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Archaeological Anthropology

2017

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Articles 1 - 30 of 307

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Household Activities And Areas: A Reanalysis Of The John And Priscilla Alden First Home Site, Caroline Gardiner Dec 2017

Household Activities And Areas: A Reanalysis Of The John And Priscilla Alden First Home Site, Caroline Gardiner

Graduate Masters Theses

This thesis seeks to further understanding of early colonial life within New England through an examination of the John and Priscilla Alden First Home site in Duxbury, MA, excavated in 1960 by Roland Robbins. It specifically focuses on the composition and spatial distribution of the ceramic assemblage to discuss household activities and the spaces in which they were performed. The findings of the ceramic analysis detail a collection composed primarily of utilitarian vessels that indicate multiple subsistence farming activities including dairying. The spatial study reveals the significant patterning of these artifacts. It is proposed that these denote specific activity areas ...


Peruvian Antiquities And The Collecting Of Cultural Goods, Terrence H. Witkowski Dec 2017

Peruvian Antiquities And The Collecting Of Cultural Goods, Terrence H. Witkowski

Markets, Globalization & Development Review

Ancient art, artifacts, and architecture have long excited the intellectual curiosity and acquisitive passions of private and institutional collectors who, in turn, have funded archaeological research, preservation initiatives, and public education. Yet, the procurement of these goods also has encouraged looting and trafficking activities. Supplying collectors has destroyed much cultural evidence in source countries and has raised questions about who should control heritage and history. This article investigates the market for Peruvian antiquities, the surviving material culture created by the country’s inhabitants before the Spanish Conquest. It briefly reviews Peru’s early history and the history of collecting its ...


Protected: Arsenic And Old Pelts: Deadly Pesticides In Museum Collections, Alice B. Kehoe, Marshall Joseph Becker Dec 2017

Protected: Arsenic And Old Pelts: Deadly Pesticides In Museum Collections, Alice B. Kehoe, Marshall Joseph Becker

Anthropology & Sociology

No abstract provided.


Gis Modeling Of The Andean Coastline Through The Holocene, Chelsea E. Cheney Dec 2017

Gis Modeling Of The Andean Coastline Through The Holocene, Chelsea E. Cheney

Honors Theses AY 17/18

Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to model the Andean coastline and reviewing literature to compile Holocene epoch archaeological sites are vital, preliminary steps in beginning research on an overall, interdisciplinary project currently titled: “12,000 Years of Life by the Sea: Bringing Holocene Archaeological Data to Bear on Human-Coastal Interaction and Contemporary Coastal Ecology and Conservation.” The greater project aims to address broad questions regarding long-term climate change, the periodicity and intensity of El Niño events, and coastal ecology and conservation through the application of archaeological data from the coastline of Peru. By modeling bathymetry, classifying potential coastline levels throughout ...


Common Goods In Uncommon Times: Water, Droughts, And The Sustainability Of Ancestral Pueblo Communities In The Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, Ad 1100-1700, Michael Aiuvalasit Dec 2017

Common Goods In Uncommon Times: Water, Droughts, And The Sustainability Of Ancestral Pueblo Communities In The Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, Ad 1100-1700, Michael Aiuvalasit

Anthropology Theses and Dissertations

Adapting our infrastructure and institutions to climate change is a crucial dilemma for modern society. Archaeologists should be well positioned to address this issue with examples from the past. Yet, too often when we find that cultural changes are synchronous with climate variation, such as abandonment of a region during a drought, we advance causal arguments to what may merely be correlations. I argue that identifying proxies for resource management in the archaeological record, particularly for resources managed by collective action and vulnerable to climate change, can help to address this problem. To test this approach I studied water management ...


Cosmology Performed, The World Transformed: Mimesis And The Logical Operations Of Nature And Culture In Myth In Amazonia And Beyond, Deon Liebenberg Dec 2017

Cosmology Performed, The World Transformed: Mimesis And The Logical Operations Of Nature And Culture In Myth In Amazonia And Beyond, Deon Liebenberg

Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America

By analyzing myths from around the world to build an argument regarding the relation between cosmology and community, Amazonian myths are set within a broader set of mythic imageries. Lévi-Strauss showed how a structural description of myth should fully incorporate the entire set of variant arrangements through which its elements or terms could be related to one another. Despite the criticism to which his approach has been subject, the notion that certain kinds of logical operations could be gleaned in the organization of myth continues to yield valuable insights. In this paper, I contend that the mimetic representation of empirically ...


