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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Mya Arenaria And Oxygen Isotopes: An Analysis To Suggest Season Of Occupation At Holmes Point East (62-6), Holmes Point West (62-8), And Joves Cove (44-13), Maine, Emily Blackwood Aug 2019

Mya Arenaria And Oxygen Isotopes: An Analysis To Suggest Season Of Occupation At Holmes Point East (62-6), Holmes Point West (62-8), And Joves Cove (44-13), Maine, Emily Blackwood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The ratio of oxygen isotopes (ẟ18O) derived from archaeological bivalves can be used to suggest whether a site was occupied seasonally or year-round. To address the question of seasonality at three archaeological shell midden sites along the coast of Maine, modern samples of the soft-shelled clam, Mya arenaria, were collected from tidal mudflats associated with each site once a month for one year. An average of six modern shells per month were analyzed with their resulting ẟ18O values used to establish monthly ranges to which the archaeological samples of Mya arenaria were assigned; association of the archaeological shells to a ...


Anthropogenic Landscapes Of Amazonia : A Spatial Analysis Of Landscape Modification And Settlement Organization At Macurany, Brazil., M. Grace Ellis May 2019

Anthropogenic Landscapes Of Amazonia : A Spatial Analysis Of Landscape Modification And Settlement Organization At Macurany, Brazil., M. Grace Ellis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic landscapes are the product of complex human-environment processes that form distinct features in the landscape, which materially preserve and reflect human behavior. Anthropogenic landscapes in Amazonia likely date back to human colonization of the region around 16,000 BP. Since colonization, humans have been marking, modifying, managing, and engineering the landscape resulting in a mosaic of anthropogenic landscape features across Amazonia. The diversity of ancient landscapes documented in Amazonia reflects the cultural heterogeneity that existed in the past. This research explores the complex human-environmental processes that form distinct, identifiable, lasting features on the landscape and what these features can ...


Gender, Social Networks, And Labor Disputes: Household Archaeology At The Industrial Mine Camp, Laura Gwynne Vernon Jan 2019

Gender, Social Networks, And Labor Disputes: Household Archaeology At The Industrial Mine Camp, Laura Gwynne Vernon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Industrial Mine at Superior, operating from 1895 to 1945, was one of many coal mines situated within a region known as the Colorado Northern Coal fields. It is exceptional only in that it was one of the largest coal producers in the area and because it was the sole mine in the region with both a company town and company store. Through comparative analysis with the previously investigated mine camp in the southern Colorado coal fields at Berwind, this thesis examines how camp housing structured the lives of women living at the Industrial Mine, as well as how women ...


An Archaeological Investigation Into Social Organization And Political Reform In The Reserve Area Of New Mexico, A.D. 1000–1350, Cameron D. Benton Jan 2019

An Archaeological Investigation Into Social Organization And Political Reform In The Reserve Area Of New Mexico, A.D. 1000–1350, Cameron D. Benton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis analyzes archival data from archaeological sites with great kivas in the Reserve region of west-central New Mexico dating to A.D. 1000-1350 and examines sociopolitical organization and reform between the dynamic Reserve (A.D. 1000-1100) and Tularosa (1100-1350) Phases. Specifically, studies in this thesis compare great kiva architecture and ceramic types present between sites using methods of descriptive statistics and quantitative analysis, which allowed for interregional variation and change to be identified between those time periods. The results of those analyses are correlated with the archaeological histories of the Mimbres and Chaco societies that bordered the Reserve area ...


Archaeological Computer Modeling Of Florida's Pre-Columbian Dugout Canoes: Integrating Ground-Penetrating Radar And Geographic Information Science, Brandon Ackermann Jan 2019

Archaeological Computer Modeling Of Florida's Pre-Columbian Dugout Canoes: Integrating Ground-Penetrating Radar And Geographic Information Science, Brandon Ackermann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this research is the application of two computational methods in modeling pre-Columbian dugout canoe use on Florida's ancient transportation network. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was used to locate what appear to be multiple unexcavated canoes inundated in the lake-bottom of Lake Santa Fe, a lake in close proximity to Newnans Lake, which contains the largest number of ancient canoes in the world. The identification of multiple canoes in Lake Santa Fe supported the recent idea that this lake may have served as a transit point within Florida's pre-Columbian transportation network. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was ...


