernist artists. Polychrome ceramic urns, vessels, and tangas (female pubic covers) were among the most abundant archaeological finds, many with zoomorphic and geometric motifs that show the cultural importance of ...


Variation In The Configuration Of The Middle Snake River And Its Relationship To Prehistoric Fishing Site Locations, Joseph Wardle May 2019

Variation In The Configuration Of The Middle Snake River And Its Relationship To Prehistoric Fishing Site Locations, Joseph Wardle

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The configuration of the various elements of a river system can have significant impacts on the availability, abundance, and nutritional profitability of aquatic organisms utilized as food by groups of human foragers. These factors may have influenced the location and timing of prehistoric fishing along the Middle Snake River in southern Idaho during the Late Archaic when use of fish as a resource increased (beginning approximately 1500 B.P.). Previous work has established a relationship between physiographic features of the Middle Snake River channel and the presence of fishing sites. To improve on future studies of this type, it is ...


Anthropogenic Landscapes Of Amazonia : A Spatial Analysis Of Landscape Modification And Settlement Organization At Macurany, Brazil., M. Grace Ellis May 2019

Anthropogenic Landscapes Of Amazonia : A Spatial Analysis Of Landscape Modification And Settlement Organization At Macurany, Brazil., M. Grace Ellis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic landscapes are the product of complex human-environment processes that form distinct features in the landscape, which materially preserve and reflect human behavior. Anthropogenic landscapes in Amazonia likely date back to human colonization of the region around 16,000 BP. Since colonization, humans have been marking, modifying, managing, and engineering the landscape resulting in a mosaic of anthropogenic landscape features across Amazonia. The diversity of ancient landscapes documented in Amazonia reflects the cultural heterogeneity that existed in the past. This research explores the complex human-environmental processes that form distinct, identifiable, lasting features on the landscape and what these features can ...


Disease And De Soto: A Bioarchaeological Approach To The Introduction Of Malaria To The Southeast Us, Kelly Marie Schaeffer May 2019

Disease And De Soto: A Bioarchaeological Approach To The Introduction Of Malaria To The Southeast Us, Kelly Marie Schaeffer

Theses and Dissertations

It is well known through documentation in historical accounts that numerous diseases were introduced to the Americas during the time of Spanish and French exploration. Diseases such as smallpox, measles and yellow fever have been credited in playing a role in the Spanish conquest of the New World through drastic Native American population decline. Many researchers have studied the biological consequences of European contact, some using direct skeletal analyses to study changes in Native American health and disease. However, one major population disease that has not been part of these discussions is malaria. This is mostly due to the current ...


The Elite Meroitic Experience On Sai Island, Sudan: Using Stable Isotope Analysis To Identify Patterns Related To Sex And Age For The Interpretation Of Social Identity, Alexandria Brock May 2019

The Elite Meroitic Experience On Sai Island, Sudan: Using Stable Isotope Analysis To Identify Patterns Related To Sex And Age For The Interpretation Of Social Identity, Alexandria Brock

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The research conducted for this thesis utilized stable isotope analysis to reconstruct the diet of 35 individuals from an elite Meroitic (350 BC – 300 AD) cemetery (site 8.B.5A) located on Sai Island, Sudan, with a focus on adult age categories and biological sex, to understand intraclass variation in diet. Stable carbon and nitrogen values from human bone collagen were used to understand elite social organization, social practice, and gender roles in the Meroitic period through the lens of social identity and post-processual theories. The samples were grouped based on biological sex, median age, and assigned age categories (young ...


Chemical Composition Of Preclassic-Period Maya Slips: Analysis And Interpretation Of Flores Waxy Ware And Paso Caballo Waxy Ware Sherds From Holtun, Guatemala Using Pxrf Spectrometry, Anna Kebler May 2019

Chemical Composition Of Preclassic-Period Maya Slips: Analysis And Interpretation Of Flores Waxy Ware And Paso Caballo Waxy Ware Sherds From Holtun, Guatemala Using Pxrf Spectrometry, Anna Kebler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Slip, a fluid suspension of clay that is applied to the surface of a piece of ceramic, allows for increased control over the functional and aesthetic properties of a finished vessel. The potter can select a slip to provide a more appealing color, texture, and/or luster to the vessel's surface, while maintaining the favorable functional qualities of the paste. Though slip color has long been used as an attribute for classification in the Maya lowlands, only recently have the raw materials of slips been used to inform studies of production and exchange, with much of this work using ...