Levi Levering's Headdress: Blurring Borders And Bridging Cultures, Margaret Bruchac Dec 2017

Levi Levering's Headdress: Blurring Borders And Bridging Cultures, Margaret Bruchac

Department of Anthropology Papers

The feather headdress labeled 38-2-1 in the Penn Museum Collection is richly colored and composed of many types of materials. It consists of a felt cap with a leather forehead band covered with a panel of vivid loomed beadwork (in orange, blue, yellow, and white tipi shapes) and two beaded rosettes (blue, yellow, white, and red) on either end of the band. Hanging from each side are ear pendants made of buckskin with metal beads attached, and dyed downy feathers and long ribbons trail from the headdress. Extending from the top of the band are felt cylinders (faded perhaps due ...


Archaeology: Puzzle Of The Past: An Exhibit Design, Kristine Eyheralde Dec 2017

Archaeology: Puzzle Of The Past: An Exhibit Design, Kristine Eyheralde

Presidential Scholars Theses (1990 – 2006)

Archaeology: Puzzle of the Past is a design for a museum exhibit to better explain archaeology to the public. Its purpose is to change the audience's perspective from one of object orientation to visualization of archaeology as a process. The exhibit utilizes a chronological and concrete approach to move the visitors through the major steps in the archaeological process -- including survey, excavation, labwork, and interpretation -- as they occur within the parameters of a fictitious archaeological site. In addition, interactive exercises are designed to be included within each area to reinforce the message.


Biological Distance Between Flexed And Supine Burials At The Ancient Greek City Of Himera Using Dental Nonmetric Data, Jessica Czapla Dec 2017

Biological Distance Between Flexed And Supine Burials At The Ancient Greek City Of Himera Using Dental Nonmetric Data, Jessica Czapla

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

We investigate potential differences in genetic relatedness of flexed and supine burials from Himera, a Greek colony on Sicily (648-409 BCE), using biodistance analysis of nonmetric dental traits to explore whether locals adopted Greek burial styles, Greek and local customs hybridized, and/or each group maintained distinct burial styles. In other contexts, supine burials have been associated with Greeks, and flexed burials have been interpreted as representing indigenous individuals. Thus, we hypothesize that supine burials will be more closely related to Greeks from Euboea (indirect founders of Himera) and flexed burials will be genetically distinct, possibly representing locals. To test ...


The Small But Healthy Hypothesis: Evidence Of Skeletal Stress And Adaptation In Himera, Sicily, Tessa Smith Dec 2017

The Small But Healthy Hypothesis: Evidence Of Skeletal Stress And Adaptation In Himera, Sicily, Tessa Smith

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Physical anthropologists are interested in the concept of health in skeletal populations because it helps interpret past human behavior and biological adaptations. Since health is difficult to assess, we use markers of physiological stress in skeletal remains as a proxy for health. Generally, skeletons with more markers of physiological stress (paleopathology) and shorter stature (stunted individuals) are interpreted as being less “healthy.” However, some argue that being shorter does not automatically imply poor health. This study will test the “small but healthy” hypothesis by analyzing a sample size of 14 individuals from Himera, Sicily (six females and eight males) that ...


Object Matters: Considering Materiality, Meaning, And Memory, Margaret Bruchac Dec 2017

Object Matters: Considering Materiality, Meaning, And Memory, Margaret Bruchac

Department of Anthropology Papers

How do indigenous objects in museum collections "speak" to those who create, collect, curate, display, and observe them? The material traces in these objects obviously evoke connections to particular aesthetic values, beliefs, and practices, but do they also retain memories of the artisans who created them? Can these objects communicate across cultural and temporal boundaries? Do they have agency, outside of the people who handle them? How might the Native American objects in the Penn Museum, in particular, represent a "bundle of relations" that entangle collectors, collections, and communities?1 Students in my Fall 2017 "Anthropology of Museums" course at ...


