Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 75

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Pinworm Research In The Southwest Usa: Five Decades Of Methodological And Theoretical Development And The Epidemiological Approach, Morgana Camacho, Karl Reinhard Jan 2020

Pinworm Research In The Southwest Usa: Five Decades Of Methodological And Theoretical Development And The Epidemiological Approach, Morgana Camacho, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Pinworms infected Ancestral Pueblo populations since early periods of occupation on the Colorado Plateau. The high prevalence of pinworm found in these populations was correlated with the habitation style developments through time. However, in previous studies, Turkey Pen Cave, an early occupation site, and Salmon Ruins, a late occupation site, exhibited prevalences that were anomalously low, suggesting that these sites were outliers. Alternatively, it is possible that the previous quantification method was not successful in detecting the real prevalence and eggs per gram, which led to inexact interpretations. The aims of this study were to verify if previous pinworm prevalences ...


Coproid Predicts The Source Of Coprolites And Paleofeces Using Microbiome Composition And Host Dna Content, Maxime Borry, Bryan Cordova, Angela Perri, Marsha Wibowo, Tanvi Prasad Honap, Jada Ko, Kate Britton, Linus Girdland-Flink, Robert C. Power, Ingelise Stuijts, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Courtney Hofman, Richard Hagan, Thérèse Samdapawindé Kagoné, Nicolas Meda, Helene Carabin, David Jacobson, Karl Reinhard, Cecil Lewis, Aleksandar Kostic, Choongwon Jeong, Alexander Herbig, Alexander Hübner, Christina Warinner Jan 2020

Coproid Predicts The Source Of Coprolites And Paleofeces Using Microbiome Composition And Host Dna Content, Maxime Borry, Bryan Cordova, Angela Perri, Marsha Wibowo, Tanvi Prasad Honap, Jada Ko, Kate Britton, Linus Girdland-Flink, Robert C. Power, Ingelise Stuijts, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Courtney Hofman, Richard Hagan, Thérèse Samdapawindé Kagoné, Nicolas Meda, Helene Carabin, David Jacobson, Karl Reinhard, Cecil Lewis, Aleksandar Kostic, Choongwon Jeong, Alexander Herbig, Alexander Hübner, Christina Warinner

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Shotgun metagenomics applied to archaeological feces (paleofeces) can bring new insights into the composition and functions of human and animal gut microbiota from the past. However, paleofeces often undergo physical distortions in archaeological sediments, making their source species difficult to identify on the basis of fecal morphology or microscopic features alone. Here we present a reproducible and scalable pipeline using both host and microbial DNA to infer the host source of fecal material. We apply this pipeline to newly sequenced archaeological specimens and show that we are able to distinguish morphologically similar human and canine paleofeces, as well as non-fecal ...


Diet Analysis Reveals Pre-Historic Meals Among The Loma San Gabriel At La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos, Rio Zape, Mexico (600–800 Ce), Elisa Pucu, Julia Russ, Karl Reinhard Jan 2020

Diet Analysis Reveals Pre-Historic Meals Among The Loma San Gabriel At La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos, Rio Zape, Mexico (600–800 Ce), Elisa Pucu, Julia Russ, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Coprolites have been a source of study for archeologists due to several reasons: they not only provide information on the life and nutritional habits of ancient individuals but also on their health. In this paper, we processed 10 coprolites collected at La Cueva de Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 CE), Rio Zape, Mexico, with acetolysis solution for pollen analysis. The number of pollen grains/gram of each coprolite sample was quantified along with the macroscopic remains of these samples. The main food item ingested by the population was maize, followed by Agave. Squash blossoms were also part of their food ...


Preface For Special Section On Archaeoparasitology: A Global Perspective On Ancient Parasites And Current Research Projects, Jong Yil Chai, Min Sea, Karl Reinhard, Dong Hoon Shin Dec 2019

Preface For Special Section On Archaeoparasitology: A Global Perspective On Ancient Parasites And Current Research Projects, Jong Yil Chai, Min Sea, Karl Reinhard, Dong Hoon Shin

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Archaeoparasitological research has rapidly developed in recent years, entering a new stage of improved understanding of our ancestors’ parasitic infections across the world. This progress is based on a variety of recently developed research techniques. During a period of rapid innovation since 2016, there has been no much opportunity for parasitologists to gather and share in-depth views about this novel research field. This was remedied by the 14th International Congress of Parasitology (ICOPA) held in Korea (Aug. 19-24, 2018; EXCO, Daegu). For archaeoparasitologists, ICOPA provided a unique opportunity to gather and exchange research and ideas. The participation was unprecedented in ...


