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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Recovering Parasites From Mummies And Coprolites: An Epidemiological Approach, Morgana Camacho, Adauto Araújo, Johnica J. Morrow, Jane E. Buikstra, Karl Reinhard Apr 2018

Recovering Parasites From Mummies And Coprolites: An Epidemiological Approach, Morgana Camacho, Adauto Araújo, Johnica J. Morrow, Jane E. Buikstra, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

In the field of archaeological parasitology, researchers have long documented the distribution of parasites in archaeological time and space through the analysis of coprolites and human remains. This area of research defined the origin and migration of parasites through presence/absence studies. By the end of the 20th century, the field of pathoecology had emerged as researchers developed an interest in the ancient ecology of parasite transmission. Supporting studies were conducted to establish the relationships between parasites and humans, including cultural, subsistence, and ecological reconstructions. Parasite prevalence data were collected to infer the impact of parasitism on human health. In ...


Palynological Investigation Of Mummified Human Remains, Karl Reinhard, Marina Milanello Do Amaral, Nicole Wall Jan 2017

Palynological Investigation Of Mummified Human Remains, Karl Reinhard, Marina Milanello Do Amaral, Nicole Wall

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Pollen analysis was applied to a mummified homicide victim in Nebraska, U.S.A., to determine the location of death. A control sample showed the normal ambient pollen in the garage crime scene. Ambient windborne types, common in the air of the region, dominated the control. Internal samples were analyzed from the sacrum, intestine, and diaphragm. Microfossils were recovered from the rehydrated intestine lumen. The intestinal sample was dominated by Brassica (broccoli). The sacrum sample was high in dietary types but with a showing of ambient types. The pollen from the diaphragm was dominated by ambient pollen similar to the ...


Pseudoscorpions Of The Family Cheiridiidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) Recovered From Burial Sediments At Pachacamac (500–1,500ce), Peru, Johnica J. Morrow, Livia Taylor, Lauren Peck, Christian Elowsky, Lawrence Stewart Owens, Peter Eeckout Jan 2017

Pseudoscorpions Of The Family Cheiridiidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) Recovered From Burial Sediments At Pachacamac (500–1,500ce), Peru, Johnica J. Morrow, Livia Taylor, Lauren Peck, Christian Elowsky, Lawrence Stewart Owens, Peter Eeckout

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Fragmented remains of pseudoscorpions belonging to the family Cheiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) were recovered from Ychsma polity (c. AD 1000–1475) burial sediments from Pachacamac, Peru. Sediments from 21 burials were examined following rehydration in 0.5% trisodium phosphate for 48 h and subsequent screening through a 250 lm mesh. Materials larger than 250 lm were surveyed for the presence of arthropods. A total of two samples contained pseudoscorpion fragments, which were collected and quantified to determine the minimal number of pseudoscorpions present per gram of each sample. Following quantification, pseudoscorpion specimens were imaged utilizing confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to ...


Prehistoric Pathoecology As Represented By Parasites Of A Mummy From The Peruaçu Valley, Brazil, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araújo Oct 2016

Prehistoric Pathoecology As Represented By Parasites Of A Mummy From The Peruaçu Valley, Brazil, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araújo

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Paleopathologists have begun exploring the pathoecology of parasitic diseases in relation to diet and environment. We are summarizing the parasitological findings from a mummy in the site of Lapa do Boquete, a Brazilian cave in the state of Minas Gerais. These findings in context of the archaeology of the site provided insights into the pathoecology of disease transmission in cave and rockshelter environments. We are presenting a description of the site followed by the evidence of hookworm, intestinal fluke, and Trypanosoma infection with resulting Chagas disease in the mummy discovered in the cave. These findings are used to reconstruct the ...


Assessing The Archaeoparasitological Potential Of Quids As A Source Material For Immunodiagnostic Analyses, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard Oct 2016

Assessing The Archaeoparasitological Potential Of Quids As A Source Material For Immunodiagnostic Analyses, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

In the present study, quids from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to ELISA tests for 2 protozoan parasites, Toxoplasma gondii (n=45) and Trypanosoma cruzi (n=43). The people who occupied CMC, the Loma San Gabriel, lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The known pathoecology of these people puts them into at-risk categories for the transmission of T. gondii and T. cruzi. Human antibodies created in response to these 2 parasites can be detected in modern saliva using ELISA kits intended for use with human serum. For these reasons, quids were reconstituted ...


