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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Commmunity, Ecology, And Modernity: Faunal Analysis Of Skútustaðir In Mývatnssveit, Northern Iceland, Megan Hicks Sep 2019

Commmunity, Ecology, And Modernity: Faunal Analysis Of Skútustaðir In Mývatnssveit, Northern Iceland, Megan Hicks

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines the archaeofaunal remains from Skútustaðir, a middle to high-status farm in Mývatnssveit, Northern Iceland, to understand the experience of rural communities and their ecologies during Iceland’s transition from regulated colonial exchange to a capitalist economy during the 17th through 19th centuries. Archaeofaunal analysis is used to reconstruct changes in the ways that people herded, hunted, and fished, providing insights into how they managed their local environments for subsistence and novel contexts of exchange. In addition to archaeofaunal analysis, primary textual sources are explored to assess how the Skútustaðir household and its rural community mobilized ...


Hrísheimar: Fish Consumption Patterns, Wendi K. Coleman Jan 2019

Hrísheimar: Fish Consumption Patterns, Wendi K. Coleman

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

In this thesis, I examine the fish remain patterns at Hrísheimar, which have provided archaeologists with further evidence that inland sites such as those in the Mývatnssveit Region utilized both local freshwater and marine fish from the coastal regions as a part of their subsistence pattern.


A Zooarchaeological Study Of Fishing Strategies Over Time At The Rio Chico Site On The Central Coast Of Ecuador, Amy Milson Klemmer May 2018

A Zooarchaeological Study Of Fishing Strategies Over Time At The Rio Chico Site On The Central Coast Of Ecuador, Amy Milson Klemmer

Theses and Dissertations

Human response to environmental crises is an issue we face today and will continue to face in the future. Food security, in the sense of access to sufficient nutrition, is a part of that. Ocean fisheries are among the critical resources affected. The archaeological record can provide insights into ecological strategies that did – or did not - work. Archaeological evidence of human occupation on the Ecuadorian coast stretches back 11,000 years, making this region of South America well-suited to evaluating ecological resilience and sustainability; however, detailed analyses of prehistoric fish remains from coastal Ecuador are rare. This thesis concerns prehistoric ...


The Richness Of Food: A Zooarchaeological Analysis Of Huaca Santa Clara And Huaca Gallinazo, North Coast Of Peru, Arwen M. Johns Sep 2017

The Richness Of Food: A Zooarchaeological Analysis Of Huaca Santa Clara And Huaca Gallinazo, North Coast Of Peru, Arwen M. Johns

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis is a zooarchaeological study examining the entangled nature of human-animal relations within processes of food production, preparation, and consumption at Huaca Santa Clara and Huaca Gallinazo in the Virú Valley, North Coast of Peru. It assesses how the consumption of animal products influenced social differentiation and identities during early state development in the Early Intermediate Period (200B.C.E – 800 C.E.). This thesis takes a social zooarchaeological approach and utilizes the framework of relational ontology to emphasize the social and symbolic roles of animals. Faunal remains suggest that individuals at Huaca Santa Clara had comparatively equal access ...


Cultural Constructions Of Nature: Animal Representation And Use In Early Iron Age Southeastern Slovenia, Adrienne C. Frie May 2017

Cultural Constructions Of Nature: Animal Representation And Use In Early Iron Age Southeastern Slovenia, Adrienne C. Frie

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the place of animals in the cultural world of Early Iron Age southeastern Slovenia (800-300 BCE) by analyzing animal iconography and faunal remains in archaeological contexts. The central questions are: What types of human-animal relationships characterized Early Iron Age Slovenia, and how were these relationships intertwined with conceptions about animals in local cultural frameworks? I examine the conception of the animal world and its symbolic significance through quantitative and qualitative analyses of animal depictions on artifacts as well as faunal remains from mortuary contexts. The analysis is structured to answer a series of empirical questions that provide ...


