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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Interpreting The Buffalo Lake Locality: Analysis Of Projectile Point And Ceramic Assemblages Recovered From The Kratz Creek (47mq39), Neale (47mq49), And Mcclaughry (47mq42) Sites, Seth Taft May 2020

Interpreting The Buffalo Lake Locality: Analysis Of Projectile Point And Ceramic Assemblages Recovered From The Kratz Creek (47mq39), Neale (47mq49), And Mcclaughry (47mq42) Sites, Seth Taft

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

This research comprises the analysis of artifacts recovered during archaeological investigations at Buffalo Lake in 1917 and 1925 at Kratz Creek (47MQ0039), Neale (47MQ0049), and McClaughry (47MQ0042) mound group sites. The purpose of this thesis is to further define the cultural history of occupation at Buffalo Lake. Analysis was performed on 258 projectile points to determine point types and associate cultural time periods. Furthermore, raw material analysis was performed to provide data on socio-economic connections between Buffalo Lake and other regions outside its vicinity. Additionally, 179 ceramic rim sherds have been assessed to determine their type. This enforces the distribution ...


Guarding The Northwest Frontier: The U.S. Military Post At Sauk Centre Minnesota 1862-1865, Michael Penrod May 2020

Guarding The Northwest Frontier: The U.S. Military Post At Sauk Centre Minnesota 1862-1865, Michael Penrod

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The intent of this project was to explore the history of the U.S. Military Post at Sauk Centre, Minnesota (Site # 21SN0198). The aim was to find out when it was built and why and to uncover any remaining physical evidence of the Post and the people who passed through it.

Archival research confirmed this fort and its soldiers were part of a thought-out War Department plan to keep the peace in central Minnesota during the American Civil War. This site and several others in the region were built and garrisoned with the intent of projecting United States power into ...


Faunal Analysis Of The Licking Bison Site (39hn570): An Early Archaic Bison Kill Site From Harding County, South Dakota, Monica Margaret Bugbee Dec 2019

Faunal Analysis Of The Licking Bison Site (39hn570): An Early Archaic Bison Kill Site From Harding County, South Dakota, Monica Margaret Bugbee

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The Licking Bison Site (39HN570) is located in Harding County, South Dakota and dates to 5570±30 14C yr BP (6406-6301 cal yr BP), during the Early Archaic period. The site was discovered in 1994 and excavated between 1995 and 2000 by the South Dakota State Archaeological Research Center (SARC). The Early Archaic corresponds with a period of warm and dry climatic conditions on the Northern Great Plains often referred to as the Altithermal. Archaeological sites from this time are relatively rare compared to both earlier and later periods. The Licking Bison Site is one of only two known ...


Burn Baby Burn: An Experiment In Archaeological Site Formation Through Fire, Ian Hanson Dec 2019

Burn Baby Burn: An Experiment In Archaeological Site Formation Through Fire, Ian Hanson

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The study of fire and how it affects archaeological sites has been a topic of interest for some time. Unfortunately, data retrieved from burned sites comes with little or no data regarding the site before it was burned over, particularly the pre and post-burn location of artifacts. This thesis presents an experiment where test plots of replica artifacts were burned in prescribed fires on the Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge. In an attempt to measure fire as a site formation process in prairie grassland and oak woodland, this experiment helps establish baseline data for these two common habitats in Minnesota and ...


Traditional And Naturally Significant Places Process Primer For The Oglala Sioux Tribe, Michael Catches Enemy Dec 2019

Traditional And Naturally Significant Places Process Primer For The Oglala Sioux Tribe, Michael Catches Enemy

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The Oglala Sioux Tribe, through its various tribal programs like the Historic Preservation Office & the Cultural Affairs Advisory Council (2009-2013), decided to initiate the development of a process primer for the future creation of a more holistic and culturally-relevant identification process for Lakólyakel na ečhá waŋkátuya yawá owáŋka “traditional and naturally significant places” (TNSP’s) to protect and preserve these places within the realm of cultural resource management. The process primer will be in accord with the functions assumed by the Oglala Sioux Tribe in 2009 through Tribal Council Ordinance No. 09-29, upheld by No. 13-17, to consult with appropriate ...


