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Archaeological Anthropology

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Book Review: Ghost Walls: The Story Of A 17th-Century Colonial Homestead, By Sally M. Walker, Garry Wheeler Stone Feb 2017

Book Review: Ghost Walls: The Story Of A 17th-Century Colonial Homestead, By Sally M. Walker, Garry Wheeler Stone

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Ghost Walls: The Story of a 17th-Century Colonial Homestead, by Sally M. Walker, 2014, Carolrhoda Books, Lerner Publishing, Minneapolis, MN, 136 pages, 105 photographs, 18 drawings, $20.95 (cloth).


Book Review: A History Of Boston In 50 Artifacts, By Joseph M. Bagley, Patricia Samford Feb 2017

Book Review: A History Of Boston In 50 Artifacts, By Joseph M. Bagley, Patricia Samford

Northeast Historical Archaeology

A History of Boston in 50 Artifacts, by Joseph M. Bagley, 2016, University Press of New England, Hanover, NH, 232 pages, 153 color illustrations, references, and index, $24.95 (cloth), $21.99 (eBook).


Book Review: Eating In The Side Room: Food, Archaeology, And African American Identity, By Mark S. Warner, Stéphane Noël Feb 2017

Book Review: Eating In The Side Room: Food, Archaeology, And African American Identity, By Mark S. Warner, Stéphane Noël

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Eating in the Side Room: Food, Archaeology, and African American Identity, by Mark S. Warner, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 208 pages, black and white illustrations, references, index, $74.95 (cloth).


Book Review: Tobacco, Pipes, And Race In Colonial Virginia: Little Tubes Of Mighty Power, By Anna Agbe-Davies, Sara Rivers Cofield Feb 2017

Book Review: Tobacco, Pipes, And Race In Colonial Virginia: Little Tubes Of Mighty Power, By Anna Agbe-Davies, Sara Rivers Cofield

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Tobacco, Pipes, and Race in Colonial Virginia: Little Tubes of Mighty Power, by Anna Agbe-Davies, 2015, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, 184 pages, $94.00 (cloth), $34.95 (paper and eBook).


Book Review: The Archaeology Of Race In The Northeast, Ed. By Christopher N. Matthews And Allison Manfra Mcgovern, Alexandra Chan Feb 2017

Book Review: The Archaeology Of Race In The Northeast, Ed. By Christopher N. Matthews And Allison Manfra Mcgovern, Alexandra Chan

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Archaeology of Race in the Northeast, ed. by Christopher N. Matthews and Allison Manfra McGovern, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainseville, 392 pages, $84.95 (cloth).


Book Review: Consumerism And The Emergence Of The Middle Class In Colonial America, By Christina J. Hodge, Stephen A. Brighton Feb 2017

Book Review: Consumerism And The Emergence Of The Middle Class In Colonial America, By Christina J. Hodge, Stephen A. Brighton

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Consumerism and the Emergence of the Middle Class in Colonial America, by Christina J. Hodge, 2014, Cambridge University Press, 247 pages, black and white figures, references, index, $95.00 (cloth), $88.00 (eBook).


Book Review: Everyday Religion: An Archaeology Of Protestant Belief And Practice In The Nineteenth Century, By Hadley Kruczek-Aaron, Christa M. Beranek Feb 2017

Book Review: Everyday Religion: An Archaeology Of Protestant Belief And Practice In The Nineteenth Century, By Hadley Kruczek-Aaron, Christa M. Beranek

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Everyday Religion: an Archaeology of Protestant Belief and Practice in the Nineteenth Century, by Hadley Kruczek-Aaron, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 237 pages, black and white figures, references, index, $79.95 (cloth).


Book Review: The Archaeology Of American Cities, By Nan A. Rothschild And Diana Dizerega Wall, Joseph Bagley Feb 2017

Book Review: The Archaeology Of American Cities, By Nan A. Rothschild And Diana Dizerega Wall, Joseph Bagley

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Archaeology of American Cities, by Nan A. Rothschild and Diana diZerega Wall, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 250 pages, $69.95 (cloth), $21.95 (paper).