Confusing A Pollen Grain With A Parasite Egg: An Appraisal Of “Paleoparasitological Evidence Of Pinworm (Enterobius Vermicularis) Infection In A Female Adolescent Residing In Ancient Tehran”, Morgana Camacho, Karl Reinhard Dec 2019

Confusing A Pollen Grain With A Parasite Egg: An Appraisal Of “Paleoparasitological Evidence Of Pinworm (Enterobius Vermicularis) Infection In A Female Adolescent Residing In Ancient Tehran”, Morgana Camacho, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

There is often the risk of confusing pollen grains with helminth eggs from archaeological sites. Thousands to millions of pollen grains can be recovered from archaeological burial sediments that represent past ritual, medication and environment. Some pollen grain types can be similar to parasite eggs. Such a confusion is represented by the diagnosis of enterobiasis in ancient Iran. The authors of this study confused a joint-pine (Ephedra spp.) pollen grain with a pinworm egg. This paper describes the specific Ephedra pollen morphology that can be confused with pinworm eggs.


Pinworm Infection At Salmon Ruins And Aztec Ruins: Relation To Pueblo Iii Regional Violence, Karl Reinhard, Morgana Camacho Dec 2019

Pinworm Infection At Salmon Ruins And Aztec Ruins: Relation To Pueblo Iii Regional Violence, Karl Reinhard, Morgana Camacho

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

The study of coprolites has been a theme of archaeology in the American Southwest. A feature of archaeoparasitology on the Colorado Plateau is the ubiquity of pinworm infection. As a crowd parasite, this ubiquity signals varying concentrations of populations. Our recent analysis of coprolite deposits from 2 sites revealed the highest prevalence of infection ever recorded for the region. For Salmon Ruins, the deposits date from AD 1140 to 1280. For Aztec Ruins, the samples can be dated by artifact association between AD 1182-1253. Both sites can be placed in the Ancestral Pueblo III occupation (AD 1100-1300), which included a ...


The Skiles Mummy: Care Of A Debilitated Hunter-Gatherer Evidenced By Coprolite Studies And Stable Isotopic Analysis Of Hair, Kirsten A. Verostick, Isabel Teixeira-Santos, Vaughn M. Bryant Jr., Karl Reinhard Sep 2019

The Skiles Mummy: Care Of A Debilitated Hunter-Gatherer Evidenced By Coprolite Studies And Stable Isotopic Analysis Of Hair, Kirsten A. Verostick, Isabel Teixeira-Santos, Vaughn M. Bryant Jr., Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

The Skiles Mummy (SMM), a naturally mummified adult male from the late archaic period of Lower Pecos Canyonlands of South Texas, represents a unique case of care. SMM is an exceptional mummy within this region due to both the retention of a full head of hair, and having a diagnosed case of megacolon, a complication commonly associated with Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Stable isotopic analysis of his hair is consistent with a diet incorporating of C4/CAM plants with some C3 plants, freshwater resources, and higher trophic level animals. However, the segments of hair most proximal ...


The Prevotella Copri Complex Comprises Four Distinct Clades Underrepresented In Westernized Populations, Adrian Tett, Kun D. Huang, Francesco Asnicar, Hannah Fehlner-Peach, Edoardo Pasolli, Nicolai Karcher, Federica Armanini, Paolo Manghi, Kevin Bonham, Moreno Zolfo, Francesca De Filippis, Cara Magnabosco, Richard Bonneau, John Lusingu, John Amuasi, Karl Reinhard, Thomas Rattei, Fredrik Boulund, Lars Engstrand, Albert Zink, Maria Carmen Collado, Dan R. Littman, Daniel Eibach, Danilo Ercolini, Omar Rota-Stabelli, Curtis Huttenhower, Frank Maixner, Nicola Segata Jan 2019