Temporal And Spatial Distribution Of Enterobius Vermicularis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) In The Prehistoric Americas, Karl J. Reinhard, Adauto Araújo, Johnica J. Morrow Sep 2016

Temporal And Spatial Distribution Of Enterobius Vermicularis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) In The Prehistoric Americas, Karl J. Reinhard, Adauto Araújo, Johnica J. Morrow

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Investigations of Enterobius sp. infection in prehistory have produced a body of data that can be used to evaluate the geographic distribution of infection through time in the Americas. Regional variations in prevalence are evident. In North America, 119 pinworm positive samples were found in 1,112 samples from 28 sites with a prevalence of 10.7%. Almost all of the positive samples came from agricultural sites. From Brazil, 0 pinworm positive samples were found in 325 samples from 7 sites. For the Andes region, 22 pinworm positive samples were found in 411 samples from 26 sites for a prevalence ...


Cleaning Puparia For Forensic Analysis, Leon G. Higley, Tierney R. Brosius, Karl Reinhard, David Carter Sep 2016

Cleaning Puparia For Forensic Analysis, Leon G. Higley, Tierney R. Brosius, Karl Reinhard, David Carter

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

We tested procedures for removing adipocere from insect samples to allow identification. An acceptable procedure was determined: (i) Samples were sorted in petri dishes with 75% alcohol to remove any larvae, adult insects, or other soft-bodied material. (ii) Samples of up to 24 puparia were placed in a vial with 15 mL of 95% acetone, capped, and vortexed for a total of 30–90 sec in 10- to 15-sec bursts. This step removed large masses of adipocere or soil from specimen. (iii) Specimens were removed from acetone and placed in a vial of 15 mL of 2% potassium hydroxide (KOH ...


Cryptosporidium Parvum Among Coprolites From La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 Ce), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard Aug 2016

Cryptosporidium Parvum Among Coprolites From La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 Ce), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

In the present study, 90 coprolites from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for 3 diarrhea-inducing protozoan parasites, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, and Cryptosporidium parvum, to determine whether these parasites were present among the people who utilized this cave 1,200–1,400 yr ago. These people, the Loma San Gabriel, developed as a culture out of the Archaic Los Caracoles population and lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The Loma San Gabriel persisted through a mixed subsistence strategy of hunting-gathering and agricultural production. The results of ...


Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America *, Adauto Araujo, Karl J. Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena Iniguez, Martin Fugassa, Berrnardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Aug 2015

Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America *, Adauto Araujo, Karl J. Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena Iniguez, Martin Fugassa, Berrnardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Some human parasites originated in prehominid ancestors in Africa. Nematode species, such as Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), hookworms and Trichuris trichiura are shared by humans and other close phylogenetic primates (Pan and Gorilla), showing that they infected a common ancestor to this group. When humans migrated from Africa to other continents they carried these parasites wherever climate conditions allowed parasite transmission from host to host. Other parasites, however, were acquired throughout human biological and social evolutive history when new territories were occupied. Paleoparasitology data is a valuable source to recover emergence and disappearance of parasite infections through analysis of archaeological remains ...


Diet And Parasitism At Dust Devil Cave, Karl J. Reinhard, J Richard Ambler, Magdalene Mcguffie Aug 2015

Diet And Parasitism At Dust Devil Cave, Karl J. Reinhard, J Richard Ambler, Magdalene Mcguffie

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Human parasitism has obvious relationships to group size and composition, mobility, subsistence patterns, and rates of culture change. At their best, human endoparasites may be annoying; at their worst, some can cause death. Thus, an overall view of the parasite load of a prehistoric population can yield insights useful in interpreting past lifeways. With these thoughts in mind, we undertook a study of Desha Complex (6800-4800 B .C.) human feces recovered from Dust Devil Cave in southern Utah.


Agave Chewing And Dental Wear: Evidence From Quids, Emily E. Hammerl, Melissa A. Baier, Karl Reinhard Jul 2015

Agave Chewing And Dental Wear: Evidence From Quids, Emily E. Hammerl, Melissa A. Baier, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the ...