Preserving The Memory Of Those Perilous Times: Archaeology Of A Civil War Prison In Blackshear, Georgia, Colin H. Partridge Jan 2019

Preserving The Memory Of Those Perilous Times: Archaeology Of A Civil War Prison In Blackshear, Georgia, Colin H. Partridge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the closing months of 1864 Confederate prison authorities were forced to evacuate the large stockade prisoner of war (POW) camps at Millen and Andersonville, Georgia in the face of General Sherman’s ‘March to the Sea’. While attempting to evade Union forces, approximately 5,000 POWs were sent along the Atlantic and Gulf railroad in south east Georgia, stopping just outside of the town of Blackshear. For three weeks prisoners and guards camped along a small tributary of the Alabaha River with only a few steaks to mark a deadline between them. No formal prison enclosure or fortifications were ...


Crafting Stone Discoidals On The Frontier: Production And Identity In Southwest Virginia, Hamilton Hastie Bryant Jan 2019

Crafting Stone Discoidals On The Frontier: Production And Identity In Southwest Virginia, Hamilton Hastie Bryant

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stone discoidals are widely recognized as a class of artifacts associated with Mississippian cultural traditions and even some of its various descendant communities. Excavations at the Carter Robinson site a Fourteenth Century Mississippian frontier site in Lee County Virginia have revealed evidence of the production of stone discoidals. Although craft production in Mississippian societies has been the subject of much debate little to no attention has been given to the production of stone discoidals. The purpose of this thesis is to explicate the method of stone discoidal production at Carter Robinson and to explore how this production was organized overtime ...


Archaeological Investigations At A Mississippian Platform Mound Site In Lowndes County, Mississippi, Hannah Danielle Zechman Jan 2019

Archaeological Investigations At A Mississippian Platform Mound Site In Lowndes County, Mississippi, Hannah Danielle Zechman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Upper Tombigbee River Valley and the Black Prairie two adjacent physiographic regions located in northeast Mississippi are defined archaeologically by the existence of multiple single-mound sites with associated farmsteads or small habitation sites. This thesis is an analysis of mound-construction data and the ceramic assemblage excavated in 2017 from the Butler Mound Site (22LO500) a single-mound site located in Lowndes County Mississippi. The purpose of this thesis is to determine when construction of the Butler Mound occurred using mound-construction data ceramic analysis and radiocarbon dating. This thesis also seeks to understand how Butler and neighboring sites relate to one ...


The Bioarchaeology Of The Tugalo Site (9st1): Diet, Disease, And Health Of The Past, Nompumelelo Beryl Hlophe Jan 2019

The Bioarchaeology Of The Tugalo Site (9st1): Diet, Disease, And Health Of The Past, Nompumelelo Beryl Hlophe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Tugalo site is a prehistoric and early historic Native American site located in northeast Georgia along the upper Savannah River basin, near the junction of Toccoa Creek and the Tugalo River. According to archaeological materials analyzed from the site it was occupied from ca. A.D. 1100 to 1600 (Anderson et al. 1995). Although archaeological investigations of the site revealed basic characteristics of its chronology and architecture, very little analysis and reporting of the skeletal remains from Tugalo has been completed. By analyzing data collected by Williamson (1998) concerning the age and sex of the burials, the presence or ...


Late Woodland To Early Mississippian Period Subsistence In Coastal Georgia: Animal Remains From Taylor Fish Camp (9gn12), St. Simons Island, Thomas S. Clark Jan 2019

Late Woodland To Early Mississippian Period Subsistence In Coastal Georgia: Animal Remains From Taylor Fish Camp (9gn12), St. Simons Island, Thomas S. Clark

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates subsistence strategies used by Native Americans living in coastal Georgia during the transition from the Late Woodland to Early Mississippian period (ca. AD 700 – 1100). Comparatively little subsistence data are available from the time frame on the southern Atlantic coast. Previous studies have focused mainly on archaeological sites representing preceding or subsequent time periods, and few studies of animal-use at coastal sites have used fine-screening methods. This paper presents the analysis and interpretation of invertebrate and vertebrate remains recovered with 1/16-in screens from Late Woodland/Early Mississippian period contexts at Taylor Fish Camp (9GN12), a multi-component ...