The Prevotella Copri Complex Comprises Four Distinct Clades Underrepresented In Westernized Populations, Adrian Tett, Kun D. Huang, Francesco Asnicar, Hannah Fehlner-Peach, Edoardo Pasolli, Nicolai Karcher, Federica Armanini, Paolo Manghi, Kevin Bonham, Moreno Zolfo, Francesca De Filippis, Cara Magnabosco, Richard Bonneau, John Lusingu, John Amuasi, Karl Reinhard, Thomas Rattei, Fredrik Boulund, Lars Engstrand, Albert Zink, Maria Carmen Collado, Dan R. Littman, Daniel Eibach, Danilo Ercolini, Omar Rota-Stabelli, Curtis Huttenhower, Frank Maixner, Nicola Segata

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Prevotella copri is a common human gut microbe that has been both positively and negatively associated with host health. In a cross-continent metaanalysis exploiting >6,500 metagenomes, we obtained >1,000 genomes and explored the genetic and population structure of P. copri. P. copri encompasses four distinct clades (>10% inter-clade genetic divergence) that we propose constitute the P. copri complex, and all clades were confirmed by isolate sequencing. These clades are nearly ubiquitous and co-present in non-Westernized populations. Genomic analysis showed substantial functional diversity in the complex with notable differences in carbohydrate metabolism, suggesting that multi-generational dietary modifications may ...


Imaging Coprolite Taphonomy And Preservation, Karl Reinhard, Morgana Camacho, Breyden Geyer, Samantha Hayek, Chase Horn, Kaitlin Otterson, Julia Russ Jan 2019

Imaging Coprolite Taphonomy And Preservation, Karl Reinhard, Morgana Camacho, Breyden Geyer, Samantha Hayek, Chase Horn, Kaitlin Otterson, Julia Russ

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

The impact of coprolite taphonomy on parasite remains and aDNA recovery has been recognized. In general, coprolites from sites protected by geologic features such as caves and rock shelters exhibit the best preservation. In contrast, coprolites from open sites can be badly affected by taphonomic processes as shown by analyses of parasite eggs. For eggs, the impact of mites and free living nematodes has been quantified. Mites are associated with poor pinworm egg preservation. In other studies, percolation of water through sediments has a negative impact on egg recovery. We note that dietary remains can also decompose at open sites ...


Pollen Evidence Of Medicine From An Embalming Jar Associated With Vittoria Della Rovere, Florence, Italy, Karl Reinhard, Kelsey B. Lynch, University Of Nebraska-Lincoln, Braymond Adams, Leon Higley, Marina Milanello Do Amaral, Julia Russ, Donatella Lippi, Johnica J. Morrow, Dario Piombino-Mascali Jul 2018

Pollen Evidence Of Medicine From An Embalming Jar Associated With Vittoria Della Rovere, Florence, Italy, Karl Reinhard, Kelsey B. Lynch, University Of Nebraska-Lincoln, Braymond Adams, Leon Higley, Marina Milanello Do Amaral, Julia Russ, Donatella Lippi, Johnica J. Morrow, Dario Piombino-Mascali

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Various samples of human viscera fragments, sponges, and cloth were collected from embalming jars belonging to members of the Medici family of Florence. One jar was labeled with the name Vittoria della Rovere, who died in March of 1694. This jar contained viscera fragments that were identified as a section of collapsed intestine. The intestine of the Vittoria della Rovere sample contained a large concentration of pollen belonging to the Myrtaceae family. The Myrtaceae pollen was sometimes observed in clusters during analysis, which is indicative of purposeful ingestion of flowers, buds, or a substance derived from floral structures. Thus, the ...