Parasitology In An Archaeological Context: Analysis Of Medieval Burials In Nivelles, Belgium, S. E. Rácz, Elisa Pucu De Araujo, E. Jensen, C. Mostek, Johnica J. Morrow, M. L. Van Hove, R. Bianucci, D. Willems, F. Heller, Adauto Araujo, Karl Reinhard Jan 2015

Parasitology In An Archaeological Context: Analysis Of Medieval Burials In Nivelles, Belgium, S. E. Rácz, Elisa Pucu De Araujo, E. Jensen, C. Mostek, Johnica J. Morrow, M. L. Van Hove, R. Bianucci, D. Willems, F. Heller, Adauto Araujo, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Coprolites were recovered from three burials near the Grand Place of Nivelles, Belgium. These remains yielded evidence of geohelminth parasitism. The evidence contributes to studies of differential parasite egg preservation related to the taphonomic conditions within the three burials. Using coprolite analysis techniques, parasite egg concentrations were quantified for each burial. Coprolites from the individual in Burial 122 were abnormally large and abundant, indicating an intestinal blockage. Additionally, this individual hosted an extremely high number of parasites evinced by the calculated parasite egg concentrations (Trichuris trichiura = 1,577,679 total eggs; Ascaris lumbricoides = 202,350 total eggs). Statistical analyses revealed ...


Paleoparasitology – Human Parasites In Ancient Material, Adauto Araújo, Karl Reinhard, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Jan 2015

Paleoparasitology – Human Parasites In Ancient Material, Adauto Araújo, Karl Reinhard, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: paleoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and paleontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the paleoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide ...


Forensic Palynological Analysis Of Intestinal Contents Of A Korean Mummy, Paulette Arguelles, Karl Reinhard, Dong Hoon Shin Jan 2015

Forensic Palynological Analysis Of Intestinal Contents Of A Korean Mummy, Paulette Arguelles, Karl Reinhard, Dong Hoon Shin

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Experimental studies show that pollen resides in the intestinal tract for a minimum of seven days to at least 21 days. Because of this long residence time, pollen analysis is an important avenue of forensic research. Pollen provides evidence of the environment of the decedent as well as foods and medicine. We analyzed a coprolite recovered from a Korean mummy. The decedent was a high-ranking general who lived during the 16th or 17th centuries. Twenty pollen types were recovered. These ranged from 100s to 10,000s of pollen grains per gram of coprolite. Importantly, comparison of the coprolite pollen spectrum ...


Curatorial Implications Of Ophyra Capensis (Order Diptera, Family Muscidae) Puparia Recovered From The Body Of The Blessed Antonio Patrizi, Monticiano, Italy (Middle Ages), Johnica J. Morrow, Diesel A. Baldwin, Leon G. Higley, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Karl J. Reinhard Jan 2015

Curatorial Implications Of Ophyra Capensis (Order Diptera, Family Muscidae) Puparia Recovered From The Body Of The Blessed Antonio Patrizi, Monticiano, Italy (Middle Ages), Johnica J. Morrow, Diesel A. Baldwin, Leon G. Higley, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Karl J. Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

The discovery of dipteran remains on mummified individuals can lead to either cause for curatorial concern or to a better understanding of the individual’s post-mortem environment. The present study analyzed insect remains associated with the body of a unique medieval mummy of religious significance, that of the Blessed Antonio Patrizi da Monticiano. A total of 79 puparia were examined and all were identified as Ophyra capensis (Diptera: Muscidae). Additionally, a desiccated moth (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) was encountered. Puparia of O. capensis would be associated with normal decomposition shortly after the death of the mummified individual, and not an infestation beginning ...


Establishing Tobacco Origin From Pollen Identification: An Approach To Resolving The Debate, Shane Williams, Shelby Hubbard, Karl Reinhard, Sérgio Augusto De Miranda Chaves Nov 2014

Establishing Tobacco Origin From Pollen Identification: An Approach To Resolving The Debate, Shane Williams, Shelby Hubbard, Karl Reinhard, Sérgio Augusto De Miranda Chaves

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Previous research into pollen content of tobacco resulted in a debate. We address this debate and determine that pollen analysis may be able to assist with identifying geographical origin of tobacco. However, the value of any results should be assessed on a case-by-case regional basis until sufficient database information is available for an objective interpretation to be undertaken on a global basis. As a first step toward developing comparative data for South America, we analyzed a tobacco sample from Brazil in an effort to identify signature taxa from the state of Minas Gerais. We also assessed the role of honey ...