Before Abandonment: Social Change In Pre-Colonial Housepit 54, Bridge River Site (Eerl4), British Columbia, Kathryn L. Bobolinski Jan 2017

Before Abandonment: Social Change In Pre-Colonial Housepit 54, Bridge River Site (Eerl4), British Columbia, Kathryn L. Bobolinski

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Housepit 54 at the Bridge River pithouse village in south-central British Columbia provides a glimpse into the complex cultural practices that occurred in this area in the past. This village, which includes approximately 80 semi-subterranean structures, was occupied during four periods, approximately 1800- 1600 cal. B.P., 1600-1300 cal. B.P., 1300-1000 cal. B.P. and 500-100 cal. B.P, firmly placing the site within both a historic and a pre-Colonial context. The two pre-Colonial floors, IIb (1288-1058 cal B.P.) and IIa (1184-1050 cal B.P.), that represent the occupation of Housepit 54 directly prior to the pre-Colonial villages ...


Zooarchaeology Of The Native American Sturgeon Fishery In Coastal Oregon, 350 Bc To Ad 1150, Elizabeth Dalyn Grindle Dec 2016

Zooarchaeology Of The Native American Sturgeon Fishery In Coastal Oregon, 350 Bc To Ad 1150, Elizabeth Dalyn Grindle

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Sturgeons are not found often in the archaeological record due to their largely cartilaginous skeleton. What remains are the scutes, bony scale-like plates found on the outside of the body, and some diagnostic cranial features. Perhaps due to this, little is known about sturgeon or their anthropological uses in the past. Due to the size of a site excavated on the Oregon Coast, the collection contains an uncommon amount of archaeological sturgeon bones. The two sturgeon species on the Northwest coast, the green and white, have historically been heavily fished; resulting in a conservation concern for the fishery. As species ...


A Faunal Analysis Of Fragmented Bones Collected From Flotation From Non-Burial Features At The Logan Site (46lg4), West Virginia, Michelle H. Cole Dec 2016

A Faunal Analysis Of Fragmented Bones Collected From Flotation From Non-Burial Features At The Logan Site (46lg4), West Virginia, Michelle H. Cole

Theses and Dissertations (All)

The Logan Site (46LG4) is a prehistoric site in downtown Logan, West Virginia. Prehistoric skeletal remains were found during construction of the New State Office Building for the West Virginia General Services Division (Frye 2012). The Logan Site was excavated in 2011 and 2012 by GAI Consultants, Inc. The purpose of the archaeological investigations was to identify and remove burials that would be impacted by construction activities and repatriate the remains to Native American tribes (Frye 2012). Evidence from burial practices, material culture and subsistence likely dates the Logan Site to the Fort Ancient Clover Phase (Frye 2012). The purpose ...


Species Identification Of The Stylohyoid Bone For North American Artiodactyls, Thomas A. Hale Jan 2016

Species Identification Of The Stylohyoid Bone For North American Artiodactyls, Thomas A. Hale

All Master's Theses

Zooarchaeologists cannot identify mammal species by their stylohyoid bones. Current trends in zooarchaeological research stress the need for rigorous and accessible identification methodology. I examined the stylohyoids of 15 hooved mammals: cattle, bison, domestic sheep, bighorn sheep, Dall sheep, mountain goat, domestic goat, elk, caribou, white-tailed deer, mule deer, moose, pronghorn antelope, domestic pig, and horse. Objectives included documenting how to side the stylohyoid (left or right), and producing species identification criteria based on large samples. A total of 325 samples were measured from eight repositories. Written descriptions, photographs, and success ratios for metrics and distinct traits are included for ...


Dogs Are Expensive: Cost-Benefit Perspectives On Canid Ownership At Housepit 54, Bridge River, British Columbia, Ben B. Chiewphasa Jan 2016

Dogs Are Expensive: Cost-Benefit Perspectives On Canid Ownership At Housepit 54, Bridge River, British Columbia, Ben B. Chiewphasa

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The presence of dogs in the Housepit 54 (HP 54) faunal assemblage of the Bridge River site (EeRl4) raises questions regarding their roles within Canadian Plateau prehistory, specifically their contributions to networked household economies. Ethnohistoric sources often cite dogs as “jacks of all trades,” household entities that can act as beasts of burden, hunters, prized companions, or as a husbanded food resource. The 2012-2014 field seasons yielded variation in dog frequencies throughout 10 superimposed floors (IIj-IIa); these fluctuations occurred alongside changing densities of ungulates and salmon remains. The thesis incorporates multivariate analyses to determine how dogs could have allowed HP ...


