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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Resilience And Adaptation In A World System Periphery: Long-Term Perspectives From The Lake Atitlan Basin, Highland Guatemala 600 Bc – 1600 Ad, Gavin R. Davies Jan 2019

Resilience And Adaptation In A World System Periphery: Long-Term Perspectives From The Lake Atitlan Basin, Highland Guatemala 600 Bc – 1600 Ad, Gavin R. Davies

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

The Lake Atitlan Basin of highland Guatemala boasted fertile soils and was rich in natural resources, making it an attractive area for permanent settlement. However, the region lacked a number of important items, such as salt, cotton, and obsidian, all of which had to be obtained through trade. Good agricultural land was also scarce in certain parts of the lake and the steep hillslopes were easily eroded, making it necessary for communities to maintain access to emergency supplies of corn. Lake Atitlan’s communities were therefore highly dependent on exchanges with neighboring groups who occupied contrasting ecological zones, especially those ...


Middle To Late Holocene (7200-2900 Cal. Bp) Archaeological Site Formation Processes At Crumps Sink And The Origins Of Anthropogenic Environments In Central Kentucky, Usa, Justin Nels Carlson Jan 2019

Middle To Late Holocene (7200-2900 Cal. Bp) Archaeological Site Formation Processes At Crumps Sink And The Origins Of Anthropogenic Environments In Central Kentucky, Usa, Justin Nels Carlson

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

Though some researchers have argued that the Big Barrens grasslands of Kentucky were the product of anthropogenic land clearing practices by Native Americans, heretofore, this hypothesis had not been tested archaeologically. More work was needed to refine chronologies of fire activity in the region, determine the extent to which humans played a role in the process, and integrate these findings with the paleoenvironmental and archaeological record. With these goals in mind, I conducted archaeological and geoarchaeological investigations at Crumps Sink in the Sinkhole Plain of Kentucky. The archaeological record and site formation history of Crumps Sink were compared with environmental ...


Negotiating Household Quality Of Life And Social Cohesion At Ucanha, Yucatan, Mexico, During The Late Preclassic To Early Classic Transition, Barry Kidder Jan 2019

Negotiating Household Quality Of Life And Social Cohesion At Ucanha, Yucatan, Mexico, During The Late Preclassic To Early Classic Transition, Barry Kidder

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

The main focus of this project is to chronicle whether or not social inequality increased among households and community-level interactions in Ucanha, Yucatan, Mexico, at the time it was physically integrated with a larger regional polity headed by Ucí around the Terminal Preclassic/Early Classic (50 BCE – CE 400) transition. My research seeks to identify how social distinctions emerged during the early moments of social inequality and how these distinctions did or did not become a threat to social cohesion, as seen in the Early Classic “collapse” in some areas. Using a relational theoretical perspective, I argue that political authority ...


Variation Of Native American Ceramics In The Big Bend Region Of The Lower Ocmulgee River Valley, Georgia, Ad 1540 To Ad 1715, Rachel Paige Hensler Jan 2018

Variation Of Native American Ceramics In The Big Bend Region Of The Lower Ocmulgee River Valley, Georgia, Ad 1540 To Ad 1715, Rachel Paige Hensler

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

Studies of European colonialism in the Western Hemisphere have shifted focus from areas of direct European/Native American contact, to investigate Native American groups outside of direct European contact. During Spanish colonization of the Southeastern United States (AD 1520 to AD 1715), the Big Bend region of the Ocmulgee River Valley, in Georgia, located about 160 kilometers from Spanish occupied coast, was inhabited by a Native American polity from the Late Prehistoric into the Mission period. This location is ideal for studying indirect contact.

Changes in ceramic production can be used to identify changes in Native American interaction through time ...


Late Pleistocene Adaptations In The Midsouth: The Paleoindian Occupation Of The Carson-Conn-Short Site And The Lower Tennessee River Valley, James Scott Jones Jan 2018

Late Pleistocene Adaptations In The Midsouth: The Paleoindian Occupation Of The Carson-Conn-Short Site And The Lower Tennessee River Valley, James Scott Jones

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

The Midsouth has long been known to be a locus of Paleoindian (13,200-10,000 yrs B.P.) populations. Paleoindian populations have generally been characterized as highly mobile hunter-gatherers with egalitarian social structure. Utilizing the theoretical lens of diversification and intensification of resource use, the Late Pleistocene adaptations of the region’s populations are examined from both a large scale or coarse grain perspective as well as more fine grain data from the site level. Previous models of Paleoindian adaptations are defined and tested in this study to determine the applicability of these models with new data. Coarse grain data ...