Archaeological Evidence For Trade In Harz Roller Canaries, Scott D. Stull Feb 2017

Archaeological Evidence For Trade In Harz Roller Canaries, Scott D. Stull

Northeast Historical Archaeology

A previously unidentified redware vessel has been determined to be a watering pot for a canary cage. This artifact represents an archaeologically recoverable element of the international trade in songbirds, with the birds shipped from Germany to the United States and elsewhere around the world.


Last Gap: The Construction, Operation, And Dissolution Of The Adirondack Iron And Steel Company’S “New Furnace”, David P. Staley Feb 2017

Last Gap: The Construction, Operation, And Dissolution Of The Adirondack Iron And Steel Company’S “New Furnace”, David P. Staley

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Isolation and historical circumstances have largely preserved the “New Furnace” at the Adirondack Iron & Steel Company’s Upper Works. An historical account suggested that the operational process at the facility would be clearly represented by an array of tools and debris. Daily activities at a blast furnace tend to obliterate much of the archaeologically observable behavioral evidence, and decades of visitors and vandalism have removed any tools abandoned after the last casting. Through the interpretation of sediments, stratigraphy, features, and under-utilized material culture, such as building materials, smelting raw materials, and slag, it is possible to reveal aspects of construction ...


Four Historical Landscapes Of The Merchant’S House Museum Backlot, Manhattan Island, New York, Identified Through Pollen Analysis, Gerald K. Kelso, Diana Dizerega Wall Feb 2017

Four Historical Landscapes Of The Merchant’S House Museum Backlot, Manhattan Island, New York, Identified Through Pollen Analysis, Gerald K. Kelso, Diana Dizerega Wall

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Merchant’s House Museum is on Manhattan Island in New York City, at 29 East Fourth Street, between Lafayette Street and the Bowery. It is the sole, remaining, intact 19th-century family home in the city with original, period furnishings. An archaeological study of the Merchant’s House backyard was undertaken in 1991–1995 in conjunction with an historical-structure study of the house. This pollen analysis of a soil profile from a central parterre was part of the backlot study.


Sourcing A Stone Paver From The Colonial St. Inigoes Manor, Maryland, Marcus M. Key, Leslie P. Milliman, Michael A. Smolek, Silas D. Hurry Feb 2017

Sourcing A Stone Paver From The Colonial St. Inigoes Manor, Maryland, Marcus M. Key, Leslie P. Milliman, Michael A. Smolek, Silas D. Hurry

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The objective of this study is to determine the source of a limestone paver recovered from the colonial era Old Chapel Field archaeological site (18ST329-183) in St. Inigoes, Maryland. The site is in the Coastal Plain physiographic province, where there are no viable local sources of rock. As the site was a Jesuit manor, the primary hypothesis is that the stone came from England, the emigration origin point for the Maryland colonists. The secondary objective is to determine whether the stone paver was from the Jesuit Brick Chapel at St. Mary’s City (18ST1-103), reused after the chapel was torn ...


“The Science And Misteire Of Glazing”: Thoughts On The Use Of Marked Window Leads In Archaeological Analysis, Timothy B. Riordan Feb 2017

“The Science And Misteire Of Glazing”: Thoughts On The Use Of Marked Window Leads In Archaeological Analysis, Timothy B. Riordan

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Marked window leads have the potential to add significant insights to the understanding of archaeological sites. One of the few artifacts that commonly bears a date, window leads can provide a terminus post quem (TPQ) for the feature or level in which they are found. There have been attempts to go beyond their use as a TPQ, and, based on these artifacts, describe architectural sequences, structural changes, and do feature comparisons. While all of these have produced interesting results, their validity remains uncertain because of a lack of basic data on glaziers and vise makers. This study looks at the ...


Striking While The Iron Is Hot: Federal Period Rural Blacksmithing In Somerset County, New Jersey, Michael J. Gall Feb 2017

Striking While The Iron Is Hot: Federal Period Rural Blacksmithing In Somerset County, New Jersey, Michael J. Gall

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Blacksmith shops and the items they produced were once vital components of rural communities prior to the introduction of mass-produced merchandise during the late 19th century. This article focuses on the archaeology of an undocumented 1780s–1790s shop operated by Garret Voorhees, Jr., on his Middlebush Village farmstead in Franklin Township, Somerset County, New Jersey. Garret had earlier worked in his father’s shop, 1/2 mi. from his home, prior to and during the American Revolution. In 1777, Garret lost his home and farm buildings to British arson. Following the war’s end, circumstances suggest the 33-year old blacksmith ...


