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Archaeological Anthropology

Maya

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Using Virtual Reality And Remotely Sensed Data To Explore Object Identity And Embodiment In A Virtual Mayan City, Cole F. Juckette Apr 2019

Using Virtual Reality And Remotely Sensed Data To Explore Object Identity And Embodiment In A Virtual Mayan City, Cole F. Juckette

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

3D visualization, LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), and 3D modeling are not new concepts in archaeology, however when combined they represent a growing body of research that seeks to understand both how these tools can help us to study the people of the past, and the past itself. Recently, archaeologists have been creating large amounts of 3D digital assets because of new and more advanced technologies. Along with these digital assets has come a myriad of single object viewers—both web and desktop based. These platforms specifically focus on visualizing individual objects (i.e., artifacts or buildings). In contrast, 3DGIS ...


Sex Determination Using Discriminant Function Analysis Of Carpals From Maya Sites In Belize From Pre-Classic To Spanish Colonial Period, Michelle D. Labbe Jan 2019

Sex Determination Using Discriminant Function Analysis Of Carpals From Maya Sites In Belize From Pre-Classic To Spanish Colonial Period, Michelle D. Labbe

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The sexing of human skeletal remains is important for identification and demographic purposes. It is made more difficult when elements such as the skull and pelvis are not recovered or are in too poor of a condition to assess. Previous studies have used carpal (wrist) bones of contemporary populations to assess the viability of these skeletal elements exhibiting sexual dimorphism, as these bones are small, compact elements that are usually recovered in good condition. This study evaluates the use of carpal bones recovered from an ancient Maya population from Belize to determine the biological sex of individuals. The study sample ...


Lithic Resources, Workshops, And Consumption In Northwestern Belize, Hollie Lincoln Dec 2018

Lithic Resources, Workshops, And Consumption In Northwestern Belize, Hollie Lincoln

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Stone tools played an important role in the everyday life of the ancient Maya. Whether for ritual or domestic uses, stone tools were required to complete everyday tasks. Access to stone resources used to make tools, including chert, likely influenced the sociopolitical relationships between communities and cities across the ancient landscape. Through various methods including field survey, lab analysis, and statistical analysis, various chert resources in Northwestern Belize are identified and analyzed in order to recognize chert procurement locations and possible tool production sites or workshops. In addition, an overall analysis of chert quality is included to form a better ...


Reconstructing Ancient Lives Using 3d Technology: A Case Study Of Pork And Doughboy Point, Belize, Jane Fiegel May 2018

Reconstructing Ancient Lives Using 3d Technology: A Case Study Of Pork And Doughboy Point, Belize, Jane Fiegel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation

3D technology can preserve cultural heritage resources and enhance museum collections and exhibits. Through 3D scanning, an exact digital replica of an artifact is created, which can be printed out or used to create a digital display. For this project, 3D scanning was used to reconstruct ancient Maya lives at Pork and Doughboy Point, Belize. By studying and classifying an inventory of selected artifacts, we were able to determine what activities occurred at the site. goal of this project was to showcase the growing importance of 3D technology in cultural preservation and the variety of ways in which it can ...


Analysis Of Marine Sediment By Chemical Signatures And Loss-On Ignition To Discover Evidence Of Ancient Maya Activities At Site 74, Paynes Creek Salt Works, Belize, Kobi Weaver Mar 2018

Analysis Of Marine Sediment By Chemical Signatures And Loss-On Ignition To Discover Evidence Of Ancient Maya Activities At Site 74, Paynes Creek Salt Works, Belize, Kobi Weaver

LSU Master's Theses

In this thesis, archaeological sediment chemistry, loss-on ignition and microscopic analysis of marine sediment are used to study Site 74 of the Paynes Creek Salt Works in southern Belize. Site 74 was once an ancient Maya salt work. Due to sea-level rise, sea water and mangrove peat now cover the site. Sediment from the site was exported under permit to the Louisiana State University Laboratory. I prepared and delivered the samples to the Louisiana State University Agricultural Chemistry Laboratory for inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectroscopy testing (ICP-AES). ICP-AES measured the amount of 20 elements in the sediment. Maps showing ...