Paleoparasitological Studies On Mummies Of The Joseon Dynasty, Korea, Min Seo, Adauto Araújo, Karl J. Reinhard, Jong Yil Chai, Dong Hoon Shin Jun 2014

Paleoparasitological Studies On Mummies Of The Joseon Dynasty, Korea, Min Seo, Adauto Araújo, Karl J. Reinhard, Jong Yil Chai, Dong Hoon Shin

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Paleoparasitology is the application of conventional or molecular investigative techniques to archeological samples in order to reveal parasitic infection patterns among past populations. Although pioneering studies already have reported key paleoparasitological findings around the world, the same sorts of studies had not, until very recently, been conducted in sufficient numbers in Korea. Mummified remains of individuals dating to the Korean Joseon Dynasty actually have proved very meaningful to concerned researchers, owing particularly to their superb preservation status, which makes them ideal subjects for paleoparasitological studies. Over the past several years, our study series on Korean mummies has yielded very pertinent ...


Paleoparasitology: The Origin Of Human Parasites; Paleoparasitologia: A Origem Dos Parasitas Humanos, Adauto Araújo, Karl Reinhard, Luis Fernando Ferreira, Elisa Pucu, Pedro Paulo Chieffi Jan 2013

Paleoparasitology: The Origin Of Human Parasites; Paleoparasitologia: A Origem Dos Parasitas Humanos, Adauto Araújo, Karl Reinhard, Luis Fernando Ferreira, Elisa Pucu, Pedro Paulo Chieffi

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration ...


Synthesizing Parasitology With Archaeology In Paleopathology, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araujo Jan 2012

Synthesizing Parasitology With Archaeology In Paleopathology, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araujo

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Parasitology is the study of organisms that are symbiotic with other organisms. In this form of symbiosis, the parasite species by definition benefits from the interaction while the host is harmed to some degree. In actuality, some parasites benefit their hosts. The animals traditionally studied by parasitologists range from protozoa to arthropods, and include all types of internal and external worms. Ticks, fleas, lice, and a variety of insects that transmit parasites are also studied by parasitologists. Recently, a more holistic view of parasitism appeared, including bacteria and viruses. In essence, parasitology is the study of a certain kind of ...


Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America, Adauto Araujo, Karl Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena M. Iñiguez, Martin Fugassa, Bernardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luis Fernando Ferreira Jan 2011

Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America, Adauto Araujo, Karl Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena M. Iñiguez, Martin Fugassa, Bernardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luis Fernando Ferreira

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Some human parasites originated in prehominid ancestors in Africa. Nematode species, such as Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), hookworms and Trichuris trichiura are shared by humans and other close phylogenetic primates (Pan and Gorilla), showing that they infected a common ancestor to this group. When humans migrated from Africa to other continents they carried these parasites wherever climate conditions allowed parasite transmission from host to host. Other parasites, however, were acquired throughout human biological and social evolutive history when new territories were occupied. Paleoparasitology data is a valuable source to recover emergence and disappearance of parasite infections through analysis of archaeological remains ...


Where Have All The Plant Foods Gone? The Search For Refined Dietary Reconstruction From Chinchorro Mummies, Karl J. Reinhard, Sara Le-Roy-Toren, Bernardo Arriaza Jan 2011

Where Have All The Plant Foods Gone? The Search For Refined Dietary Reconstruction From Chinchorro Mummies, Karl J. Reinhard, Sara Le-Roy-Toren, Bernardo Arriaza

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

The Chinchorro cemeteries of northern Chile are the first graveyards of the Andes (Arriaza 1995, Schiappacasse & Niemeyer 1984). The excavation and analysis of Chinchorro mummies reveals the 'true character of the people'. The burials themselves are optimal for preservation of corpses, burial furniture, and aspects of ceremonies associated with the dead. The analysis of corporeal remains gradually clarifies the details of daily activities and status. Therefore, we feel that a holistic approach to mummy studies provides enormously fruitful paths to understanding the character of the ancient Chinchorro society.