An Evaluation Of Tobacco Pipe Stem Dating Formulas, Lauren K. Mcmillan Feb 2017

An Evaluation Of Tobacco Pipe Stem Dating Formulas, Lauren K. Mcmillan

Northeast Historical Archaeology

There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th- and 18th-century colonial sites with imported white, ball-clay, tobacco-pipe stems. The formulas are based on Harrington’s 1954 histogram of time periods: Binford’s linear formula, Hanson’s ten linear formulas, and the Heighton and Deagan curvilinear formula. Data on pipe stem-bore diameters were collected from 28 sites in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods. The results of this project indicate that current conventional use of Binford’s formula, to the exclusion of the other ...


Clay Pipe-Stem Beads In North America, Karlis Karklins Feb 2017

Clay Pipe-Stem Beads In North America, Karlis Karklins

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Beads fashioned from the stems of clay tobacco pipes have been found at a number of archaeological sites, principally in the Northeast. This practice appears to have begun in the early 17th century and continued until at least the beginning of the 19th century. Although stem fragments are ideally suited for stringing and have the appearance of tubular shell beads, beads fashioned from them are relatively scarce, possibly because researchers do not recognize them. To qualify as a bead, a pipe stem must exhibit clear evidence of intentional modification of the ends and/or show use wear at the extremities ...


Turlington’S Balsam Of Life, Olive Jones, Allen Vegotsky Feb 2017

Turlington’S Balsam Of Life, Olive Jones, Allen Vegotsky

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Robert Turlington (1697-1766), weaver, patent medicine vendor, and entrepreneur left his mark in our archaeological record. Bottles embossed BY THE KING’S ROYAL PATENT GRANTED TO / ROBT TURLINGTON FOR HIS INVENTED BALSAM OF LIFE / JANUY 26 1754 / LONDON bear witness to a medicine marketed in distinctive packaging for close to 175 years. Turlington successfully used several strategies to market Balsam of Life, but was less able to protect Balsam of Life from imitators. After his death, his business survived until 1804. The distinctive bottles were still being made in 1919.

Turlington’s patent, dated 1743/44, listed 27 ingredients in ...


“A Mere Matter Of Marching”: Us Soldiers On The Niagara Frontier During The War Of 1812, Susan E. Maguire Feb 2017

“A Mere Matter Of Marching”: Us Soldiers On The Niagara Frontier During The War Of 1812, Susan E. Maguire

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Niagara Frontier was as a primary location for the battles of the War of 1812. Old Fort Niagara, located at the mouth of the Niagara River and Lake Ontario, served as a headquarters for both the Americans and the British military during the war. Archaeological excavations of a soldiers’ barracks at the fort revealed important material evidence for these occupations. This article reviews the ceramics, gun flints, military buttons, and a cap plate recovered from excavations in the summers of 2011 and 2013. This research seeks to distinguish between the American and British occupations of the fort and to ...


Variability In Militia And Regular Army Refuse Disposal Patterns At Fort Meigs: A Fortified War Of 1812 Encampment On The Maumee River In Northern Ohio, John Nass Jr. Feb 2017

Variability In Militia And Regular Army Refuse Disposal Patterns At Fort Meigs: A Fortified War Of 1812 Encampment On The Maumee River In Northern Ohio, John Nass Jr.

Northeast Historical Archaeology

During the fall of 1812, Fort Meigs was built on a bluff along the south side of the Maumee River, Ohio, to serve as a forward supply base and to provide protection to the expeditionary force preparing to advance against Fort Malden. The completed fortification included batteries, blockhouses, and a connecting parapet and palisade. Three groups of Americans (federal army, militia, and volunteers) resided at Fort Meigs during its construction, usage as a base camp and forward-supply depot, and its defense. Members of these groups came from a range of socioeconomic classes. This article seeks to elucidate any qualitative differences ...