Recovering Parasites From Mummies And Coprolites: An Epidemiological Approach, Morgana Camacho, Adauto Araújo, Johnica J. Morrow, Jane E. Buikstra, Karl Reinhard Apr 2018

Recovering Parasites From Mummies And Coprolites: An Epidemiological Approach, Morgana Camacho, Adauto Araújo, Johnica J. Morrow, Jane E. Buikstra, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

In the field of archaeological parasitology, researchers have long documented the distribution of parasites in archaeological time and space through the analysis of coprolites and human remains. This area of research defined the origin and migration of parasites through presence/absence studies. By the end of the 20th century, the field of pathoecology had emerged as researchers developed an interest in the ancient ecology of parasite transmission. Supporting studies were conducted to establish the relationships between parasites and humans, including cultural, subsistence, and ecological reconstructions. Parasite prevalence data were collected to infer the impact of parasitism on human health. In ...


Paleoparasitology And Pathoecology In Russia: Investigations And Perspectives, Sergey Slepchenko, Karl Reinhard Jan 2018

Paleoparasitology And Pathoecology In Russia: Investigations And Perspectives, Sergey Slepchenko, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Russia, both as the USSR and the Russian federation, provided a source of parasitological theory for decades. A key figure in Russian parasitology was Yevgeny Pavlovsky. He developed the nidus concept, the conceptual basis for the field of pathoecology. He also coined the term “paleoparasitology.” Pathoecology is a foundation concept in archaeological parasitology. Paleoparasitology, as defined by Pavlovsky, is an avenue for understanding of host parasite evolution over very long time periods. These contributions are not fully recognized internationally. Similarly, the long history of Russian paleontological and archaeological investigations are not fully known. Most recently, discoveries from archaeological sites show ...


The Paleoepidemiology Of Enterobius Vermicularis (Nemata: Oxyuridae) Among The Loma San Gabriel At La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 Ce), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard Jan 2018

The Paleoepidemiology Of Enterobius Vermicularis (Nemata: Oxyuridae) Among The Loma San Gabriel At La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 Ce), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

One hundred coprolites excavated from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 CE) in the Rio Zape Valley of present-day Durango, Mexico, were examined for the presence of helminth eggs utilizing standard archaeoparasitological techniques. Eggs of the human pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) were recovered from 34 of the 100 coprolites examined. Eggs of parasites were photographed and measured before egg concentration values were calculated for each positive sample. Egg concentration values demonstrated an overdispersed pattern of distribution among the samples (66% uninfected, 25% less than 100 eggs/g, 8% between 100 and 500 eggs/g, and 1% more than 500 ...


Taphonomic Considerations On Pinworm Prevalence In Three Ancestral Puebloan Latrines, Morgana Camacho, Alena M. Iñiguez, Karl Reinhard Jan 2018

Taphonomic Considerations On Pinworm Prevalence In Three Ancestral Puebloan Latrines, Morgana Camacho, Alena M. Iñiguez, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

For archaeological studies it is always necessary to consider taphonomic factors that could have influenced in ancient material preservation. Parasite eggs are usually highly degraded in ancient sites dated from all periods of time and taphonomic factors are mentioned to explain absence and low quantity of eggs found. In this study, we compare parasite egg recovery of three Great House latrines: two from Aztec Ruins (Rooms 219 and 225) and one from Salmon Ruins. We compared through statistical regression the recovery of eggs with the abundance of two classes of decomposers: mites and nematodes. These microorganisms have relation with nematode ...


New Evidence Of Ancient Parasitism Among Late Archaic And Ancestral Puebloan Residents Of Chaco Canyon, Rachel E. Paseka, Carrie C. Heitman, Karl Reinhard Jan 2018

New Evidence Of Ancient Parasitism Among Late Archaic And Ancestral Puebloan Residents Of Chaco Canyon, Rachel E. Paseka, Carrie C. Heitman, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Archaeoparasitology provides a unique perspective on the health and habits of ancient cultures through the identification of parasite remains in archaeological materials. We identified eggs of the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, in coprolites recovered from Late Archaic (1926–1751 cal. BCE) and Ancestral Puebloan (1039–1163 cal. CE) sites in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Our findings represent the earliest record of T. trichiura in North America, the first record of the species from Chaco Canyon, and the first record of a macroparasite from a Late Archaic site (Atlatl Cave) on the Colorado Plateau. T. trichiura is common in the global ...