A Parasitological Paradox: Why Is Ascarid Infection So Rare In The Prehistoric Americas?, Daniela Leles, Karl Reinhard, Martín Horacio Fugassa, Luis Fernando Ferreira, Alena M. Iñiguez, Adauto Araujo Jul 2010

A Parasitological Paradox: Why Is Ascarid Infection So Rare In The Prehistoric Americas?, Daniela Leles, Karl Reinhard, Martín Horacio Fugassa, Luis Fernando Ferreira, Alena M. Iñiguez, Adauto Araujo

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm) and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) are the most common intestinal parasites found in humans worldwide today and they almost always co-occur. However, we find two distinct patterns in archae­ological material. In historical North American and Old World contexts, the association of A. lumbricoides and T. trich­iura is similar to the modern epidemiological picture. In contrast, the co-occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura eggs in prehistoric South America is rare. For prehistoric contexts, T. trichiura is the most common parasite found in ar­chaeological material. Recently molecular biology techniques pointed to a subdiagnosis of roundworm ...


Evaluating Microfossil Content Of Dental Calculus From Brazilian Sambaquis, Verônica Wesolowski, Sheila Maria Ferraz Mendonça De Souza, Karl Reinhard, Gregório Ceccantini Jun 2010

Evaluating Microfossil Content Of Dental Calculus From Brazilian Sambaquis, Verônica Wesolowski, Sheila Maria Ferraz Mendonça De Souza, Karl Reinhard, Gregório Ceccantini

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

To date, limited numbers of dental calculus samples have been analyzed by researchers in diverse parts of the world. The combined analyses of these have provided some general guidelines for the analysis of calculus that is non-destructive to archaeological teeth. There is still a need for a quantitative study of large numbers of calculus samples to establish protocols, assess the level of contamination, evaluate the quantity of microfossils in dental calculus, and to compare analysis results with the literature concerning the biology of calculus formation. We analyzed dental calculus from 53 teeth from four Brazilian sambaquis. Sambaquis are the shellmounds ...


Animal Helminths In Human Archaeological Remains: A Review Of Zoonoses In The Past, Luciana Sianto, Marcia Chame, Cassius S. P. Silva, Marcelo L. C. Gonçalves, Karl Reinhard, Martín Horacio Fugassa, Adauto Araújo Jan 2009

Animal Helminths In Human Archaeological Remains: A Review Of Zoonoses In The Past, Luciana Sianto, Marcia Chame, Cassius S. P. Silva, Marcelo L. C. Gonçalves, Karl Reinhard, Martín Horacio Fugassa, Adauto Araújo

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

The authors present a review of records of intestinal parasitic helminths from animals in human archaeological remains, reported since the emergence of paleopathological studies. The objective was to relate paleoparasitological findings to geographic, biotic, and abiotic factors from the environment in which the prehistoric populations lived, and understand some aspects related to the process of human dispersion and biological and cultural evolution. Modification of eating habits and the incorporation of new cultural practices are analyzed from the perspective of zoonoses from prehistory to the present day, especially in Brazilian indigenous populations. Three tables identifying the helminths, their natural hosts, dates ...


How Does A Riverine Setting Affect The Lifestyle Of Shellmound Builders In Brazil?, Sabine Eggers, C. C. Petronilho, K. Brandt, C. Jericó-Daminello, J. Filippini, Karl Reinhard Dec 2008

How Does A Riverine Setting Affect The Lifestyle Of Shellmound Builders In Brazil?, Sabine Eggers, C. C. Petronilho, K. Brandt, C. Jericó-Daminello, J. Filippini, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

The contact of inland and coastal prehistoric groups in Brazil is believed to have been restricted to regions with no geographical barrier, as is the case in the Ribeira de Iguape valley. The inland osteological collection from the riverine shellmound Moraes (5800–4500 BP) represents a unique opportunity to test this assumption for this region. Despite cultural similarities between riverine and coastal shellmounds, important ecological and site distribution differences are expected to impact on lifestyle. The purpose of this study is thus to document and interpret health and lifestyle indicators in Moraes in comparison to coastal shellmound groups. Specifically we ...