The Archaeology Of Leetown Hamlet: Households And Consumer Behavior In The Arkansas Ozarks, Victoria Ann Jones May 2019

The Archaeology Of Leetown Hamlet: Households And Consumer Behavior In The Arkansas Ozarks, Victoria Ann Jones

Theses and Dissertations

The hamlet of Leetown, located within Pea Ridge Military Park is the focus of this thesis. The Leetown hamlet played a role in the Battle of Pea Ridge and eventually disappeared before Pea Ridge National Military Park’s establishment in the 1960s. Shortly after the establishment of the Park, archeological investigations began. The resulting archeological investigations from 1962 to 2017 provided a glimpse into the lives of the families of Leetown hamlet within the rural Ozarks. This is an archeological investigation that focuses on establishing the date and function of the buildings within the hamlet as well as the consumer ...


In Search Of A New Indigeneity: Archaeological And Spiritual Heritage In Highland Bolivia, Isabel Scarborough Apr 2019

In Search Of A New Indigeneity: Archaeological And Spiritual Heritage In Highland Bolivia, Isabel Scarborough

Isabel Scarborough

This article appears as part of the special issue on "Archaeology and New Religious Movements". Bolivians are inventing spiritual practices that fit into the current dominant political discourse of decolonization and revalorization of native beliefs by associating these new traditions with archaeological spaces and objects. This new Bolivia is believed to emerge from the ashes of the old economic and social order, which for centuries oppressed and elided native religious practices, and harkens back to precolonial values. Drawing from long-term ethnographic research, media reports, and scholarly works, I aim to examine these new practices to improve our understanding of emerging ...


Dax: Archaeological Scent Detection Canine, Hannah Decker Apr 2019

Dax: Archaeological Scent Detection Canine, Hannah Decker

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Humans have used the olfactory abilities of canines for years. Any canine has the ability to smell out cancer, explosives, and human remains. No one has ever used the olfactory abilities of canines for archeological mammal bone detection, until now. Dax, a border collie, Australian shepherd mix is currently being trained as an archeological detection dog. Dax has been training on archeological bones since she was 12-weeks old. She trains 5-6 times a week on archeological detection. Methods, procedures and results will be presented. The end goal is for Dax to accompany her owner, who happens to be an archeologist ...


The Alma College Archaeological Project: Toward A Community-Based Pedagogy, Kristin Landau Apr 2019

The Alma College Archaeological Project: Toward A Community-Based Pedagogy, Kristin Landau

Journal of Archaeology and Education

The turn toward community-based research in archaeology is “transforming” the discipline. No longer can we show up with screens and trowels wielding government permits and expect to start digging. Community-based archaeological projects may never even get to the excavation phase if local collaborators are uninterested or have other priorities. Now that collaboration with local populations has become standard archaeological practice, it is imperative to begin incorporating community engagement into traditional field schools. Today’s archaeology requires grassroots organizing, cultural awareness, and sensitive listening skills, in addition to digging square holes and drawing tree roots to scale. In this paper, I ...


The Balthaser Home Site Lithic Assemblage: Analysis Of Stone Tool Technology In An Ohio Hopewell Site, Alice Lee, Elizabeth Kite, Grace Barstow-Christopher Apr 2019

The Balthaser Home Site Lithic Assemblage: Analysis Of Stone Tool Technology In An Ohio Hopewell Site, Alice Lee, Elizabeth Kite, Grace Barstow-Christopher

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

This poster represents an analysis of the stone tool (lithic) assemblage from the Balthaser Home Site located in Pickaway County, Ohio. The assemblage was collected between 2014-2018 during the collaborative research efforts of the SUNY Geneseo and Bloomsburg University archaeological field schools. While the site was chosen because of its potential as a Ohio Hopewell habitation site, we have also identified an Early Woodland Adena component here as well. The analysis was conducted in an effort to determine the nature of the organization of stone tool technology used during the various occupations of the site. The analysis of the distribution ...