From Turkeys To Tamales: Paleoindian To Preclassic Period Faunal Use At Maya Hak Cab Pek Rockshelter In Southern Belize, Stephanie Raye Orsini Jan 2016

From Turkeys To Tamales: Paleoindian To Preclassic Period Faunal Use At Maya Hak Cab Pek Rockshelter In Southern Belize, Stephanie Raye Orsini

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Very little is known about Paleoindian and Archaic subsistence strategies of the people of Mesoamerica prior to the development of ceramics. Rockshelters with good preservation and stratigraphic deposits can provide excellent contexts for a comparative faunal analysis though time. In February of 2014 the Bladen Paleoindian and Archaic Project (BPAP), directed by Dr. Keith Prufer, began excavations at the rockshelter Maya Hak Cab Pek (MHCP). The site has evidence for human activities from the Paleoindian period (11,500 BC to 8,000 BC) through the Preclassic Maya period (2,000 BC to AD 250). This research uses zooarchaeological analysis to ...


Collecting In Context: A Study Of The Milwaukee Public Museum's French Paleolithic Faunal Collection, Rebecca Fetzer Dec 2015

Collecting In Context: A Study Of The Milwaukee Public Museum's French Paleolithic Faunal Collection, Rebecca Fetzer

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis investigates the history of collecting practices of individual collectors and

museums of French Paleolithic archaeological material between 1869 and 1945. During this time period, thousands of French archaeological artifacts were dispersed to museums throughout North America, many with scant provenience. National agendas and the social and economic factors of the time greatly affected their dispersal. The individual agendas of the collector also played a role. This in turn had impacts on the overall understanding of these collections as well as the contemporary construction of archaeological knowledge relating to the study of early humans.

A sizable French Paleolithic faunal ...


A Comparative Faunal Analysis Of British Military Contexts At Brimstone Hill Fortress, St. Kitts, West Indies, Callie Roller Bennett Dec 2015

A Comparative Faunal Analysis Of British Military Contexts At Brimstone Hill Fortress, St. Kitts, West Indies, Callie Roller Bennett

Masters Theses

The Caribbean island of St. Kitts was one of the wealthiest colonies in the British Empire during the late 17th through early 19th centuries because of its production and export of sugar. The British sought to defend the island from foreign invaders by building a large military fortification on the island called Brimstone Hill Fortress. Built beginning in 1690, the fort was home to a community of enslaved Africans, British army officers, British Royal Engineers, and enlisted soldiers up until its abandonment in the mid 1800s. To feed such a diverse workforce, the British military utilized imported provisions ...


Patterns In Faunal Remains At Fort St. Joseph, A French Fur Trade Post In The Western Great Lakes, Joseph Hearns Dec 2015

Patterns In Faunal Remains At Fort St. Joseph, A French Fur Trade Post In The Western Great Lakes, Joseph Hearns

Master's Theses

Faunal studies have the potential to detect a variety of patterns in animal processing activities at an archaeological site. The spatial relationships of taphonomic mechanisms observed within the animal bone assemblage illuminate the use of space on a site as well as the patterns of waste discard. Patterns within the formation processes influencing the distribution of faunal remains serve as the basis for interpretation of animal processing behaviors. This study analyzes a sample of animal bones from Fort St. Joseph (20BE23), an eighteenth-century French fur trade post in the western Great Lakes region. This post was a hub of exchange ...