Human-Environment Interactions: Sea-Level Rise And Marine Resource Use At Eleanor Betty, An Underwater Maya Salt Work, Belize, Valerie Renae Feathers Nov 2017

Human-Environment Interactions: Sea-Level Rise And Marine Resource Use At Eleanor Betty, An Underwater Maya Salt Work, Belize, Valerie Renae Feathers

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Dissertation excavations were performed in the spring of 2013 at the underwater site of Eleanor Betty in Paynes Creek National Park, Belize. The marine environment preserved wooden architecture associated with the salt works. Excavation goals included: 1) excavating and defining the boundaries of the submerged shell midden; 2) collecting sediment samples for paleoenvironmental analyses; and 3) recovering cultural remains to determine the site’s purpose (residence versus production workshop).

Four transects were added to the existing transect from excavations performed during the 2011 field season. The shell midden measured 5 meters in length (north-to-south throughout all transects) by 0.5-to-1 ...


Some Observations And New Discoveries Related To Altar 3, Pacbitun, Belize, Sheldon Skaggs, Christophe Helmke, Jon Spenard, Paul F. Healy, Terry G. Powis Oct 2017

Some Observations And New Discoveries Related To Altar 3, Pacbitun, Belize, Sheldon Skaggs, Christophe Helmke, Jon Spenard, Paul F. Healy, Terry G. Powis

Publications and Research

The Pre-Columbian Maya city of Pacbitun, Belize (Fig. 1) is distinguished by the high number of stone monuments (n- 20) identified during the roughly three decades of archaeological research conducted there (Healy et al. 2004:213). Altar 3, recovered in a cache within the main pyramidal structure of the site in 1986, was one of those monuments, but, unlike most of the others from the site, it is carved and bas a short hieroglyphic text. Yet, similar to several of the others, it had been broken in the past and, its pieces scattered. Archaeological excavations in 2016 recovered another piece ...


From Maya Pyramids To Paleoindian Projectile Points: The Importance Of Public Outreach In Archaeology, D Clark Wernecke, Thomas J. Williams Jul 2017

From Maya Pyramids To Paleoindian Projectile Points: The Importance Of Public Outreach In Archaeology, D Clark Wernecke, Thomas J. Williams

Journal of Archaeology and Education

Public outreach in archaeology can have a valuable impact on education, culture, society and even on the economy. However, it should not be relegated to the addendum of our research projects. Here we present two case studies that the authors have been actively involved in where outreach was a central part of the investigations. Following this, we outline a basic framework for conducting outreach in both the short- and long-term. While these are not perfect examples, they are intended to get archaeologists, as a community, thinking about the real and practical implications of conducting public outreach. Beyond the educational value ...


The Diet And Subsistence Methods Of The Maya: Their Health And Cultural Consequences From The Pre-Classic Era To Today, Rachel E. Watson Apr 2017

The Diet And Subsistence Methods Of The Maya: Their Health And Cultural Consequences From The Pre-Classic Era To Today, Rachel E. Watson

Honors Undergraduate

The Maya, a once great civilization, seemingly vanished without an obvious reason, before the Spanish landed in the region. Some say that their downfall was a result of famine and inadequate nutrition. Surprisingly, most of the archaeological evidence surrounding the Classic Maya diet and subsistence methods indicates that they both adequately sustained the population to the point where there has been practically no change over hundreds of years. Change did not occur to the Maya diet or the classic subsistence methods until the late twentieth century when the tourism industry exploded in the area of the former Maya empire. The ...


Ancient Maya Commerce: Multidisciplinary Research At Chunchucmil, Scott R. Hutson Jan 2017

Ancient Maya Commerce: Multidisciplinary Research At Chunchucmil, Scott R. Hutson

Anthropology Faculty Book Gallery

Ancient Maya Commerce presents nearly two decades of multidisciplinary research at Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico—a thriving Classic period Maya center organized around commercial exchange rather than agriculture. An urban center without a king and unable to sustain agrarian independence, Chunchucmil is a rare example of a Maya city in which economics, not political rituals, served as the engine of growth. Trade was the raison d’être of the city itself.

Using a variety of evidence—archaeological, botanical, geomorphological, and soil-based—contributors show how the city was a major center for both short- and long-distance trade, integrating the Guatemalan highlands, the ...