Identifying Cystic Fibrosis (Cf) Skeletally: A Proposed Differential Diagnosis, Clare Remy Apr 2019

Identifying Cystic Fibrosis (Cf) Skeletally: A Proposed Differential Diagnosis, Clare Remy

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder that affects the mucosal lining of the lungs and digestive system due to a defective gene that causes blockages of tubes, ducts, and passageways. The type of mutation correlates with the severity of the condition, but with modern medicine individuals can live into their 50s. We propose a differential diagnosis for identifying CF in the skeleton based on bony pathologies that occur in higher frequency in CF patients. CF patients exhibit chronic sinusitis, clubbing of hands and feet, vertebral fractures/collapse and abnormal curvature, significantly shorter stature, lower bone density, rib fractures, and ...


Using Structure From Motion Mapping To Record And Analyze Details Of The Colossal Hats (Pukao) Of Monumental Statues On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Sean W. Hixon, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt, Christopher Lee Apr 2019

Using Structure From Motion Mapping To Record And Analyze Details Of The Colossal Hats (Pukao) Of Monumental Statues On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Sean W. Hixon, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt, Christopher Lee

Carl Lipo

Structure from motion (SfM) mapping is a photogrammetric technique that offers a cost-effective means of creating three-dimensional (3-D) visual representations from overlapping digital photographs. The technique is now used more frequently to document the archaeological record. We demonstrate the utility of SfM by studying red scoria bodies known as pukao from Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile). We created 3-D images of 50 pukao that once adorned the massive statues (moai) of Rapa Nui and compare them to 13 additional pukao located in Puna Pau, the island’s red scoria pukao quarry. Through SfM, we demonstrate that the majority of these ...


The Moai Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt Apr 2019

The Moai Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt

Carl Lipo

The current database for the moai of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile).


The Human Transformation Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Pacific Ocean), Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo Apr 2019

The Human Transformation Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Pacific Ocean), Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo

Carl Lipo

Rapa Nui (Easter Island) has become widely known as a case study of human-induced environmental catastrophe resulting in cultural collapse. The island's alleged "ecocide" is offered as a cautionary tale of our own environmental recklessness. The actual archaeological and historical record for the island reveals that while biodiversity loss unfolded, the ancient Polynesians persisted and succeeded. Demographic "collapse" came with epidemics of Old World diseases introduced by European visitors. In this paper, we outline the process of prehistoric landscape transformation that took place on Rapa Nui. This process includes the role of humans using fire to remove forest and ...


Diet Of The Prehistoric Population Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) Shows Environmental Adaptation And Resilience, Catrine L. Jarmine, Thomas Larsen, Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp Apr 2019

Diet Of The Prehistoric Population Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) Shows Environmental Adaptation And Resilience, Catrine L. Jarmine, Thomas Larsen, Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp

Carl Lipo

Objectives: The Rapa Nui “ecocide” narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources.

Materials and methods: Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analy- ses and amino acid ...


Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Monument (Ahu) Locations Explained By Freshwater Sources, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Tanya Brosnan, Terry L. Hunt, Sean W. Hixon, Alex E. Morrison, Matthew Becker Apr 2019

Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Monument (Ahu) Locations Explained By Freshwater Sources, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Tanya Brosnan, Terry L. Hunt, Sean W. Hixon, Alex E. Morrison, Matthew Becker

Carl Lipo

Explaining the processes underlying the emergence of monument construction is a major theme in contemporary anthropological archaeology, and recent studies have employed spatially-explicit modeling to explain these patterns. Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) is famous for its elaborate ritual architecture, particularly numerous monumental platforms (ahu) and statuary (moai). To date, however, we lack explicit modeling to explain spatial and temporal aspects of monument construction. Here, we use spatially-explicit point-process modeling to explore the potential relations between ahu construction locations and subsis- tence resources, namely, rock mulch agricultural gardens, marine resources, and freshwa- ter sources—the three most critical resources on ...