On The Early To Middle Archaic Occupation Of Hudson-Meng: A Geoarchaeological And Lithic Study, Jeffrey Shelton Oct 2019

On The Early To Middle Archaic Occupation Of Hudson-Meng: A Geoarchaeological And Lithic Study, Jeffrey Shelton

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The goals of this research are to come to a greater understanding of site formation processes at the Hudson-Meng site, to gain a greater understanding of Early to Middle Archaic lifeways through the material record at Hudson-Meng, and to quantify the potential for error between observers in a lab setting, using the Hudson-Meng assemblage as a vehicle for discussion. Situated in Sioux County, Nebraska, the Hudson-Meng site (25SX115) has been a site of contention for decades. Hudson-Meng has been evaluated multiple times since its original excavation in 1968, with the primary research focus being on a large Paleoindian bone bed ...


Paleoenvironment Of The Late Eocene Chadronian-Age Whitehead Creek Locality (Northwestern Nebraska), Samantha Mills Oct 2019

Paleoenvironment Of The Late Eocene Chadronian-Age Whitehead Creek Locality (Northwestern Nebraska), Samantha Mills

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Toward the end of the Middle Eocene (40-37mya), the environment started to decline on a global scale. It was becoming more arid, the tropical forests were disappearing from the northern latitudes, and there was an increase in seasonality. Research of the Chadronian (37-33.7mya) in the Great Plains region of North America has documented the persistence of several mammalian taxa (e.g. primates) that are extinct in other parts of North America. This research aims to investigate the paleoenvironment of the Whitehead Creek locality, Nebraska, one Chadronian-age locality within the Great Plains, in order to better understand the circumstances surrounding ...


Honey Or Vinegar: Oneota Interaction In The Central And Northeastern Plains, Benjamin Shirar May 2019

Honey Or Vinegar: Oneota Interaction In The Central And Northeastern Plains, Benjamin Shirar

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Abstract

Beginning AD 1150 and extending until European contact, the archaeological culture referred to as “Oneota” underwent an explosive spread across the American midcontinent. As Oneota ideas, people, or some combination thereof moved westward, they encountered people from other cultures. Along the western frontier of Oneota culture, evidence suggests that relations between Oneota and Plains indigenes took a variety of forms. To better understand how various environmental and cultural factors may have informed the decision-making process with regard to inter-group interaction, four sites along this western Oneota periphery were selected for analysis: Shea and Sprunk in eastern North Dakota, White ...


Being And Becoming: Learning, Skill, And Cognition As Exhibited On Painted White Ware Pottery At Sand Canyon Pueblo (5mt765), A Pueblo Iii Era Community Center In Southwestern Colorado, Jonathan Schwartz Dec 2018

Being And Becoming: Learning, Skill, And Cognition As Exhibited On Painted White Ware Pottery At Sand Canyon Pueblo (5mt765), A Pueblo Iii Era Community Center In Southwestern Colorado, Jonathan Schwartz

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The theory of conceptual metaphor through material culture posits that human physical experience with natural and cultural materials serves as the basis for the development of abstract knowledge (Tilley 1999). Apprenticeship theories in archaeology (e.g. Walleart ed. 2012) study how craft knowledge is transmitted generationally. Combining these approaches, this thesis seeks to understand if the “container metaphor” (sensu Ortman 2000a, 2012) was taught by adults and learned by children at the Sand Canyon Pueblo archaeological site in southwest Colorado, by comparing white ware pottery produced by children to those produced by adults. Patricia Crown’s (1999, 2001, 2002) 18-point ...


Lithic Resources, Workshops, And Consumption In Northwestern Belize, Hollie Lincoln Dec 2018

Lithic Resources, Workshops, And Consumption In Northwestern Belize, Hollie Lincoln

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Stone tools played an important role in the everyday life of the ancient Maya. Whether for ritual or domestic uses, stone tools were required to complete everyday tasks. Access to stone resources used to make tools, including chert, likely influenced the sociopolitical relationships between communities and cities across the ancient landscape. Through various methods including field survey, lab analysis, and statistical analysis, various chert resources in Northwestern Belize are identified and analyzed in order to recognize chert procurement locations and possible tool production sites or workshops. In addition, an overall analysis of chert quality is included to form a better ...