Fluorine Dating Of Human Bone At The Pre-Columbian Maya Cemetery Of Caves Branch Rockshelter, Belize, Morgan Isaacs Jan 2016

Fluorine Dating Of Human Bone At The Pre-Columbian Maya Cemetery Of Caves Branch Rockshelter, Belize, Morgan Isaacs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis tests the ion-selective electrode fluorine dating method on the remains from the Maya mortuary site Caves Branch Rockshelter (CBR) in Belize. CBR is a cemetery containing at least 400 burials from the late Preclassic to the Postclassic periods. The intensive use and reuse of the site has disturbed the burial matrices, making it difficult to seriate the burials. Fluorine dating analyzes the amount of fluorine that has accumulated in bone over time. In principle, an older burial will contain more fluorine from groundwater than a more recently buried bone; however, this principle must be tested at each site ...


Linearly Stressed To Death: Consideration Of Early Childhood Stress As A Main Contributor To The Regional Variability In Classic Maya Mortuary Profiles, Nicholas Billstrand Jan 2016

Linearly Stressed To Death: Consideration Of Early Childhood Stress As A Main Contributor To The Regional Variability In Classic Maya Mortuary Profiles, Nicholas Billstrand

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Late and Terminal Classic periods were times of great social, economic, and political change in Maya civilization. Scholars have suggested that increasing levels of dietary stress during this time may have been the result of ecological instability, drought, warfare, and significant levels of population movement across the Maya lowlands. All of these processes may have affected human health and left measurable markers of stress in human skeletal material. The burial population recovered from two sites on Ambergris Caye, located near the coast of Belize, have significantly more sub-adult individuals than sites in inland Belize, such as Actuncan, suggesting the ...


Middle Preclassic Period Maya Greenstone "Triangulates": Forms, Contexts, And Geology Of A Unique Mesoamerican Groundstone Artifact Type, Terry G. Powis, Sherman Horn Iii, Gyles Iannone, Paul F. Healy, James F. Garber, Jaime J. Awe, Sheldon Skaggs, Linda A. Howie Jan 2016

Middle Preclassic Period Maya Greenstone "Triangulates": Forms, Contexts, And Geology Of A Unique Mesoamerican Groundstone Artifact Type, Terry G. Powis, Sherman Horn Iii, Gyles Iannone, Paul F. Healy, James F. Garber, Jaime J. Awe, Sheldon Skaggs, Linda A. Howie

Publications and Research

Over the past twenty years our understanding of the Middle Preclassic (900–300 BCE) period has become much clearer through archaeological investigations at a number of sites located in the Upper Belize River Valley region of the eastern Maya Lowlands. While the picture of Middle Preclassic Maya life, including their material culture, has sharpened, there are aspects that remain uninvestigated. One artifact type, identified as greenstone triangulates, has been found at several Belize Valley sites and in a variety of contexts. Although a number of these multifaceted, polished groundstone items have been recovered, little research has focused on their distribution ...


Producing Goods, Shaping People: The Materiality Of Crafting, Julia A. Hendon Sep 2015

Producing Goods, Shaping People: The Materiality Of Crafting, Julia A. Hendon

Anthropology Faculty Publications

The study of craft production has a long and venerable history in archaeological research on ancient societies. In this chapter, I consider the crafting of useful and desired things from a materiality perspective by looking at the interactions between the craftpersons, the materials with which they work, and the ways that their end products are valued in society. I use two examples: working with fibers by the Maya of Mesoamerica and with metals by the Moche of Andean South America. These are two very different kinds of materials whose characteristics affect how one interacts with them. Crafting was a part ...


What Does Their Storage Say About Them? An Interpretation Of Domestic Storage Practices At The Classic Period Maya Village Of Ceren, Alexandria Marie Halmbacher Apr 2014

What Does Their Storage Say About Them? An Interpretation Of Domestic Storage Practices At The Classic Period Maya Village Of Ceren, Alexandria Marie Halmbacher

Anthropology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Around A.D. 650 the Loma Caldera eruption entombed the Classic Period Maya village of Cerén in 4-6 meters of volcanic ash. This resulted in the exceptional preservation of structures, artifacts and botanical remains, providing archaeologists with a unique opportunity to study the household complexes and their related activities. However, much of the previous research concerning the households at Cerén has primarily focused on its economic activities. As a result, archaeologists have yet to address the socio-cultural aspects such as status, wealth, authority and moral order of the household and its members. Part of the reason for this emphasis on ...