Autologous Bone Flap Resorption Years After Subtemporal Craniotomy, John Oladapo Obafunwa, Emily E. Hammerl, David Jaskierny, Livia A. Taylor, Lynette Russell, Karl Reinhard Jan 2018

Autologous Bone Flap Resorption Years After Subtemporal Craniotomy, John Oladapo Obafunwa, Emily E. Hammerl, David Jaskierny, Livia A. Taylor, Lynette Russell, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

In Spring of 2012, the partially undressed and skeletonized remains of a homeless adult Hispanic male was found in a fairly open wooded area in Nebraska. The remains showed evidence of extensive pathologies, which included healed traumas and surgeries. Examination of the decedent's medical records revealed that he had a history of kidney and liver problems, alcohol abuse, several traumas including a major head injury that necessitated a craniotomy, and radiological features of neurocysticercosis. The autologous bone flap, which was replaced after the craniotomy, had resorbed significantly away from the edges of the injury. Death was variously attributed to ...


Palynological Investigation Of Mummified Human Remains, Karl Reinhard, Marina Milanello Do Amaral, Nicole Wall Jan 2017

Palynological Investigation Of Mummified Human Remains, Karl Reinhard, Marina Milanello Do Amaral, Nicole Wall

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Pollen analysis was applied to a mummified homicide victim in Nebraska, U.S.A., to determine the location of death. A control sample showed the normal ambient pollen in the garage crime scene. Ambient windborne types, common in the air of the region, dominated the control. Internal samples were analyzed from the sacrum, intestine, and diaphragm. Microfossils were recovered from the rehydrated intestine lumen. The intestinal sample was dominated by Brassica (broccoli). The sacrum sample was high in dietary types but with a showing of ambient types. The pollen from the diaphragm was dominated by ambient pollen similar to the ...


Pseudoscorpions Of The Family Cheiridiidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) Recovered From Burial Sediments At Pachacamac (500–1,500ce), Peru, Johnica J. Morrow, Livia Taylor, Lauren Peck, Christian Elowsky, Lawrence Stewart Owens, Peter Eeckout, Karl Reinhard Jan 2017

Pseudoscorpions Of The Family Cheiridiidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) Recovered From Burial Sediments At Pachacamac (500–1,500ce), Peru, Johnica J. Morrow, Livia Taylor, Lauren Peck, Christian Elowsky, Lawrence Stewart Owens, Peter Eeckout, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Fragmented remains of pseudoscorpions belonging to the family Cheiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) were recovered from Ychsma polity (c. AD 1000–1475) burial sediments from Pachacamac, Peru. Sediments from 21 burials were examined following rehydration in 0.5% trisodium phosphate for 48 h and subsequent screening through a 250 lm mesh. Materials larger than 250 lm were surveyed for the presence of arthropods. A total of two samples contained pseudoscorpion fragments, which were collected and quantified to determine the minimal number of pseudoscorpions present per gram of each sample. Following quantification, pseudoscorpion specimens were imaged utilizing confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to ...


Prehistoric Pathoecology As Represented By Parasites Of A Mummy From The Peruaçu Valley, Brazil, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araújo Oct 2016

Prehistoric Pathoecology As Represented By Parasites Of A Mummy From The Peruaçu Valley, Brazil, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araújo

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Paleopathologists have begun exploring the pathoecology of parasitic diseases in relation to diet and environment. We are summarizing the parasitological findings from a mummy in the site of Lapa do Boquete, a Brazilian cave in the state of Minas Gerais. These findings in context of the archaeology of the site provided insights into the pathoecology of disease transmission in cave and rockshelter environments. We are presenting a description of the site followed by the evidence of hookworm, intestinal fluke, and Trypanosoma infection with resulting Chagas disease in the mummy discovered in the cave. These findings are used to reconstruct the ...


Assessing The Archaeoparasitological Potential Of Quids As A Source Material For Immunodiagnostic Analyses, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard Oct 2016

Assessing The Archaeoparasitological Potential Of Quids As A Source Material For Immunodiagnostic Analyses, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

In the present study, quids from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to ELISA tests for 2 protozoan parasites, Toxoplasma gondii (n=45) and Trypanosoma cruzi (n=43). The people who occupied CMC, the Loma San Gabriel, lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The known pathoecology of these people puts them into at-risk categories for the transmission of T. gondii and T. cruzi. Human antibodies created in response to these 2 parasites can be detected in modern saliva using ELISA kits intended for use with human serum. For these reasons, quids were reconstituted ...