Prismatic Blade Production In The Lower Cacaulapa Valley, Honduras: Implications For A Late Classic Political Economy, William J. Mcfarlane, Edward M. Schortman Dec 2017

Prismatic Blade Production In The Lower Cacaulapa Valley, Honduras: Implications For A Late Classic Political Economy, William J. Mcfarlane, Edward M. Schortman

Anthropology Papers and Presentations

Investigations of ancient political economies frequently focus on craft production. How manufacturing is organized can provide critical insights on more than the economy because social interactions and political processes are also involved. Here we consider how the acquisition, fabrication, and distribution of obsidian blades figured in the political strategies of craftworkers and elites within the Late Classic (AD 600–800) lower Cacaulapa Valley, northwestern Honduras. This evidence provides insights into the organization of craft manufacture across southeastern Mesoamerica and suggests that current models do not capture the varied production strategies that may be pursued within the same polity.

Las investigaciones ...


Corncobs In The Campfire: Evidence Of Cultivation Of Zea Mays At 44ch62, The Randy K Wade Site, Olivia A. Mehalko, Cameron E. Reuss Dec 2017

Corncobs In The Campfire: Evidence Of Cultivation Of Zea Mays At 44ch62, The Randy K Wade Site, Olivia A. Mehalko, Cameron E. Reuss

Selected Publications

In 20 years of excavation, the Randy K. Wade site (44CH62) has only produced indirect evidence of the cultivation of corn (Zea mays) in the Late Woodland village. This indirect evidence consists primarily of corncob impressions on Dan River pottery. In the summer of 2017, an intact hearth was excavated which contained the preserved remains of multiple charred corncobs- the first direct evidence of corn. The hearth also contained remains of other organic materials such as charred corn kernels, bark, sticks, bone fragments, and acorns. This paper will examine the direct evidence for corn cultivation at the Wade site and ...


A Matter Of Suspension: An Experimental Approach To Hammerstone Hafting In Prehistoric Keweenaw Copper Mining, Katherine Trotter Dec 2017

A Matter Of Suspension: An Experimental Approach To Hammerstone Hafting In Prehistoric Keweenaw Copper Mining, Katherine Trotter

Theses and Dissertations

For thousands of years before European contact, the vast deposits of copper in the Lake Superior Basin were exploited by the indigenous population of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and surrounding areas. The copper used and traded by the Native Americans in and around the Lake Superior Basin came from mines on Isle Royale and in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan. In the process of mining, a number of tools were utilized, including both grooved and ungrooved hammerstones. Grooved hammerstones are most commonly found in the Keweenaw while ungrooved stones are most commonly found on Isle Royale. Caches of these ...


The Canine Surrogacy Approach And Paleobotany: An Analysis Of Wisconsin Oneota Agricultural Production And Risk Management Strategies, Richard Wynn Edwards Dec 2017

The Canine Surrogacy Approach And Paleobotany: An Analysis Of Wisconsin Oneota Agricultural Production And Risk Management Strategies, Richard Wynn Edwards

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to investigate the nature of Upper Mississippian subsistence systems (circa AD 1050-1450), to evaluate the role of agriculture, and to understand how these dietary choices are related to risk management systems and the development of cultural complexity in the Midcontinent. The research uses the Koshkonong Locality of southeastern Wisconsin as a case study and compares it to other Upper Mississippian groups throughout Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois, Middle Mississippian groups in Illinois and southeastern Wisconsin, and contemporaneous Late Woodland groups in southeastern Wisconsin.

This study uses two primary lines of evidence; macrobotanical remains and dietary ...


An Analysis Of The Work Conducted By The Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division For The Benefit Of The Weyíiletpu (Cayuse), Imatalamłáma (Umatilla), And Walúulapam (Walla Walla), Carey Miller Dec 2017

An Analysis Of The Work Conducted By The Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division For The Benefit Of The Weyíiletpu (Cayuse), Imatalamłáma (Umatilla), And Walúulapam (Walla Walla), Carey Miller

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Problem:

In order for the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation’s (CTUIR) Tribal Historic Preservation Office (THPO) and Cultural Resources Protection Program (CRPP) to preserve, protect and perpetuate cultural resources for current and future generations of the Weyíiletpu (Cayuse), Imatalamłáma (Umatilla), and Walúulapam (Walla Walla) peoples, we need to be aware of the resources and the values they contain. One set of resources that the CTUIR knows little about is the work undertaken by the Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division (CCC-ID) at the Umatilla Agency including the types of projects, the location of such projects, why the projects were ...