Parasite Pathoecology Of Salmon Pueblo And Other Chacoan Great Houses: The Healthiest And Wormiest Ancestral Puebloans, Karl Reinhard Jan 2008

Parasite Pathoecology Of Salmon Pueblo And Other Chacoan Great Houses: The Healthiest And Wormiest Ancestral Puebloans, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Two fields of paleopathological investigation originated in the Southwest. Archaeoparasitology is the study of ancient parasite infection (Reinhard 1990, 1992b). It includes comparisons between time periods of single societies as well as comparisons of parasitism between different, contemporaneous cultures. For example, Fry (1980) compared Fremont and Anasazi parasitism, and also Archaic hunter-gatherer and ancestral Pueblo parasitism. All of these studies fall into the definition of archaeoparasitology.

By contrast, pathoecology is the reconstruction of relationships among behavior, environment, and disease organisms in the development of illness (Martinson et al. 2003; ReinhardandBuikstra2003; Reinhardet al. 2003; Santoro et al. 2003).1his field developed ...


Pathoecology Of Two Ancestral Pueblo Villages, Karl Reinhard Jan 2008

Pathoecology Of Two Ancestral Pueblo Villages, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Pathoecology is the study of the biotic, abiotic, and cultural environments of disease (Martinson et al. 2003). A parasitic infection is the result of the pathoecological interaction of host behavior, parasite life cycle, the environment in which both life forms live, the nutritional status of the host, and host physiological responses to all of these factors. Parasites contribute to anemia in many ways. Some, such as hookworm, actually consume blood and cause iron loss through their activities. For other parasites, symptoms such as profuse diarrhea reduce intestinal absorption of nutrients. Others, such as certain fish tapeworms, actually compete for absorption ...


Paleoparasitology: Perspectives With New Techniques, Adauto Araújo, Karl Reinhard, Otilio M. Bastos, Ligia C. Costa, Claude Pirmez, Alena Iñighez, Ana Carolina Vicente, Carlos M. Morel, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Jan 2008

Paleoparasitology: Perspectives With New Techniques, Adauto Araújo, Karl Reinhard, Otilio M. Bastos, Ligia C. Costa, Claude Pirmez, Alena Iñighez, Ana Carolina Vicente, Carlos M. Morel, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites found in archaeological material. The development of this field of research began with histological identification of helminth eggs in mummy tissues, analysis of coprolites, and recently through molecular biology. An approach to the history of paleoparasitology is reviewed in this paper, with special reference to the studies of ancient DNA identified in archaeological material.

Paleoparasitologia: perspectivas com novas técnicas
Paleoparasitologia é o estudo de parasitos encontrados em material arqueológico. O desenvolvimento deste campo da pesquisa teve início com a identificação de ovos de helmintos em tecidos mumificados, análise de coprólitos e, recentemente, através da ...


Cranial Deformation As The Cause Of Death For A Child From The Chillon River Valley, Peru, Shelia M.F. Medoncade Souza, Karl J. Reinhard, Andrea Lessa Jan 2008

Cranial Deformation As The Cause Of Death For A Child From The Chillon River Valley, Peru, Shelia M.F. Medoncade Souza, Karl J. Reinhard, Andrea Lessa

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Two small mummy bundles, found in a tomb at the Chillon River Valley, Lima Plains, Peru exist in the collections of the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. They were donated to the collections at the beginning of the 20th century. A multidisciplinary team is now curating and studying them. CT scans confirmed both skeletons were of individuals less than one year old at death. One of the bundles is intact and will be preserved and displayed. The other one was partly decomposed and the authors received permission to unwrap it to analyze the bones in details. Mites and pollen ...


A Child And His Fate: Tuberculosis, Perimortem Trauma And Mummification, Sheila M. M.De Souza, Karl J. Reinhard, Bernardo Tessarollo, Jose Fernando Cardona Zannier, Adauto Araujo Jan 2008

A Child And His Fate: Tuberculosis, Perimortem Trauma And Mummification, Sheila M. M.De Souza, Karl J. Reinhard, Bernardo Tessarollo, Jose Fernando Cardona Zannier, Adauto Araujo

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

A male child, sitting, 7 years, circumferential deformation, skin marked by coiled fibers, nostril plugs, consistent with Aymara practices was CT scanned. Puppae in the skin suggest exposition of the body previous to the funeral. Dark brown color at the skin suggest blood perfusion. A broken area at the right frontal with the skin partially inside is suggestive of perimorten trauma. There were no bone debris inside the skull and the CT images show two confluent fractures defined by radiating lines extending beyond the missing bone surface. The right eyeball is projected out, the tongue is outside the mouth, the ...