Resource Scarcity And Monumental Architecture: Cost Signaling On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Chile, Dylan Davis, Carl P. Lipo Apr 2019

Resource Scarcity And Monumental Architecture: Cost Signaling On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Chile, Dylan Davis, Carl P. Lipo

Carl Lipo

Costly signaling theory (CST) explains a variety of elaborate behavioral displays as a consequence of competition over resources when the risk of direct conflict is high. Within an archaeological context, monumental architecture is potentially explained as a facet of costly signaling between individuals and groups. On Rapa Nui, CST offers an explanation for the construction of labor-intensive monuments including massive statues (moai) and ceremonial platforms (ahu). Using hypotheses derived from CST and spatial data about the distribution of archaeological features, the degree to which CST accounts for the investment in prehistoric monumental architecture on Rapu Nui is evaluated.


Automated Mound Detection Using Lidar And Object-Based Image Analysis In Beaufort County, Sc, Carl P. Lipo, Matt Sanger, Dylan Davis Apr 2019

Automated Mound Detection Using Lidar And Object-Based Image Analysis In Beaufort County, Sc, Carl P. Lipo, Matt Sanger, Dylan Davis

Carl Lipo

The study of prehistoric anthropogenic mounded features– earthen mounds, shell heaps, and shell rings – in the American Southeast is stymied by the spotty distribution of systematic surveys across the region. Many extant, yet unidentified, archaeological mound features continue to evade detection due to the heavily forested canopies that occupy large areas of the region, making pedestrian surveys difficult and preventing aerial observation. The use of object-based image analysis (OBIA) as a tool for analysing light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, however, offers an inexpensive opportunity to address this challenge. Using publicly available LiDAR data from Beaufort County, South Carolina and ...


A Comparison Of Automated Object Extraction Methods For Mound And Shell-Ring Identification In Coastal South Carolina, Dylan S. Davis, Carl P. Lipo, Matthew Sanger Apr 2019

A Comparison Of Automated Object Extraction Methods For Mound And Shell-Ring Identification In Coastal South Carolina, Dylan S. Davis, Carl P. Lipo, Matthew Sanger

Carl Lipo

One persistent archaeological challenge is the generation of systematic documentation for the extant archaeological record at the scale of landscapes. Often our information for landscapes is the result of haphazard and patchy surveys that stem from opportunistic and historic efforts. Consequently, overall knowledge of some regions is the product of ad hocsurvey area delineation, degree of accessibility, effective ground visibility, and the fraction of areas that have survived destruction from development. These factors subsequently contribute unknown biases to our understanding of chronology, settlements patterns, interaction, and exchange. Aerial remote sensing offers one potential solution for improving our knowledge of ...


The Čḯxwicən Project Of Northwest Washington State, U.S.A.: Opportunity Lost, Opportunity Found, Virginia L. Butler, Kristine M. Bovy, Sarah K. Campbell, Michael A. Etnier, Sarah L. Sterling Apr 2019

The Čḯxwicən Project Of Northwest Washington State, U.S.A.: Opportunity Lost, Opportunity Found, Virginia L. Butler, Kristine M. Bovy, Sarah K. Campbell, Michael A. Etnier, Sarah L. Sterling

Virginia L. Butler

Čḯxwicən (pronounced ch-WHEET-son) is a 2700 year-old ancestral village of the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe (LEKT), located on the northwest coast of Washington State, U.S.A. The Čḯxwicən project has scientific values that broadly contribute to research in human ecodynamics and maritime foragers, given the scale of the project, excavation methods, and enormous quantities of faunal materials recovered. The village holds great significance to the LEKT as their traditional village, which includes a sacred burial ground. The project began under challenging circumstances, when the village was inadvertently encountered during a construction project, incurring huge political ...