Temporal And Spatial Distribution Of Enterobius Vermicularis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) In The Prehistoric Americas, Karl J. Reinhard, Adauto Araújo, Johnica J. Morrow Sep 2016

Temporal And Spatial Distribution Of Enterobius Vermicularis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) In The Prehistoric Americas, Karl J. Reinhard, Adauto Araújo, Johnica J. Morrow

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Investigations of Enterobius sp. infection in prehistory have produced a body of data that can be used to evaluate the geographic distribution of infection through time in the Americas. Regional variations in prevalence are evident. In North America, 119 pinworm positive samples were found in 1,112 samples from 28 sites with a prevalence of 10.7%. Almost all of the positive samples came from agricultural sites. From Brazil, 0 pinworm positive samples were found in 325 samples from 7 sites. For the Andes region, 22 pinworm positive samples were found in 411 samples from 26 sites for a prevalence ...


Cleaning Puparia For Forensic Analysis, Leon G. Higley, Tierney R. Brosius, Karl Reinhard, David Carter Sep 2016

Cleaning Puparia For Forensic Analysis, Leon G. Higley, Tierney R. Brosius, Karl Reinhard, David Carter

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

We tested procedures for removing adipocere from insect samples to allow identification. An acceptable procedure was determined: (i) Samples were sorted in petri dishes with 75% alcohol to remove any larvae, adult insects, or other soft-bodied material. (ii) Samples of up to 24 puparia were placed in a vial with 15 mL of 95% acetone, capped, and vortexed for a total of 30–90 sec in 10- to 15-sec bursts. This step removed large masses of adipocere or soil from specimen. (iii) Specimens were removed from acetone and placed in a vial of 15 mL of 2% potassium hydroxide (KOH ...


Cryptosporidium Parvum Among Coprolites From La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 Ce), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard Aug 2016

Cryptosporidium Parvum Among Coprolites From La Cueva De Los Muertos Chiquitos (600–800 Ce), Rio Zape Valley, Durango, Mexico, Johnica J. Morrow, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

In the present study, 90 coprolites from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for 3 diarrhea-inducing protozoan parasites, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, and Cryptosporidium parvum, to determine whether these parasites were present among the people who utilized this cave 1,200–1,400 yr ago. These people, the Loma San Gabriel, developed as a culture out of the Archaic Los Caracoles population and lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The Loma San Gabriel persisted through a mixed subsistence strategy of hunting-gathering and agricultural production. The results of ...


Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America *, Adauto Araujo, Karl J. Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena Iniguez, Martin Fugassa, Berrnardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Aug 2015

Paleoepidemiology Of Intestinal Parasites And Lice In Pre-Columbian South America *, Adauto Araujo, Karl J. Reinhard, Daniela Leles, Luciana Sianto, Alena Iniguez, Martin Fugassa, Berrnardo Arriaza, Nancy Orellana, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Some human parasites originated in prehominid ancestors in Africa. Nematode species, such as Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm), hookworms and Trichuris trichiura are shared by humans and other close phylogenetic primates (Pan and Gorilla), showing that they infected a common ancestor to this group. When humans migrated from Africa to other continents they carried these parasites wherever climate conditions allowed parasite transmission from host to host. Other parasites, however, were acquired throughout human biological and social evolutive history when new territories were occupied. Paleoparasitology data is a valuable source to recover emergence and disappearance of parasite infections through analysis of archaeological remains ...


Diet And Parasitism At Dust Devil Cave, Karl J. Reinhard, J Richard Ambler, Magdalene Mcguffie Aug 2015

Diet And Parasitism At Dust Devil Cave, Karl J. Reinhard, J Richard Ambler, Magdalene Mcguffie

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Human parasitism has obvious relationships to group size and composition, mobility, subsistence patterns, and rates of culture change. At their best, human endoparasites may be annoying; at their worst, some can cause death. Thus, an overall view of the parasite load of a prehistoric population can yield insights useful in interpreting past lifeways. With these thoughts in mind, we undertook a study of Desha Complex (6800-4800 B .C.) human feces recovered from Dust Devil Cave in southern Utah.