Mcc Nipissing East 2 (20.Ir.253) And Mcc Nipissing East 3 (20.Ir.254): A Cross Site Comparison Of Archaic Sites On Isle Royale National Park, Samantha J. Olson Dec 2018

Mcc Nipissing East 2 (20.Ir.253) And Mcc Nipissing East 3 (20.Ir.254): A Cross Site Comparison Of Archaic Sites On Isle Royale National Park, Samantha J. Olson

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

This thesis will discuss recent excavations and subsequent analysis, of two previously unknown sites located on Mid-Late Archaic relict beach shores at Isle Royale National Park. The sites are believed to possibly be connected to the Minong Mine, the oldest and largest precontact copper mine in North America to date, located in the McCargoe Cove area of the island. At these sites, lithics and copper were recovered as the only cultural remains of the people who inhabited these two areas. The sites were compared, not only to each other, but also to other Archaic sites found on similar relict beaches ...


Transitions: The Study Of A Late Nineteenth Century Minnesota Farmstead During A Period Of Agricultural Transition, Theresa Gilbertson May 2018

Transitions: The Study Of A Late Nineteenth Century Minnesota Farmstead During A Period Of Agricultural Transition, Theresa Gilbertson

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The late 19th century in Minnesota was largely shaped by immigration, and Benton County was no exception. The region was a prime location for families, providing land that was both fertile and abundant. It was common for a couple members of a family to head west first, the rest of the family joining at a later time. Families could find land near each other and stick together in a new country. Benton County boasts a number of farmstead sites from this period of time. In 1873, John Keefe homesteaded one of these farms.

Diversity in population was not the ...


A Macroscopic Examination Of Expedient Tools: Comparing Replicated Collections And Precontact Collections To Aid In Determining Site Type, Heather R. Adams May 2018

A Macroscopic Examination Of Expedient Tools: Comparing Replicated Collections And Precontact Collections To Aid In Determining Site Type, Heather R. Adams

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

This thesis project was utilized to examine the use of expedient tools, or stone tools made with little to no production effort, through macroscopic means to determine if specific activities were being enacted on a site. CRDA8-Site5 (36GR0418) functioned as an Early, Middle, and Late Woodland lithic reduction and tool production locus, based on the recovery of 2,442 precontact artifacts, including lithic debitage, chipped stone tools, and polished, ground, and pecked stone tools (PGP). The lack of artifact rich features with datable charcoal and additional artifact types, such as faunal remains, left little to give insight into further site ...


Old Collections, New Insights: Technological Organization Of The Lungren Site (13ml224), A Middle Archaic Residential Camp, Warren Davis May 2018

Old Collections, New Insights: Technological Organization Of The Lungren Site (13ml224), A Middle Archaic Residential Camp, Warren Davis

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The Lungren Site (13ML224) is a Middle Archaic campsite located in Mills County, Iowa. The site was excavated in the 1960s during the Smithsonian River Basin Surveys, and represents one of a relatively small number of well-preserved Archaic period sites known in western Iowa. Lithic artifacts from the Lungren assemblage were reanalyzed as part of this thesis in order to derive better understanding of technological strategy and land-use by the mid-Holocene bison hunters who left these tools behind. Analysis of lithic debitage and raw material illustrates heavy utilization of locally acquired raw material for tool making. This includes both expedient ...


Fortifying Saint Cloud: Searching For Fort Holes, Charles Peliska May 2018

Fortifying Saint Cloud: Searching For Fort Holes, Charles Peliska

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

This thesis is about my efforts to locate Fort Holes – a civilian fortification built in September of 1862 in response to the nearby threats of Native American violence. A decade after the western parts of Minnesota were opened to Euro-American settlement, the actions of government agents, traders, and a small group of Native American actors led to violence on the frontier. The citizens of Saint Cloud constructed Fort Holes in a week and it only stood for a couple of years before they removed the lumber for the growing city. Throughout Minnesota, citizens constructed over 50 of these expedient “settlers ...