Fire-Affected Rock In Inland Southern Californian Archaeology: An Investigation Into Diagnostic Utility, Shannon Renee Clarendon Dec 2017

Fire-Affected Rock In Inland Southern Californian Archaeology: An Investigation Into Diagnostic Utility, Shannon Renee Clarendon

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The post-firing variability of fire-affected rock (FAR) recovered from a stone-cooking platform within a prehistoric stone grill was examined. This examination tested the physical properties of FAR recovered from site CA-SBR-3773, located the Crowder Canyon Archaeological District in San Bernardino County, California. There is a lack of archaeological research in this area of Southern California; however, this project established a fundamental perspective of thermal feature reuse and episodes of firing activity for prehistoric cooking features by examining the physical changes FAR experienced due to various heat exposures. Regional archaeologists often encounter these features as they speckle the landscape of upland ...


Groundstone Analysis At The Rock Camp Site, Lacy Ann Padilla Dec 2017

Groundstone Analysis At The Rock Camp Site, Lacy Ann Padilla

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The use of mortar and pestles has long been associated with acorn processing in California. Based on ethnographic and archaeological evidence, groundstone was used to process a multitude of resources, including small mammals. Twenty groundstone artifacts recovered from the Rock Camp Site in the San Bernardino Mountains were analyzed for protein residues using the crossover immunological electrophoresis (CIEP) method. Using previously obtained data from the Summit Valley, a comparative analysis was done to determine if processing small mammals on groundstone was a common occurrence throughout the San Bernardino Mountain region.


Tangled Memories Of Wampum Diplomacy In Philadelphia, Margaret Bruchac Dec 2017

Tangled Memories Of Wampum Diplomacy In Philadelphia, Margaret Bruchac

Department of Anthropology Papers

Throughout North America, Indigenous Native American and First Nations histories are often presented as fragments of a broken past. Isolated objects, historical markers, archaeological sites, lost memories, curious folklore, and uninhabited places evoke memories of something that happened long ago, to someone else, in another time. The influential tribal individuals and nations who shaped and experienced those events are often depicted as tangential to the narrative of the emerging American nation, and imagined to have vanished from the scene. Yet, Indigenous histories are best seen as part of an on-going stream of events that are never entirely past, even (especially ...


Household Chipped Stone Technology At South Cape (23cg8): A Mississippian Hinterland Site In Southeast Missouri, Deseray L. Helton Dec 2017

Household Chipped Stone Technology At South Cape (23cg8): A Mississippian Hinterland Site In Southeast Missouri, Deseray L. Helton

MSU Graduate Theses

Mississippian archaeology is characterized by a longstanding bias towards studying large, mound-bearing sites as opposed to small hinterland sites. Although this bias has diminished in recent decades, research on hinterland sites is still relatively uncommon. This study helps correct that bias through an analysis of flaked stone technological organization at South-Cape (23CG8), a Mississippian hinterland site in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. A sample of flaked stone artifacts from two house features at the site was analyzed. The results indicate that residents at South Cape generally acquired and consumed higher quantities of local lithic raw material than of supra-local lithic raw material ...


Mapping The Landscape For Archaeological Detection, Preservation, And Interpretation: A Case Study In High Resolution Location Modeling From The Blue Mountains Of Northeastern Oregon, Trent Skinner Dec 2017

Mapping The Landscape For Archaeological Detection, Preservation, And Interpretation: A Case Study In High Resolution Location Modeling From The Blue Mountains Of Northeastern Oregon, Trent Skinner