Native American Occupation Of The Singer-Hieronymus Site Complex: Developing Site History By Integrating Remote Sensing And Archaeological Excavation, Claiborne Sea Aug 2018

Native American Occupation Of The Singer-Hieronymus Site Complex: Developing Site History By Integrating Remote Sensing And Archaeological Excavation, Claiborne Sea

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Located on a ridgetop in central Kentucky, the Singer-Hieronymus Site Complex consists of at least four Native American villages. The Native Americans who lived there are called the “Fort Ancient” by archaeologists. This study examined relationships between these villages, both spatially and temporally, to build a more complete history of site occupation. To do this, aerial imagery analysis, geophysical survey, and archaeological investigations were conducted. This research determined there were differences among villages in terms of their size, however other characteristics—internal village organization, village shape, radiometric dates, and material culture—overlapped significantly. Additionally, landscape-scale geophysical survey identified at least ...


Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller May 2018

Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Shell middens along the Maine coast archive up to 5000 years of cultural and climatic change, but the record is continually and rapidly lost to the sea through climate-driven coastal erosion and sea-level rise. These sites were constructed by the ancestors of Maine Tribes, and are composed of centimeters to meters of clam (Mya arenaria) and/or oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells, other faunal remains, and cultural materials. Shell middens record human interaction with the environment and early coastal occupation and adaptation. The faunal remains reflect paleoenvironmental conditions and the distribution of extinct and extant forage-species along the western Gulf of ...


Malaria In The Prehistoric Caribbean : The Hunt For Hemozoin., Mallory D. Cox May 2018

Malaria In The Prehistoric Caribbean : The Hunt For Hemozoin., Mallory D. Cox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With the increase in resistance to anti-malarials and global warming trends expanding the habitation range of the mosquito vector, research highlighting the biogeographical contexts of infected populations is critical to understanding epidemiological patterns. A bioarchaeological approach to epidemiology can shed light on previous disease patterns and aid in the prediction of future outbreaks of diseases like malaria. Currently, there is no direct evidence of malaria in the Americas prior to European contact; however, skeletal, archaeological, paleoenvironmental, historic, and ethnohistorical evidence strongly suggest the presence of Plasmodium spp. malaria in indigenous Caribbean skeletal remains held in the Yale Peabody Museum of ...


A Shifting Island Landscape: Changes In Land Use And Daily Life In The 19th And 20th Century Village Of Inishark, Co. Galway, Ireland, Lauren Marie Couey Jan 2018

A Shifting Island Landscape: Changes In Land Use And Daily Life In The 19th And 20th Century Village Of Inishark, Co. Galway, Ireland, Lauren Marie Couey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis investigates changes to village spatial arrangement and land use patterns in the nineteenth and twentieth century village of Inishark, Co. Galway, Ireland. To understand how spatial changes within the historic village were shaped by interactions between villagers and outside groups, including landlords and government agencies, a landscape approach was utilized. An examination of historic maps, valuation documents, and Irish Census documents, combined with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey and archaeological excavation, were used to understand how historical pressures impacted island life. Inishark's geographic isolation creates a unique case study to understand the impact of historical pressures on rural ...


An Archaeological Exploration Of Agriculture, Trade, And Indigenous Relationships At A Seventeenth-Century New England Site, Jasmine Coreen Saxon Jan 2018

An Archaeological Exploration Of Agriculture, Trade, And Indigenous Relationships At A Seventeenth-Century New England Site, Jasmine Coreen Saxon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A multi-method approach including ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, historical research, excavations, and artifact analyses was used to gather data at a 17th century archaeological site in South Glastonbury, Connecticut. Interpretation of these data provided evidence that the Europeans who occupied this site were involved in a variety of activities such as agriculture, trade, and developing Indigenous relationships. These activities included cultivating an agricultural surplus instead of relying on subsistence farming, access to trading networks that extended throughout the Colonies and into Europe, and cohabitation with the Indigenous peoples in the area. This research led to an examination of various historical narratives ...