Using Bone Fragmentation Records To Investigate Coastal Human Ecodynamics: A Case Study From Čḯxwicən (Washington State, Usa), Kristine M. Bovy, Michael A. Etnier, Virginia L. Butler, Sarah K. Campbell, Jennie Deo Shaw Apr 2019

Using Bone Fragmentation Records To Investigate Coastal Human Ecodynamics: A Case Study From Čḯxwicən (Washington State, Usa), Kristine M. Bovy, Michael A. Etnier, Virginia L. Butler, Sarah K. Campbell, Jennie Deo Shaw

Virginia L. Butler

Coastal shell middens are known for their generally excellent preservation and abundant identifiable faunal remains, including delicate fish and bird bones that are often rare or poorly preserved at non-shell midden sites. Thus, when we began our human ecodynamics research project focused on the fauna from Čḯxwicən (45CA523, pronounced ch-WHEET-son), a large ancestral village of the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe, located on the shore of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Port Angeles, Washington (USA), we anticipated generally high levels of bone identifiability. We quickly realized that the mammal bones were more fragmented and less identifiable than we ...


Human Ecodynamics: A Perspective For The Study Of Long-Term Change In Socioecological Systems, Ben Fitzhugh, Virginia L. Butler, Kristine M. Bovy, Michael A. Etnier Apr 2019

Human Ecodynamics: A Perspective For The Study Of Long-Term Change In Socioecological Systems, Ben Fitzhugh, Virginia L. Butler, Kristine M. Bovy, Michael A. Etnier

Virginia L. Butler

Human ecodynamics (H.E.) refers to processes of stability, resilience, and change in socio-ecological relationships or systems. H.E. research involves interdisciplinary study of the human condition as it affects and is affected by the rest of the non-human world. In this paper, we review the intellectual history of the human ecodynamics concept over the past several decades, as it has emerged out of classical ecology, anthropology, behavioral ecology, resilience theory, historical ecology, and related fields, especially with respect to the study of long-term socioecological change. Those who study human ecodynamics reject the notion that humans should be considered external ...


Exploring Ecodynamics Of Coastal Foragers Using Integrated Faunal Records From Čḯxwicən Village (Strait Of Juan De Fuca, Washington, U.S.A.), Virginia L. Butler, Sarah K. Campbell, Kristine M. Bovy, Michael A. Etnier Apr 2019

Exploring Ecodynamics Of Coastal Foragers Using Integrated Faunal Records From Čḯxwicən Village (Strait Of Juan De Fuca, Washington, U.S.A.), Virginia L. Butler, Sarah K. Campbell, Kristine M. Bovy, Michael A. Etnier

Virginia L. Butler

Extensive 2004 excavation of Čḯxwicən (pronounced ch-WHEET-son), traditional home of the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe in northwest Washington State, U.S.A., documented human occupation spanning the last 2700 years with fine geo-stratigraphic control and 102 radiocarbon samples. Remains of multiple plankhouses were documented. Occupation spans large-magnitude earthquakes, periods of climate change, and change in nearshore habitat. Our project began in 2012 as a case study to explore the value of human ecodynamics in explaining change and stability in human-animal relationships on the Northwest Coast through analysis of faunal and geo-archaeological records. Field sampling was explicitly designed to ...


The Sablefish (Anoplopoma Fimbria) Of Čḯxwicən: Socioenvironmental Lessons From An Unusually Abundant Species, Reno Nims, Virginia L. Butler Apr 2019

The Sablefish (Anoplopoma Fimbria) Of Čḯxwicən: Socioenvironmental Lessons From An Unusually Abundant Species, Reno Nims, Virginia L. Butler

Virginia L. Butler

We analyzed sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) remains from Čḯxwicən (pronounced ch-WHEET-son), a 2700 year-old ancestral village of the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe in northwest Washington state, U.S.A., to improve understanding of how this species was used by Native American/First Nations peoples in the past. Though sablefish are abundant at Čḯxwicən, and limited ethnographic accounts indicate they were highly prized in northwestern North America, their remains are rare in regional archaeology. We present a body-size regression model for estimating the fork length (FL) of archaeologically represented sablefish and determining which habitats they were captured from ...