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Archaeological location modeling (ALM) is an important tool in most survey strategies, and has contributed substantially to economizing efforts to locate and characterize the archaeological record. The increasing availability of high resolution (<3m) airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) data has the potential to refine the application and ultimately the role of ALM. This research tests the precision and accuracy gained by incorporating lidar derived data into an ALM. The site records and other environmental data used in this study were all generated over the last four decades by the resource specialists of the Malheur National Forest. The Weights-of-Evidence (WofE) probability method (Bonham-Carter 1994) was used to produce two ALMs; one based on a 10m digital elevation model (DEM) created from satellite imaging, and the second from a 3m resolution lidar derived DEM. Independent variables (e.g., slope, aspect, distance to water, etc.) commonly used in ALM were largely replaced by index variables (e.g., slope position classification, topographic wetness index, etc.). The final models were classified into areas of high, medium, and low archaeological potential, then cross-validated against a reserved random dataset. Models were then compared using the Kvamme gain statistic and site to area frequency ratio. The 3m model demonstrated a significant improvement over the results obtained from the 10m model and the current probability model used in the study area. A number of factors including model resolution, statistical methodology, and the character of the independent and dependent variables all contributed to the increase in precision and accuracy. The incremental improvement in modeling efficiency demonstrated here will create time and cost saving in the management and preservation of cultural resources, and ultimately contribute to a better understanding of patterns of past human land use.


Facing The Sun, Frank Prendergast, Muiris O'Sullivan, Ken Williams, Gabriel Cooney Dec 2017

Facing The Sun, Frank Prendergast, Muiris O'Sullivan, Ken Williams, Gabriel Cooney

Articles

December 2017 marked 50 years since archaeologist Michael J. O’Kelly first observed the solar illumination of the burial chamber in the Neolithic passage tomb at Newgrange during the period of the winter solstice. O’Kelly subsequently recorded direct sunlight entering Newgrange through the ‘especially contrived slit which lies under the roof-box at the outer end of the passage roof’ on 21 December 1969. The discovery of this historic phenomenon, dating back over 5,000 years, captured the public interest and imagination at that time and ever since. In this major article published in the Winter 2017 edition of Archaeology ...


Seeing Prehistory Through New Lenses: Using Geophysical And Statistical Analysis To Identify Fresh Perspectives Of A 15th Century Mandan Occupation, Amber Marie Mitchum Dec 2017

Seeing Prehistory Through New Lenses: Using Geophysical And Statistical Analysis To Identify Fresh Perspectives Of A 15th Century Mandan Occupation, Amber Marie Mitchum

Theses and Dissertations

Great Plains prehistoric research has evolved over the course of a century, with many sites like Huff Village (32MO11) in North Dakota recently coming back to the forefront of discussion through new technological applications. Through a majority of its studies and excavations, Huff Village appeared to endure as the final stage in the Middle Missouri tradition. Long thought to reflect only systematically placed long-rectangular structure types of its Middle Missouri predecessors, recent magnetic gradiometry and topographic mapping data revealed circular structure types that deviated from long-held traditions, highlighting new associations with Coalescent groups. A compact system for food capacity was ...


Radiocarbon Test For Demographic Events In Written And Oral History, Kevan Edinborough, Marko Porčić, Andrew Martindale, Thomas J. Brown, Kisha Supernant, Kenneth M. Ames Nov 2017

Radiocarbon Test For Demographic Events In Written And Oral History, Kevan Edinborough, Marko Porčić, Andrew Martindale, Thomas J. Brown, Kisha Supernant, Kenneth M. Ames

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We extend an established simulation-based method to test for significant short-duration (1–2 centuries) demographic events known from one documented historical and one oral historical context. Case study 1 extrapolates population data from the Western historical tradition using historically derived demographic data from the catastrophic European Black Death/bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis). We find a corresponding statistically significant drop in absolute population using an extended version of a previously published simulation method. Case study 2 uses this refined simulation method to test for a settlement gap identified in oral historical records of descendant Tsimshian First Nations communities from the Prince ...