Deviating From The Standard: The Relationship Between Archaeology And Public Education, Rhianna M. Bennett Jan 2018

Deviating From The Standard: The Relationship Between Archaeology And Public Education, Rhianna M. Bennett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies of the public perception of archaeology shows that while it is a popular and valued discipline, it is still greatly misunderstood. Over the last few decades, archaeologists have sought new and innovative ways to establish archaeological literacy, promote community engagement, and conduct outreach, with the K-12 classroom being one such avenue of focus. Archaeology’s mysterious and exciting reputation among the general public, along with its interdisciplinary applicability, allows educators to draw interest in students and teach a variety of lessons through the lens of archaeology. This thesis outlines survey results of educators and archaeologists on their method ...


Searching Through Debris: A Mass Analysis From The Carter Robinson Mound Site In Lee County, Virginia, Robert Capps Jan 2018

Searching Through Debris: A Mass Analysis From The Carter Robinson Mound Site In Lee County, Virginia, Robert Capps

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Mississippian period is one of the most widely studied periods in the prehistoric Southeast, but there are areas such as the Mississippian frontier that have not been explored in great detail. Carter Robinson is a Mississippian chiefdom located on the frontier in southwest Virginia during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. To better understand the people living at this site a mass analysis was conducted to examine the lithic debris left behind by the people living there. The purpose of this thesis is to identify the degree of tool production at Carter Robinson and to identify areas of tool production ...


Analysis Of Prehistoric Ceramics From A Fourteenth-Century Native American House, Carter Robinson Site (44le10), Lee County, Virginia, Emily J. Warner Jan 2018

Analysis Of Prehistoric Ceramics From A Fourteenth-Century Native American House, Carter Robinson Site (44le10), Lee County, Virginia, Emily J. Warner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chiefdoms located on the frontier of the Mississippian world have not been examined in great detail, yet they have the potential to provide evidence for the emergence of hierarchy and the interaction of hierarchical and egalitarian societies. Frontiers can help identify the emergence and maintenance of power in southeastern chiefdoms. Carter Robinson (44le10) is a frontier site that can help understand the degree of interaction between hierarchical and non-hierarchical groups nearby. This thesis will analyze the ceramics at structure 6 based on the 2015 excavation at Carter Robinson located in Lee County, Virginia. The use of attribute and morphological analyses ...


Snapshots Of Confinement: Memory And Materiality Of Japanese Americans' World War Ii Era Photo Albums, Whitney J. Peterson Jan 2018

Snapshots Of Confinement: Memory And Materiality Of Japanese Americans' World War Ii Era Photo Albums, Whitney J. Peterson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The US government's incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II denied over 120,000 people basic rights and civil liberties. Limits on owning cameras inflicted unique hardship as people were unable to photographically document their lives as they had before the war. My research focuses on photographs that people managed to take and acquire in the camps, investigating the role of snapshot photography in remembering and understanding World War II experiences of incarceration. The photo albums I researched are housed in museum collections at two former sites of confinement: Manzanar National Historic Site in the Eastern Sierra of ...


Characteristics And Functions Of Non-Mound Mississippian Sites: A Case Study Of Fitzner North End (9sn256), Lindsey R. Hinson Jan 2018

Characteristics And Functions Of Non-Mound Mississippian Sites: A Case Study Of Fitzner North End (9sn256), Lindsey R. Hinson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Mississippian time period (A.D. 900-1600) in the Southeast of North America began with the development of ranked societies where the elite governed from and resided in administrative centers with earthen mounds and no formal bureaucracy. Much of the remaining population lived at smaller, non-mound sites. Given that the majority of people in these polities lived at non-mound sites, it is important to understand these places and their contexts. Current literature does not provide a clear architectural grammar of how these sites are defined socially or archaeologically. Due to variations in socio-political organization, and amount of excavation and research ...