Impacts Of Resource Fluctuations And Recurrent Tsunamis On The Occupational History Of Čḯxwicən, A Salishan Village On The Southern Shore Of The Strait Of Juan De Fuca, Washington State, U.S.A, Ian Hutchinson, Virginia L. Butler, Sarah K. Campbell, Sarah L. Sterling, Michael A. Etnier, Kristine M. Bovy Apr 2019

Impacts Of Resource Fluctuations And Recurrent Tsunamis On The Occupational History Of Čḯxwicən, A Salishan Village On The Southern Shore Of The Strait Of Juan De Fuca, Washington State, U.S.A, Ian Hutchinson, Virginia L. Butler, Sarah K. Campbell, Sarah L. Sterling, Michael A. Etnier, Kristine M. Bovy

Virginia L. Butler

A summed probability density function (spdf), generated from the catalog of 101 radiocarbon ages on wood and charcoal from the Čḯxwicən archaeological site (Washington State, USA), serves as a proxy for the site's occupational history over the last 2500 years. Significant differences between spdfs derived from a null model of population growth (a bootstrapped logistic equation) and the observed index suggest relatively less cultural activity at Čḯxwicən between about 1950–1750 cal BP, 1150–950 cal BP, and 650 to 550 cal BP; and increased activity between about 1350–1250 cal BP and 550–500 cal BP. Peaks in ...


Deriving Lane-Level Insight From Gps Data: Innovations For Traffic & Autonomous Driving, James Fowe Apr 2019

Deriving Lane-Level Insight From Gps Data: Innovations For Traffic & Autonomous Driving, James Fowe

TREC Friday Seminar Series

With the on-going disruption of the transportation industry and rapid advancement in ITS technologies; emerging smart cities, navigation systems and autonomous transportation, the need for highly accurate geospatial localization has never been more crucial. These technologies demand that we have more granular location information of vehicles not just on a road, but to a specific lane on the road.

This presentation will give a pedagogical style summary and overview of some of the on-going research work at HERE Technologies and how we have pushed the state-of-the-art in lane-localization of noisy GPS probe data using novel Machine Learning Algorithms and how ...


Pacifying Hunter-Gatherers, Raymond B. Hames Apr 2019

Pacifying Hunter-Gatherers, Raymond B. Hames

Anthropology Faculty Publications

There is a well-entrenched schism on the frequency (how often), intensity (deaths per 100,000/year), and evolutionary significance of warfare among hunter-gatherers compared with large-scale societies. To simplify, Rousseauians argue that warfare among prehistoric and contemporary hunter-gatherers was nearly absent and, if present, was a late cultural invention. In contrast, so-called Hobbesians argue that violence was relatively common but variable among hunter-gatherers. To defend their views, Rousseauians resort to a variety of tactics to diminish the apparent frequency and intensity of hunter-gatherer warfare. These tactics include redefining war, censoring ethnographic accounts of warfare in comparative analyses, misconstruing archaeological evidence ...


In The Name Of Profit: Canada’S Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve As Economic Development And Colonial Placemaking, Richard M. Hutchings, Marina La Salle Apr 2019

In The Name Of Profit: Canada’S Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve As Economic Development And Colonial Placemaking, Richard M. Hutchings, Marina La Salle

Landscapes: the Journal of the International Centre for Landscape and Language

Taking a critical heritage approach to late modern naming and placemaking, we discuss how the power to name reflects the power to control people, their land, their past, and ultimately their future. Our case study is the Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve (MABR), a recently invented place on Vancouver Island, located in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Through analysis of representations and landscape, we explore MABR as state-sanctioned branding, where a dehumanized nature is packaged for and marketed to wealthy ecotourists. Greenwashed by a feel-good “sustainability” discourse, MABR constitutes colonial placemaking and economic development, representing no break with past practices.


La Quina 5 Cranium (Homo Neanderthalensis) Apr 2019

La Quina 5 Cranium (Homo Neanderthalensis)

3D Hominin Artifact Models

Origin: France. Time Period: Late Pleistocene (~35-65 ka). Scanned from plaster cast.