Agave Chewing And Dental Wear: Evidence From Quids, Emily E. Hammerl, Melissa A. Baier, Karl Reinhard Jul 2015

Agave Chewing And Dental Wear: Evidence From Quids, Emily E. Hammerl, Melissa A. Baier, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the ...


Paleoparasitology – Human Parasites In Ancient Material, Adauto Araújo, Karl Reinhard, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Jan 2015

Paleoparasitology – Human Parasites In Ancient Material, Adauto Araújo, Karl Reinhard, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: paleoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and paleontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the paleoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide ...


Parasitology In An Archaeological Context: Analysis Of Medieval Burials In Nivelles, Belgium, S. E. Rácz, Elisa Pucu De Araujo, E. Jensen, C. Mostek, Johnica J. Morrow, M. L. Van Hove, R. Bianucci, D. Willems, F. Heller, Adauto Araujo, Karl Reinhard Jan 2015

Parasitology In An Archaeological Context: Analysis Of Medieval Burials In Nivelles, Belgium, S. E. Rácz, Elisa Pucu De Araujo, E. Jensen, C. Mostek, Johnica J. Morrow, M. L. Van Hove, R. Bianucci, D. Willems, F. Heller, Adauto Araujo, Karl Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Coprolites were recovered from three burials near the Grand Place of Nivelles, Belgium. These remains yielded evidence of geohelminth parasitism. The evidence contributes to studies of differential parasite egg preservation related to the taphonomic conditions within the three burials. Using coprolite analysis techniques, parasite egg concentrations were quantified for each burial. Coprolites from the individual in Burial 122 were abnormally large and abundant, indicating an intestinal blockage. Additionally, this individual hosted an extremely high number of parasites evinced by the calculated parasite egg concentrations (Trichuris trichiura = 1,577,679 total eggs; Ascaris lumbricoides = 202,350 total eggs). Statistical analyses revealed ...


Forensic Palynological Analysis Of Intestinal Contents Of A Korean Mummy, Paulette Arguelles, Karl Reinhard, Dong Hoon Shin Jan 2015

Forensic Palynological Analysis Of Intestinal Contents Of A Korean Mummy, Paulette Arguelles, Karl Reinhard, Dong Hoon Shin

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Experimental studies show that pollen resides in the intestinal tract for a minimum of seven days to at least 21 days. Because of this long residence time, pollen analysis is an important avenue of forensic research. Pollen provides evidence of the environment of the decedent as well as foods and medicine. We analyzed a coprolite recovered from a Korean mummy. The decedent was a high-ranking general who lived during the 16th or 17th centuries. Twenty pollen types were recovered. These ranged from 100s to 10,000s of pollen grains per gram of coprolite. Importantly, comparison of the coprolite pollen spectrum ...


Curatorial Implications Of Ophyra Capensis (Order Diptera, Family Muscidae) Puparia Recovered From The Body Of The Blessed Antonio Patrizi, Monticiano, Italy (Middle Ages), Johnica J. Morrow, Diesel A. Baldwin, Leon G. Higley, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Karl J. Reinhard Jan 2015

Curatorial Implications Of Ophyra Capensis (Order Diptera, Family Muscidae) Puparia Recovered From The Body Of The Blessed Antonio Patrizi, Monticiano, Italy (Middle Ages), Johnica J. Morrow, Diesel A. Baldwin, Leon G. Higley, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Karl J. Reinhard

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

The discovery of dipteran remains on mummified individuals can lead to either cause for curatorial concern or to a better understanding of the individual’s post-mortem environment. The present study analyzed insect remains associated with the body of a unique medieval mummy of religious significance, that of the Blessed Antonio Patrizi da Monticiano. A total of 79 puparia were examined and all were identified as Ophyra capensis (Diptera: Muscidae). Additionally, a desiccated moth (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) was encountered. Puparia of O. capensis would be associated with normal decomposition shortly after the death of the mummified individual, and not an infestation beginning ...