Landscape-Scale Geophysics At Tel Shimron, Jezreel Valley, Israel, Rachel Grap Aug 2017

Landscape-Scale Geophysics At Tel Shimron, Jezreel Valley, Israel, Rachel Grap

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and magnetometry were used at Tel Shimron, an archaeological site in Israel’s Jezreel Valley. GPR primarily measures electric properties while magnetometry measures magnetic properties, making them complementary methods for subsurface prospection. Magnetometry can be collected and processed quickly, making it an ideal landscape-scale reconnaissance tool. It takes more time to collect, process, and interpret GPR data, but the result is a higher resolution dataset. In addition, GPR often works better than magnetometry in desert environments such as the Jezreel Valley. Conventional wisdom suggests that GPR should not be used as a landscape-scale reconnaissance tool unless there ...


Spatial Patterning And Human Behavior In Level "F" At Lapa Do Picareiro., Brandon K Zinsious May 2017

Spatial Patterning And Human Behavior In Level "F" At Lapa Do Picareiro., Brandon K Zinsious

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spatial analysis at the site level offers unique perspectives and has become increasingly more accessible as advances in technology allow rapid 3-dimensional mapping and rigorous statistical analysis. This project focused on the geological stratigraphic level “F”, at Lapa do Picareiro; a shallow cave in the Estremadura region of Portugal. This level, dated to 14,000 years ago calibrated BP, experienced multiple human occupations between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. This work examines the recovered material from a period of Upper Magdalenian occupations and sheds light on how enclosed space was used in Estremadura Portugal. Distinct distributions of ...


Late Magdalenian Lithic Technological Organization At Lapa Do Picareiro, Central Portugal., Melissa Jean Holst May 2017

Late Magdalenian Lithic Technological Organization At Lapa Do Picareiro, Central Portugal., Melissa Jean Holst

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lapa do Picareiro, a cave located in Portuguese Estremadura, contains continuous deposits dated to the Late Pleistocene. As one of the highest elevation Upper Paleolithic sites currently known in Portugal, questions are raised about the function of the site during this time. This thesis presents a comprehensive analysis of the lithic assemblage recovered from the Late Magdalenian layer of F/G (13,442 to 14,011 cal BP). The data generated from this study, when looked at in conjunction with the previously analyzed faunal assemblage, helps to provide a broader understanding of the site’s function during the Late Magdalenian ...


Aztec Human Sacrifice As Entertainment? The Physio-Psycho-Social Rewards Of Aztec Sacrificial Celebrations, Linda Jane Hansen Jan 2017

Aztec Human Sacrifice As Entertainment? The Physio-Psycho-Social Rewards Of Aztec Sacrificial Celebrations, Linda Jane Hansen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human sacrifice in the sixteenth-century Aztec Empire, as recorded by Spanish chroniclers, was conducted on a large scale and was usually the climactic ritual act culminating elaborate multi-day festivals. Scholars have advanced a wide range of theories explaining the underlying motivations and purposes of these abundant and regulated ritual massacres. Recent scholarship on human sacrifice in ancient Mexico has observed far more complexity, nuance, and fluidity in the nature of these rituals than earlier mono-causal explanations. Several recent examinations have concentrated their analysis on the use of sacred space, architecture, movement, and embodiment in these festivals. As an extension of ...


Sherds With Style: A Ceramic Analysis From A Protohistoric Site In Oktibbeha County, Mississippi., Allison Smith Jan 2017

Sherds With Style: A Ceramic Analysis From A Protohistoric Site In Oktibbeha County, Mississippi., Allison Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A key part of understanding the lesser known contact period in the Southeastern United States is studying the effects of contact on Mississippian chiefdoms and their descendant population. The Starkville Archaeological Complex is an archaeological pattern of a distinct clustering of contact-era sites in the Blackland Prairie physiographic district of northeast Mississippi. Atkinson (1979) defined these sites as a dispersed settlement pattern with distinct ceramic assemblages associated with European metal. The ceramics are characterized as sandy historic Chickasaw pastes with Mississippian-like distinct curvilinear or angular surface decorations. This thesis is an analysis of the ceramic assemblage excavated in 2016 from ...