Vertebrate Evidence For Diet And Food-Processing At The Multicomponent Finch Site (47 Je-0902) In Jefferson County, Southeastern Wisconsin, Zachary Ryan Stencil May 2015

Vertebrate Evidence For Diet And Food-Processing At The Multicomponent Finch Site (47 Je-0902) In Jefferson County, Southeastern Wisconsin, Zachary Ryan Stencil

Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this study is the intrasite analysis of the vertebrate faunal assemblage from the Finch Site. The Finch Site (47JE-0902) is located in Jefferson County, southeastern Wisconsin, roughly one mile east from Lake Koshkonong’s southeastern shoreline and the Rock River drainage. Stratigraphy and diagnostic artifacts from numerous cultural features indicate that the site was repeatedly occupied over a temporal span of several thousand years including Paleoindian, Archaic, and Woodland periods. Faunal remains were recovered from 169 excavated units and 119 cultural features across the full horizontal extent of the site.

Investigations of faunal remains from archaeological sites ...


A Study Of Faunal Consumption At The Gallinazo Group Site, Northern Coast Of Peru, Claire Venet-Rogers Dec 2013

A Study Of Faunal Consumption At The Gallinazo Group Site, Northern Coast Of Peru, Claire Venet-Rogers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis is an investigation into consumption patterns at the Gallinazo Group archaeological site, from the Early Intermediate Period (200 B.C. to 800 A.D.), on the Peruvian north coast. Faunal samples were recovered from two different but contemporaneous contexts: a civic-ceremonial platform mound and an Architectural Compound in a residential sector. The main objectives were: 1) create a faunal database for the site; 2) assess the nature of faunal resources consumed in these two different contexts; and 3) contribute to the zooarchaeological literature on the use of consumption patterns to reconstruct aspects of ancient complex societies. For each ...


The Vertebrate Fauna Of Zebree’S Big Lake Phase, Lydia Dorsey Carmody Aug 2013

The Vertebrate Fauna Of Zebree’S Big Lake Phase, Lydia Dorsey Carmody

Masters Theses

Excavated during the late 1960’s and mid 1970’s, Zebree (3MS20) serves as a well-known yet under-analyzed example of a Terminal Late Woodland/Early Mississippian (A.D. 800 to 1000) site in the Eastern Lowlands of the Central Mississippi Valley. In particular, a large portion of the vertebrate fauna collected during Zebree’s multi-season excavations has remained unidentified and unanalyzed since the initial site report. This research seeks to readdress the Terminal Late Woodland/Early Mississippian Big Lake phase (A.D. 800 to 1050) faunal collection in order to gain a more in-depth understanding of subsistence strategies at the ...


Faunal Subsistence Strategies Among Initial Period Coastal Fishers At The Gramalote Site In The Moche Valley Of Peru, Rachel Catherine Mctavish May 2013

Faunal Subsistence Strategies Among Initial Period Coastal Fishers At The Gramalote Site In The Moche Valley Of Peru, Rachel Catherine Mctavish

Theses and Dissertations

This faunal analysis focuses on vertebrate remains from the northern coastal site of Gramalote in the lower Moche Valley of Peru. Gramalote dates to the Initial Period (1800-900 BC), a time of great change due to a rise of inland agricultural and increasing sedentism. This intrasite analysis of fauna at Gramalote seeks to contextualize potential subsistence shifts through time. Subsistence specialization regarding fish exploitation of coastal fishers is explored through faunal analysis of vertebrates at this site. For an ecological perspective, this project examines the application of Moseley's Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization and Optimal Foraging Theory models.

The ...


Faunal Analysis Of Sachsen Cave Shelter: A Zooarchaeological Approach To Site Function, Meagan Elizabeth Dennison May 2013

Faunal Analysis Of Sachsen Cave Shelter: A Zooarchaeological Approach To Site Function, Meagan Elizabeth Dennison

Masters Theses

Faunal remains are not often utilized to explore settlement practices and site use by prehistoric hunter-gatherers in the southeastern United States. Instead, lithic reduction sequences and site features are generally relied upon when making these kinds of interpretations. Faunal analysis, however, can offer an additional line of support to these interpretations, especially when seasonal indicators, transport of large animal remains and diversity of species are taken into account. This thesis is an attempt to address the prehistoric use of Sachsen Cave Shelter through the lens faunal analysis. Sachsen Cave Shelter is a large sandstone rock shelter located on the Upper ...