Farming And Power: Classic Period Maya Manioc And Maize Cultivation At Ceren, El Salvador, Christine Catherine Dixon Apr 2013

Farming And Power: Classic Period Maya Manioc And Maize Cultivation At Ceren, El Salvador, Christine Catherine Dixon

Anthropology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Despite the centrality of agriculture to the functioning of Classic Period (c. A.D. 250-850) Maya society, little is known of how farming decisions were made, the extent of political oversight of agricultural production, and the level of individual autonomy for farmers within their communities. This dissertation focuses on the intersection of farming and power to assess the organization of manioc and maize cultivation at Cerén, El Salvador. The burial of the site beneath multiple meters of Loma Caldera tephra (c. A.D. 630) resulted in the extraordinary preservation of Cerén’s structures, features, artifacts, and agricultural fields, which affords ...


Reevaluating The Late Classic Lu-Bat Glyphic Phrase: The Artist And The Underworld, Patrick Carroll Jan 2013

Reevaluating The Late Classic Lu-Bat Glyphic Phrase: The Artist And The Underworld, Patrick Carroll

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The study of hieroglyphic texts is vital to the interpretation of the ancient Maya and how their worldview contributed to their daily lives. Hieroglyphic decipherment has been an arduous undertaking and a wide variety of the Late Classic Maya writing styles has also been documented. When specific hieroglyphic phrases are not fully understood it has been necessary to utilize other sources of information to help increase the understanding of these texts. The “lubat” glyphic phrase has been utilized in multiple mediums throughout the Late Classic period and is described as an artist’s signature. This artist signature is directly related ...


The Contact Period Of Central Peten, Guatemala In Color, Timothy W. Pugh, Leslie G. Cecil Oct 2012

The Contact Period Of Central Peten, Guatemala In Color, Timothy W. Pugh, Leslie G. Cecil

Faculty Publications

When Bernal Díaz del Castillo passed by Nojpeten with Hernán Cortés in 1525, he remarked upon the Itza capital’s brilliant whiteness, even from a great distance (Jones 1998:69). However had he stood in the central plaza, he would have discerned that the sun’s reflection eclipsed artifacts and architecture of a variety of colors. The archaeological record is frequently similarly whitewashed by our focus upon form, weight, and distribution. Nevertheless, color helped imbue the Contact period (AD 1525-1697) world of the Maya of the Petén lakes region of Guatemala with significance. This paper investigates the colors of ritual ...


Contact And Missionization At Tayasal, Peten, Guatemala, Timothy W. Pugh Dec 2011

Contact And Missionization At Tayasal, Peten, Guatemala, Timothy W. Pugh

Timothy W Pugh

Until their conquest by the Spanish in 1697, many Itza Maya occupied a large village at Tayasal, Peten, Guatemala. After the conquest, two missions were built there. The village and missions are located within 2 km of modern Flores, which was once Nojpete´n, the Itza capital, and later the Spanish presidio (fortified administrative center). Our excavations uncovered the San Bernabe´ mission on the Tayasal peninsula and defined the Late Postclassic-period (A.D. 1400–1525) occupation of the site. San Bernabe´ was established in the early 18th century as part of Spanish efforts to control indigenous populations in Peten. Our ...


Complexities Of Collapse: The Evidence Of Maya Obsidian As Revealed By Social Network Graphical Analysis, Gary M. Feinman, Mark Golitko, James Meierhoff, Patrick Ryan Williams Dec 2011

Complexities Of Collapse: The Evidence Of Maya Obsidian As Revealed By Social Network Graphical Analysis, Gary M. Feinman, Mark Golitko, James Meierhoff, Patrick Ryan Williams

Gary M. Feinman

The authors use a social network analysis to map the changing patterns of obsidian supply among the Maya during the period of Classic to Postclassic transition. The quantity of obsidian received from different sources was calculated for 121 sites and the network analysis showed how the relative abundance of material from different sources shifted over time. A shift from inland to coastal supply routes appears to have contributed to the collapse of inland Maya urban centres. The methods employed clearly have a high potential to reveal changing economic networks in cases of major societal transitions elsewhere in the world.