The Analysis Of Contact-Era Settlements In Clay, Lowndes, And Oktibbeha Counties In Northeast Mississippi, Emily Lee Clark Jan 2017

The Analysis Of Contact-Era Settlements In Clay, Lowndes, And Oktibbeha Counties In Northeast Mississippi, Emily Lee Clark

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this project is to compare the spatial distribution of sites across Clay, Lowndes, and Oktibbeha counties between the Mississippi and Early Historic periods using site files from the Mississippi Department of Archives and History. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), sites were mapped chronologically to examine change through time to investigate how people reacted to European contact and colonization. Site locations and clusters also were used to evaluate possible locations of the polities of Chicaza, Chakchiuma, and Alimamu discussed in the De Soto chronicles. Sites in Clay, Lowndes, and Oktibbeha counties were chosen due to the existence of ...


German Pows Make Colorado Home: Coping By Craft And Exchange, Christopher Michael Morine Jan 2016

German Pows Make Colorado Home: Coping By Craft And Exchange, Christopher Michael Morine

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

From 1943 to 1946, the U.S. government held over 3,000 German POWs at Camp Trinidad in southern Colorado. In 2013 and 2014, archaeological fieldwork, interviews, and archival research were conducted in order to better understand the daily lives of those incarcerated at the camp. The information gathered about artifacts, environmental features, and personal narratives, reveals insights into the lesser known details of the prisoners' lives. Despite the U.S. military rules and regulations and efforts by American personnel within camp, prisoners created goods they wanted or needed. Acquiring the necessary goods was accomplished through modification of available goods ...


Common Ground: Uniting Archaeology And Secondary Social Studies Curricula, Jeremy Allen Haas Jan 2016

Common Ground: Uniting Archaeology And Secondary Social Studies Curricula, Jeremy Allen Haas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Archaeologists have been attempting to establish stronger connections with communities for several decades. Concepts such as stewardship can be presented to a larger audience, and archaeology can be a valuable tool for public education. Public schools across the nation are struggling to improve with limited resources. Archaeology can provide teachers with inexpensive resources that improve student learning while simultaneously helping teachers meet more rigorous standards. Using historical, archaeological, and cultural resources from the World War II Japanese American internment camp, Amache, I created a new supplementary curriculum that focused on the experience of Japanese and Japanese Americans during that era ...


A Comparison Of Field Methods At Camp Lawton (9js1), William C. Brant Jan 2016

A Comparison Of Field Methods At Camp Lawton (9js1), William C. Brant

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Camp Lawton was a Confederate POW Camp located in Jenkins County, Georgia during the latter part of the Civil War. This research uses shovel testing, metal detection, magnetometry, soil phosphate analysis, and terrestrial LiDAR scanning to attempt to ascertain which method, or combination of methods, is more effective on mid-19th century components in the Georgia Coastal Plain. Findings were inconclusive, but indicate that shovel testing and metal detection are the more effective methods. Data also suggest that areas of Confederate occupation at Camp Lawton probably covered a much larger area than previously anticipated.


Linearly Stressed To Death: Consideration Of Early Childhood Stress As A Main Contributor To The Regional Variability In Classic Maya Mortuary Profiles, Nicholas Billstrand Jan 2016

Linearly Stressed To Death: Consideration Of Early Childhood Stress As A Main Contributor To The Regional Variability In Classic Maya Mortuary Profiles, Nicholas Billstrand

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Late and Terminal Classic periods were times of great social, economic, and political change in Maya civilization. Scholars have suggested that increasing levels of dietary stress during this time may have been the result of ecological instability, drought, warfare, and significant levels of population movement across the Maya lowlands. All of these processes may have affected human health and left measurable markers of stress in human skeletal material. The burial population recovered from two sites on Ambergris Caye, located near the coast of Belize, have significantly more sub-adult individuals than sites in inland Belize, such as Actuncan, suggesting the ...