Bones In The Landfill: A Zooarchaeological Study From Faneuil Hall, Linda M. Santoro Aug 2012

Bones In The Landfill: A Zooarchaeological Study From Faneuil Hall, Linda M. Santoro

Graduate Masters Theses

Using data from recent archaeological excavations at Faneuil Hall in Boston, this thesis examines how an 18th-century urban landfill context can be used towards understanding the broader foodways of a city community. Much of today's urban landscape has been artificially created over time, often through the efforts of communities to fill land and dispose of their garbage, and it is important for archaeologists to utilize these contexts in meaningful ways. The Town Dock was gradually filled in with the daily trash of the merchants, shop-keepers, and other residents of the nearby community, and the faunal assemblage gives us a ...


Comparative Analysis Of The Faunal Remains From British Royal Engineer And Enslaved African Occupations At Brimstone Hill Fortress, St. Kitts, West Indies, Ann Marie Ramsey Dec 2011

Comparative Analysis Of The Faunal Remains From British Royal Engineer And Enslaved African Occupations At Brimstone Hill Fortress, St. Kitts, West Indies, Ann Marie Ramsey

Masters Theses

During the 17th through 19th centuries, economic interests favoring sugarcane production and export over domestic animal husbandry, necessitated an import-based subsistence strategy in many Caribbean colonies. British military stationed on the island of St. Kitts also adopted this practice of provisioning its soldiers and the enslaved Africans who served at Brimstone Hill Fortress. Comparative analysis of the faunal materials recovered at BSH 3 Terrace 1 (Royal Engineers Officer’s quarters) and Terrace 3 (enslaved Africans’ occupation) show that military personnel and enslaved Africans alike supplemented their rations (i.e. salted fish or barreled pork or beef) with locally ...


Seasonal Subsistence In Late Woodland Southwestern Ontario: An Examination Of The Relationships Between Resource Availability, Maize Agriculture, And Faunal Procurement And Processing Strategies, Lindsay J. Foreman Sep 2011

Seasonal Subsistence In Late Woodland Southwestern Ontario: An Examination Of The Relationships Between Resource Availability, Maize Agriculture, And Faunal Procurement And Processing Strategies, Lindsay J. Foreman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study uses the zooarchaeological record to examine the seasonal mobility and scheduling of faunal procurement and processing activities by southwestern Ontario’s two Late Woodland (ca. A.D. 800-1600) communities, Western Basin and Iroquoian. Faunal datasets helped to reconstruct the timing and location of Western Basin annual hunting and fishing pursuits and identified a greater degree of flexibility in the organization of these activities than previously recognized, as well as in comparison to contemporaneous Iroquoian communities who also occupied this region.

Western Basin groups oriented themselves near lakes and rivers year-round where they exploited locally abundant fish, mammals, birds ...


Food And Identity: A Case Study Of Roman Soldiers And Native Civilians In Roman Britain, Aaron Michael Bobik Jan 2011

Food And Identity: A Case Study Of Roman Soldiers And Native Civilians In Roman Britain, Aaron Michael Bobik

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Food is a universal medium through which identity is expressed. In cultures both past and present, food represents a direct way to communicate many aspects of identity such as ethnicity, nationality, status, age, and gender. In archaeology, while the nutritional and economic roles of food have been a topic of study for decades, the relationship between food and identity is a research area largely in its infancy. In my thesis, I explore general aspects of identity in the past, and in particular, I utilize a case study of four archaeological sites (Segontium (Caernarfon), Portchester Castle, Wavendon Gate, and Dragonby) to ...