Protecting The Upper Chesapeake Bay: Fort Hollingsworth (1813-1815), Elk River, Cecil County, Maryland, James G. Gibb, William E. Stephens, Peter C. Quantock, Daniel G. Coates, Ralph Eshelman Feb 2017

Protecting The Upper Chesapeake Bay: Fort Hollingsworth (1813-1815), Elk River, Cecil County, Maryland, James G. Gibb, William E. Stephens, Peter C. Quantock, Daniel G. Coates, Ralph Eshelman

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Fort Hollingsworth, erected in April 1813 by the citizens of Cecil County, Maryland, was a small breastwork that protected the upper reaches of the Chesapeake Bay and the “backdoor” to Philadelphia during the War of 1812. Fort Hollingsworth saw brief action in 1814. After the war, it was demolished and the land returned to farming. Geophysical surveying, exploratory soil borings, detailed topographic mapping, and focused excavation conducted by the Archeological Society of Maryland convincingly and economically identified the footprint of Fort Hollingsworth. Methodological considerations are here coupled with a discussion of vernacular fortifications and the implications that unconventional fortifications have ...


Finding Cantonment Saranac: The Search For Col. Zebulon Pike’S 1812-1813 Winter Cantonment In Plattsburgh, New York, Timothy J. Abel Feb 2017

Finding Cantonment Saranac: The Search For Col. Zebulon Pike’S 1812-1813 Winter Cantonment In Plattsburgh, New York, Timothy J. Abel

Northeast Historical Archaeology

From 2011 to 2013, archaeologists, students and volunteers conducted survey and excavation of the Zagreb site, near Plattsburgh, NY, in an effort to associate it with the enigmatic Cantonment Saranac— Col. Zebulon Pike’s winter cantonment of 1812–1813. Missing for over a century, local historians had tried unsuccessfully to establish its location based on archival descriptions. Until 2011, archaeological evidence from the site was entirely lacking. Using metal detection, the current project has successfully linked the historical to the actual, providing a unique glimpse into events of the early War of 1812 period in the Champlain Valley.


The Sunken Vessels Of Chauncey And Yeo In Lake Ontario, Ben Ford Feb 2017

The Sunken Vessels Of Chauncey And Yeo In Lake Ontario, Ben Ford

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Naval power was central to controlling the Great Lakes and, by extension, the interior of North America during the War of 1812. On Lake Ontario, the naval conflict took the form of an arms race with virtually no actual engagements. As a result, few vessels were lost during the war. With the signing of the Rush-Bagot Agreement, however, both belligerents sold vessels and put others in storage, resulting in the wrecks of lost or abandoned war vessels all over the lake. Many of these vessels have been located and studied over the last century. This paper reviews the vessels that ...


The Many Faces Of Fort George National Historic Site Of Canada: Insights Into A Historic Fort’S Transformation, Barbara Leskovec Feb 2017

The Many Faces Of Fort George National Historic Site Of Canada: Insights Into A Historic Fort’S Transformation, Barbara Leskovec

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Fort George National Historic Site of Canada is situated in the picturesque town of Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada. Constructed by the British following the capitulation of Fort Niagara, Fort George is of national historic significance because it served as the Headquarters of the Central Division of the British Army, and played a crucial role in the defence of Upper Canada during the War of 1812. Archaeological investigations in the last 50 years have shed light on the fort’s early structures and modifications. In 2009, funding allocated through the Federal Economic Action Plan provided an opportunity to further explore the fort ...


Geospatial Data On Parade: The Results And Implications Of The Gis Analysis Of Remote Sensing And Archaeological Excavation Data At Fort York’S Central Parade Ground, Anatolijs Venovcevs, Blake Williams, John Dunlop, Daniel Kellogg Feb 2017

Geospatial Data On Parade: The Results And Implications Of The Gis Analysis Of Remote Sensing And Archaeological Excavation Data At Fort York’S Central Parade Ground, Anatolijs Venovcevs, Blake Williams, John Dunlop, Daniel Kellogg

Northeast Historical Archaeology

This article presents a case study on the application of geographical information systems (GIS) in the context of military archaeology at the Fort York National Historic Site (AjGu-26) in Toronto, Ontario. By employing GIS to amalgamate data from historic mapping, ground penetrating radar, LiDAR, and 30 years of archaeological investigation, the authors reconstruct the historic landscape at the central parade ground of this national historic site. In doing so, they identify the remains of an early 19th-century vice-regal building that served as the official residence of the lieutenant governors of Upper Canada before the American forces burned it down in ...