P-04 Animation Of The Cultural Landscape Of Hisban And Vicinity In The Longue Duree, Oystein Labianca Nov 2017

P-04 Animation Of The Cultural Landscape Of Hisban And Vicinity In The Longue Duree, Oystein Labianca

Celebration of Research and Creative Scholarship

In today’s markets, archaeological publishing must include on-line presentation of findings using various technologies for rendering results, such as 3-D visualization and animation media. The goal of the present project is to build capacity here at the Institute of Archaeology in deployment of animation technologies for rendering of archaeological findings and narratives. To this end I have assembled a team of two graduate students with significant computer skills (Jared Wilson and Stanley Lebrun) and one undergraduate student (Paul Roschman) who will collaborate with me to animate, using Esri CityEngine software, the story of long-term change in the cultural landscape ...


Evaluating Causes Of Error In Landmark-Based Data Collection Using Scanners, Brian M. Shearer, Siobhan B. Cooke, Lauren B. Halenar, Samantha L. Reber, Jeannette E. Plummer, Eric Delson, Melissa Tallman Nov 2017

Evaluating Causes Of Error In Landmark-Based Data Collection Using Scanners, Brian M. Shearer, Siobhan B. Cooke, Lauren B. Halenar, Samantha L. Reber, Jeannette E. Plummer, Eric Delson, Melissa Tallman

Publications and Research

In this study, we assess the precision, accuracy, and repeatability of craniodental landmarks (Types I, II, and III, plus curves of semilandmarks) on a single macaque cranium digitally reconstructed with three different surface scanners and a microCT scanner. Nine researchers with varying degrees of osteological and geometric morphometric knowledge landmarked ten iterations of each scan (40 total) to test the effects of scan quality, researcher experience, and landmark type on levels of intra- and interobserver error. Two researchers additionally landmarked ten specimens from seven different macaque species using the same landmark protocol to test the effects of the previously listed ...


Human-Environment Interactions: Sea-Level Rise And Marine Resource Use At Eleanor Betty, An Underwater Maya Salt Work, Belize, Valerie Renae Feathers Nov 2017

Human-Environment Interactions: Sea-Level Rise And Marine Resource Use At Eleanor Betty, An Underwater Maya Salt Work, Belize, Valerie Renae Feathers

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Dissertation excavations were performed in the spring of 2013 at the underwater site of Eleanor Betty in Paynes Creek National Park, Belize. The marine environment preserved wooden architecture associated with the salt works. Excavation goals included: 1) excavating and defining the boundaries of the submerged shell midden; 2) collecting sediment samples for paleoenvironmental analyses; and 3) recovering cultural remains to determine the site’s purpose (residence versus production workshop).

Four transects were added to the existing transect from excavations performed during the 2011 field season. The shell midden measured 5 meters in length (north-to-south throughout all transects) by 0.5-to-1 ...


A Real Rock Star, Mike James Nov 2017

A Real Rock Star, Mike James

Indian Head Rock Project

An article published in Ashland Daily Independent discussing the documentary film on the Indian Head Rock by Steve Middleton from November 2, 2017.


Gis Analysis Of Dvāravatī Dharmacakras And The Rise Of Buddhism In Thailand, Areerut Patnukao Oct 2017

Gis Analysis Of Dvāravatī Dharmacakras And The Rise Of Buddhism In Thailand, Areerut Patnukao

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores how GIS as well as spatial and statistical analyses could be used to advance the understanding of Dvāravatī settlement and Dharmacakras locations. The research employs archaeological and geographical parameters to measure and quantify the patterns of Dvāravatī settlements, Dharmacakra locations, their interrelationship, and their relationship with environmental setting. The different types of spatial analyses, parameter settings within each analysis, and approaches are used to examine and explore the differences and commonalities of these variables at three different geographic levels: national, regional, and river basin levels.

Four distinct approaches are incorporated in this study. Chi-Square analysis shows significant ...


Forming Community Partnerships, Lori Foley Oct 2017

Forming Community Partnerships, Lori Foley

CHAR

In the event of a disaster, regardless of the type or scope, the first response is always local. For the institutions and organizations charged with safeguarding the nation’s cultural and historic resources – museums, historical societies, libraries, and municipal offices, to name just a few – building relationships with local first responders and emergency managers before disaster strikes is key to ensuring the safety of staff and collections. State emergency management agencies are also collaborating with their state cultural agencies to protect these valuable and vulnerable resources. The resulting emergency networks better position the local community and the state to be ...