Faunal Remains From The Pine Hill Site (Ps-6), St. Lawrence County, New York, Jessica Lee Vavrasek Dec 2010

Faunal Remains From The Pine Hill Site (Ps-6), St. Lawrence County, New York, Jessica Lee Vavrasek

Masters Theses

The Pine Hill collection was discovered in the archaeology lab at State University of New York College at Potsdam after remaining unstudied for over 30 years since its initial excavation in the 1960s and 1970s. Pine Hill has been identified as a fifteenth century St. Lawrence Iroquois village site, located in St. Lawrence County, New York. The faunal remains and bone tools from the site indicate food procurement strategies, seasonal activities, the presence of discrete activity areas at the site, and the production and use of a wide range of bone tools. Replication experiments conducted on several bone tool types ...


Beef, Mutton, Pork, And A Taste Of Turtle: Zooarchaeology And Nineteenth-Century African American Foodways At The Boston-Higginbotham House, Nantucket, Massachusetts, Michael Andrew Way Aug 2010

Beef, Mutton, Pork, And A Taste Of Turtle: Zooarchaeology And Nineteenth-Century African American Foodways At The Boston-Higginbotham House, Nantucket, Massachusetts, Michael Andrew Way

Graduate Masters Theses

In 1774, nearly ten years before slavery was abolished in Massachusetts, an emancipated African American weaver named Seneca Boston purchased a tract of land in the Newtown section of Nantucket, Massachusetts. It is here that over the next thirty years Seneca Boston and his Wampanoag wife, Thankful Micah, would build a house, now known as the Boston-Higginbotham House, and raise six children. The Boston-Higginbotham House was home to the descendents of Seneca Boston and Thankful Micah for over one hundred years. Throughout the 19th century a vibrant and active African American community was developing in Newtown, and several generations of ...


A Faunal Analysis Of 1wx15, The Indian Hill Site, Wilcox County, Alabama, Elizabeth Ellen Lovett Aug 2010

A Faunal Analysis Of 1wx15, The Indian Hill Site, Wilcox County, Alabama, Elizabeth Ellen Lovett

Masters Theses

Abstract

This study seeks to expand the knowledge of Woodland subsistence practices in the Alabama River valley by presenting an analysis of the faunal assemblage from the Indian Hill site, 1WX15. Additionally, this study presents a comparison of 1WX15 to other sites from the Tombigbee, Alabama, and Coosa river valleys in order to present a broad picture of Woodland subsistence in and near the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain.

An intra-site comparison revealed the primary vertebrate resources exploited were mammals and turtles. The substantial amount of turtle fragments suggested the site was occupied during warm months, with a fall and winter ...


Philadelphia Foodways Ca. 1750-1850: An Historical Archaeology Of Cuisine, Teagan A. Schweitzer May 2010

Philadelphia Foodways Ca. 1750-1850: An Historical Archaeology Of Cuisine, Teagan A. Schweitzer

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This research utilizes historical archaeology in the examination of the foodways and food landscape of Philadelphia ca. 1750-1850. The method employed here combines archaeological and documentary research to explore historic food habits and culinary practices. Primary research consists of analysis of animal bones from three sites located in and around Philadelphia including the Speaker’s House, Stenton, and the National Constitution Center. Additionally archaeobotanical materials are examined from the National Constitution Center site. These datasets are combined with faunal and floral analyses from other Philadelphia archaeological sites in order to facilitate an examination of the foodways of the city as ...


Animal Husbandry At Tell El Hesi (Israel): Results From Zooarchaeological And Isotopic Analysis, Shannon Marie Peck-Janssen Apr 2006

Animal Husbandry At Tell El Hesi (Israel): Results From Zooarchaeological And Isotopic Analysis, Shannon Marie Peck-Janssen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Located in today’s southern Israel, Tell el Hesi provides archaeologists with important clues to political and social changes in the ancient Near East. Zooarchaeological and stable isotopic analyses were conducted to evaluate shifts in animal husbandry practices during changing socioeconomic and sociopolitical conditions in the southern Levant.

During the Early Bronze Age, Tell el Hesi thrived as an agricultural grain producing center for the southern Levant. The acropolis served as both a storage and redistribution center for the inhabitants of Tell el Hesi. Coinciding with the collapse of the southern Levant, Tell el Hesi was abandoned throughout the Middle ...