Occupied By The Enemy: The Skirmishes At The Butler Farm During The War Of 1812, Eva Macdonald, Brian Narhi Feb 2017

Occupied By The Enemy: The Skirmishes At The Butler Farm During The War Of 1812, Eva Macdonald, Brian Narhi

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The American army landed near the mouth of Two Mile Creek on 27 May 1813 to continue its campaign on British territory, with an eye to capturing Fort George in present-day Niagara-on-the-Lake. The Americans established one of their piquets at the residence of Johnson Butler, whose father, Colonel John Butler, oversaw the Loyalist settlement of Niagara in the 1780s. The Butler farm became the location of three skirmishes between the Americans and British that took place during the summer and fall of 1813, and, ultimately, the Butler house was destroyed when the Americans surrendered Fort George and retreated from Niagara ...


Redan Battery And The Battle Of Queenston Heights, Suzanne Plousos Feb 2017

Redan Battery And The Battle Of Queenston Heights, Suzanne Plousos

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Battle of Queenston Heights bears great significance for Canadian War of 1812 enthusiasts. This victory cemented Niagara Loyalists’ sympathy for the British cause and inspired militia units to stand against the American invasion of Upper Canada. When Major General Isaac Brock fell leading a desperate charge to retake Redan Battery, he gave Canadians an exemplary hero. Even today, the monument honoring Brock towers over the landscape, denoting the significance of the Battle of Queenston Heights in forging a new sense of Canadian identity. Throughout this historic engagement, Redan Battery played a pivotal role in the action for both American ...


Provincial Marine To Royal Navy: Archaeological Evidence Of The War Of 1812 At Kingston’S Naval Dockyard, Susan M. Bazely Feb 2017

Provincial Marine To Royal Navy: Archaeological Evidence Of The War Of 1812 At Kingston’S Naval Dockyard, Susan M. Bazely

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The naval dockyard at Kingston, established in the 1790s, was arguably the most important physical representation of the War of 1812 in Upper Canada. Its evolution of structures and facilities, the people who worked and lived in and around it, and the material remains they left behind are symbolic of the war effort within the community of Kingston. Prior to, during, and immediately after the war, the peninsula of Point Frederick, on which the dockyard was situated, became a thriving “village” populated by hundreds of people. Although historical research on the dockyard has been conducted throughout much of the 20th ...


What We Have Learned: A Retrospective On Parks Canada War Of 1812 Military Sites Archaeology, Joseph H. Last Feb 2017

What We Have Learned: A Retrospective On Parks Canada War Of 1812 Military Sites Archaeology, Joseph H. Last

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Over the past five decades, Parks Canada archaeology has advanced the understanding of War of 1812 sites in Ontario. Delineation of the original 1796 traces at Fort George and Fort Malden provide enhanced appreciation of their transformation from defensible supply stations to works of greater strength. Investigations at Forts Mississauga, Henry, and Wellington illustrate how British Royal Engineers rethought defense, varying designs as the war progressed. Fort Wellington also demonstrates British engineers willingness to stray from Vauban-influenced systems by adopting the bastion-less trace in their later works. Excavations at Fort George illustrate American use of entrenchments as an expedient means ...


Introduction: Crossing Borders During The War Of 1812, Susan E. Maguire Feb 2017

Introduction: Crossing Borders During The War Of 1812, Susan E. Maguire

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Editor's introduction to the special issue on the War of 1812.


Book Review: Archaeology Of The War Of 1812, Ed. By Michael T. Lucas And Julie M. Schablitsky, Joseph H. Last Jun 2015

Book Review: Archaeology Of The War Of 1812, Ed. By Michael T. Lucas And Julie M. Schablitsky, Joseph H. Last

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Archaeology of the War of 1812, ed. By Michael T. Lucas and Julie M. Schablitsky, 2014, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, 337 pp., 15 chapters with bibliographies, 52 figures, 10 tables, index, $79.00 (cloth).