An Analysis Of The Work Conducted By The Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division For The Benefit Of The Weyíiletpu (Cayuse), Imatalamłáma (Umatilla), And Walúulapam (Walla Walla), Carey Miller Dec 2017

An Analysis Of The Work Conducted By The Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division For The Benefit Of The Weyíiletpu (Cayuse), Imatalamłáma (Umatilla), And Walúulapam (Walla Walla), Carey Miller

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Problem:

In order for the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation’s (CTUIR) Tribal Historic Preservation Office (THPO) and Cultural Resources Protection Program (CRPP) to preserve, protect and perpetuate cultural resources for current and future generations of the Weyíiletpu (Cayuse), Imatalamłáma (Umatilla), and Walúulapam (Walla Walla) peoples, we need to be aware of the resources and the values they contain. One set of resources that the CTUIR knows little about is the work undertaken by the Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division (CCC-ID) at the Umatilla Agency including the types of projects, the location of such projects, why the projects were ...


Analysis Of Neanderthal Biodistance Using Non-Metric Features Of The Dentition, Michel C. Tchang May 2017

Analysis Of Neanderthal Biodistance Using Non-Metric Features Of The Dentition, Michel C. Tchang

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The Neanderthals lived in small communities of hunters and gatherers and were present in a large geographical area extending from Portugal to Siberia. This expansive range implies that Neanderthals lived in a great diversity of climatic conditions. Paleoanthropologists agree, in their observations, that there are differences between European and Middle Eastern Neanderthals, and that this variation covers an east to west cline. Research based on mtDNA simulation has defined three subgroups, a Western subgroup, a Southern subgroup and an Eastern subgroup. This study of Neanderthal biodistance, based on non-metric features of the dentition, aims to address the dental character variability ...


Patterned Variation Of Early Woodland Waubesa Contracting Stem Projectile Points In Wisconsin, Michael G. Straskowski May 2017

Patterned Variation Of Early Woodland Waubesa Contracting Stem Projectile Points In Wisconsin, Michael G. Straskowski

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The overall research goal is to examine the Waubesa Contracting Stem projectile points from three different regions to determine if there are any stylistic changes between three geographically defined concentrations. Identifying any statistical patterning of the blade and shoulder may be related to different social influences from the different geographical regions. The knowledge gained by identifying different styles of Waubesa Contracting Stem points could allow archaeologists to determine which of these three regions a point most likely came from if recovered outside of the core culture area.

The study of patterned variation in Waubesa Contracting Stem points could indicate the ...


Distribution Of Knife Lake Siltstone And Associated Manufacturing Technologies Local To The Wendt Site Quarry, Daughter District, Lake County, Minnesota, Phillip R. Bauschard Mar 2017

Distribution Of Knife Lake Siltstone And Associated Manufacturing Technologies Local To The Wendt Site Quarry, Daughter District, Lake County, Minnesota, Phillip R. Bauschard

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The thesis herein seeks to test the effects of distance on the use of Knife Lake Siltstone (KLS) within local proximity to its primary outcrops in Northeastern Minnesota. Distance is used as a raw measure across which characteristics of KLS assemblages at distinct distances from the identified outcrops are discussed. It is theorized that the general presence of KLS material will decline over increased distance from the primary outcrops and that likewise technological organization at sites will reflect the increased distance from the primary outcrops. Through examination of site KLS assemblages which included cores, bifaces, unifaces, flake tools, debitage, end-scrapers ...


Finding Fort Fair Haven: Archaeological Investigations Of An 1862 Settlers' Fort, Jacob G. Dupre Mar 2017

Finding Fort Fair Haven: Archaeological Investigations Of An 1862 Settlers' Fort, Jacob G. Dupre

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The goal of this thesis is twofold. The first step was to perform archaeological test excavations on the Fort Fair Haven site in order to confirm that we had, in fact, located the 1862 historical site of Fort Fair Haven. Once we successfully determined that it was indeed the fort, then the second step was to analyze these findings and use them in conjunction with archival research in order to better understand what kind of actual defensive function it could have provided. A specific way of doing this is to compare the civilian fort’s design with those of military ...


Twin Lakes Site: A Look Into Prehistoric Minnesota, Elizabeth K. Sharkey Aug 2016

Twin Lakes Site: A Look Into Prehistoric Minnesota, Elizabeth K. Sharkey

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Middle Archaic archaeological sites in Minnesota are rarely discovered and the cultural context of this period is poorly known. This thesis presents the research conducted on a recently identified Middle Archaic site in central Minnesota called Twin Lakes. The site was dated using modern dating techniques. This along with the in depth lithic and statistical analysis adds to the interpretation of the lifeways of early Minnesota people and an elusive time period in the state’s archaeological record.