Multiple Histories: The Archaeology, Ethnohistory, Oral History, And National History Of Iximche', Guatemala, Jessica Z. Metcalfe Jun 2011

Multiple Histories: The Archaeology, Ethnohistory, Oral History, And National History Of Iximche', Guatemala, Jessica Z. Metcalfe

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

No abstract provided.


The Truth About Deer, Turtles, And Dogs: An Examination Of Ancient Maya Human-Faunal Interactions, Lindsay Foreman Jun 2011

The Truth About Deer, Turtles, And Dogs: An Examination Of Ancient Maya Human-Faunal Interactions, Lindsay Foreman

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

No abstract provided.


Maya Zooarchaeology: An Integrative Approach, Kevin T. Gibbs Jun 2011

Maya Zooarchaeology: An Integrative Approach, Kevin T. Gibbs

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

No abstract provided.


The Development Of Cities In Lowland Maya Culture, Harry Lerner Jun 2011

The Development Of Cities In Lowland Maya Culture, Harry Lerner

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

No abstract provided.


Maya Cranial And Dental Modifications, Brian Pritchard Jun 2011

Maya Cranial And Dental Modifications, Brian Pritchard

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

No abstract provided.


Classic Maya Women Rulers In Monumental Art, Amanda Hardman Jun 2011

Classic Maya Women Rulers In Monumental Art, Amanda Hardman

Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology

No abstract provided.


An Integrated Assessment Of Archaeobotanical Recovery Methods In The Neotropical Rainforest Of Northern Belize: Flotation And Dry Screening, Jon B. Hageman, David J. Goldstein Sep 2009

An Integrated Assessment Of Archaeobotanical Recovery Methods In The Neotropical Rainforest Of Northern Belize: Flotation And Dry Screening, Jon B. Hageman, David J. Goldstein

Anthropology Faculty Publications

This report presents results of a study examining the ancient use of plants at four Late Classic (CE 600-900) Maya rural farmsteads in northwestern Belize. Our research specifically targeted residential middens for macrobotanical recovery. Samples yielded the remains of more than a dozen plant families, representing some genera that do not currently grow in the area. These plants were used in the Late Classic, countering the idea that ancient botanical remains do not survive in Neotropical archaeological contexts. We also evaluated two macrobotanical sample processing methods vis-à-vis one another: flotation and dry screening. Our results indicate that flotation recovered 58 ...


Contagion And Alterity: Kowoj Maya Appropriations Of European Objects, Timothy W. Pugh Jan 2009

Contagion And Alterity: Kowoj Maya Appropriations Of European Objects, Timothy W. Pugh

Timothy W Pugh

From initial contact with the Europeans until their conquest (C.E. 1525–1697), the Itza and their political rivals, the Kowoj, dominated Pete´ n, Guatemala. Colonial artifacts at Zacpete´ n record the initial appropriations of European objects by the Kowoj. All such objects rested in ceremonial contexts, indicating that the Kowoj considered them positive sources of sacred power. The Kowoj were in contact with the Spaniards and knew they were the source of the valued materials; hence, the materials also signified otherness. Social elites frequently retained objects obtained from long distances, even those of oppressive colonial groups, as positive contagion ...


The Emergence Of The Maya Tlaloc: A Late Classic Religious Icon, Amanda Toyie Groff Jan 2007

The Emergence Of The Maya Tlaloc: A Late Classic Religious Icon, Amanda Toyie Groff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Iconography has the capability to memorialize and guarantee one's place in history; iconography can also provide powerful insight into human culture, and explore social and cultural values in a visual manner. Iconography can incorporate information about group identities, allegiances, religious affiliations, propaganda, and acceptance within both modern and ancient societies. By studying a specific iconographic figure, the Central Mexican god Tlaloc, as a visual representation of a belief or identity, we can glean a greater understanding of the cultural transmission of iconographic symbols. The substantial use of this icon, in both Central Mexico and the Maya region, reveals iconography ...


Activity Areas, Form, And Social Inequality In Residences At Late Postclassic, Timothy W. Pugh Jan 2004

Activity Areas, Form, And Social Inequality In Residences At Late Postclassic, Timothy W. Pugh

Timothy W Pugh

No abstract provided.