Assessing Wyoming’S Public Perceptions And General Attitudes Towards Archaeology, And Statewide Trends In Looting, Kayla M. Bradshaw May 2016

Assessing Wyoming’S Public Perceptions And General Attitudes Towards Archaeology, And Statewide Trends In Looting, Kayla M. Bradshaw

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

This research was conducted with the purpose of gathering and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data related to archaeological looting and public opinion regarding archaeology and cultural heritage preservation legislation in Wyoming. Areas of the state in which impacts of looting are most prevalent and the trends in these activities, as well as statewide trends, were identified. Randomly selected residents (n = 2,040) in these areas were then targeted by an anonymous survey, which was implemented with the purpose of assessing public knowledge pertaining to cultural resource legislation and archaeology. The anonymous survey was also distributed to Wyoming Archaeological Society and ...


A Spatial Analysis Of Artifacts Using A Geographic Information System At The Grand Portage North West Company Fur Trade Depot (21ck06), Andrew L. Craft Jul 2015

A Spatial Analysis Of Artifacts Using A Geographic Information System At The Grand Portage North West Company Fur Trade Depot (21ck06), Andrew L. Craft

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

From around 1780 to 1803, the Grand Portage North West Company Fur Trade Depot stood on the western shores of Lake Superior in northern Minnesota. The location served as the company’s inland headquarters along their primary trade route through the region now called the Boundary Waters. Some areas of the site have been partially excavated and examined, but none of the artifact datasets or structural features discovered through archaeology has been analyzed using the computer technology of geographic information systems (GIS). For the first time, GIS is used to spatially distribute one of the site’s artifact datasets from ...


Digitization Of Museum Collections: Using Technology, Creating Access, And Releasing Authority In Managing Content And Resources, Benjamin S. Gessner May 2015

Digitization Of Museum Collections: Using Technology, Creating Access, And Releasing Authority In Managing Content And Resources, Benjamin S. Gessner

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Through the use of new technologies and platforms, the Minnesota Historical
Society (MNHS) has been able to reach new levels of transparency in working with Dakota communities on the access, management and care of Dakota material culture collections. By digitizing and sharing information about collections and using an online platform for soliciting feedback - which then becomes attached to the permanent record of the object – the MNHS is relinquishing the authority of intellectual control over Dakota material culture which they have historically claimed to have. In doing so, the institution is not only opening pathways to meaningful dialogue, but is benefiting ...


Analyzing The Effects Of Tree Throw On The Wendt Archaeological Site, Jennifer L. Norman May 2013

Analyzing The Effects Of Tree Throw On The Wendt Archaeological Site, Jennifer L. Norman

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

The overall research goal of this thesis is to analyze how tree throw affects archaeological sites in order to gain a greater understanding of site formation processes influenced by this significant environmental factor. This research focused on whether we have the ability to determine if tree throw had previously affected undisturbed areas adjacent to the excavated tree throws areas, which have been significantly disturbed in recent years by wind and fire events. This paper will present the preliminary methods and results of the effects of tree throw on soil stratigraphy and the placement of lithic artifacts at the Wendt site ...


Rethinking Hudson-Meng: A Taphonomic Analysis Of The Faunal Assemblage From 25sx115, Sioux County, Nebraska, Diana M. Barg May 2013

Rethinking Hudson-Meng: A Taphonomic Analysis Of The Faunal Assemblage From 25sx115, Sioux County, Nebraska, Diana M. Barg

Culminating Projects in Cultural Resource Management

Hudson-Meng (25SX115), located in the Oglala National Grassland, Sioux County, Nebraska, is a multi-component Cody complex site that was used for the procurement of bison between 10,500 and 11,250 years ago. The site was excavated in the 1970s and 1990s, which led to many, at times divergent, interpretations of the site’s origin and use by Cody complex peoples. Excavations between 2006 and 2012 have led to new evidence and interpretations regarding multiple episodes of site use. The faunal assemblage recovered from the most recent excavations was used for zooarchaeological and taphonomic studies, and is reported here. The ...