Ancient Maya Commerce: Multidisciplinary Research At Chunchucmil, Scott R. Hutson Jan 2017

Ancient Maya Commerce: Multidisciplinary Research At Chunchucmil, Scott R. Hutson

Anthropology Faculty Book Gallery

Ancient Maya Commerce presents nearly two decades of multidisciplinary research at Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico—a thriving Classic period Maya center organized around commercial exchange rather than agriculture. An urban center without a king and unable to sustain agrarian independence, Chunchucmil is a rare example of a Maya city in which economics, not political rituals, served as the engine of growth. Trade was the raison d’être of the city itself.

Using a variety of evidence—archaeological, botanical, geomorphological, and soil-based—contributors show how the city was a major center for both short- and long-distance trade, integrating the Guatemalan highlands, the ...


The People Of Stone: A Study Of The Basalt Ground Stone Industry At Tres Zapotes And Its Role In The Evolution Of Olmec And Epi-Olmec Political-Economic Systems, Olaf Jaime-Riveron Jan 2016

The People Of Stone: A Study Of The Basalt Ground Stone Industry At Tres Zapotes And Its Role In The Evolution Of Olmec And Epi-Olmec Political-Economic Systems, Olaf Jaime-Riveron

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

This dissertation analyzes the basalt ground stone industry at the archaeological site of Tres Zapotes, Mexico. Artifacts and by-products were recovered in the excavations conducted by a University of Kentucky project directed by Christopher Pool. All contexts were examined, and the corpus of this study comprises the whole sequence of production, use, and discards of basalt such as by-products of manufacture, unfinished and finished tools, and discarded artifacts. In this opportunity was possible to study over time a change from the Early/Middle Formative period (Olmec occupation) a centralized and exclusionary political economic system to the Late/Terminal Formative period ...


Interaction On The Frontier Of The 16Th-17Th Century World Economy: Late Fort Ancient Hide Production And Exchange At The Hardin Site, Greenup County, Kentucky, Matthew J. Davidson Jan 2016

Interaction On The Frontier Of The 16Th-17Th Century World Economy: Late Fort Ancient Hide Production And Exchange At The Hardin Site, Greenup County, Kentucky, Matthew J. Davidson

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

This study assesses the organization and intensity of hide processing from sequential occupations at the Late Fort Ancient (A.D. 1400-1680) Hardin Site located in the central Ohio Valley. Historical and archaeological sources were drawn on to develop expectations for production intensification: 1) an increase in production tool quantity, 2) an increase in production debris quantity, and 3) an increase in tool utilization intensity. Many Native groups situated on the periphery of early European colonies intensified hide production to meet demand generated by an emerging global trade in hides. As this economic activity intensified in the 16th and 17th centuries ...


A Reflection Of Maya Representation, Distribution, And Interaction: Ceramic Figurines From The Late Classic Site Of Cancuén, Petén Department, Guatemala, Erin L. Sears Jan 2016

A Reflection Of Maya Representation, Distribution, And Interaction: Ceramic Figurines From The Late Classic Site Of Cancuén, Petén Department, Guatemala, Erin L. Sears

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

This project explores intersecting spheres of technological, stylistic and contextually patterned relationships expressed by ceramic figurines associated with the major Maya polity Cancuén. Cancuén is situated by assessing its external contacts by reference to figurines recovered from several Late Classic settlements, and hieroglyphic texts recorded as interacting polities. By focusing on these sites along connecting waterways, I attempt to discern directions of influence and change with regard to figurine use patterns relative to those seen in other ceramic representations. Traditional archaeological criteria were used to obtain excavated figurines at specific sites. Stylistic and technological information are augmented through an intensive ...


Prehistoric Drawings In Mammoth Cave, Logan Kistler Sep 2015

Prehistoric Drawings In Mammoth Cave, Logan Kistler

Kaleidoscope

During a recent Earthwatch Institute survey of archaeological remains in Mammoth Cave, a project was begun to find and record prehistoric images on the cave walls. I chose to analyze petroglyphs and pictographs on three panels in Main Cave. This article offers a hypothesis for the circumstances surrounding the rock art’s production: the geometric and anthropomorphic figures in Mammoth Cave are representative of a series of visual percepts experienced cross-culturally and caused by various conditions — including sensory deprivation, fatigue, and psychoactive drug use — acting on the ocular anatomy and nervous system. That is, the glyphs might be visual representations ...


Exchange Mechanisms, Consumption, And Household Provisioning Strategies: Maya Economy And Political Economy In The Kiuic Polity, Yucatán, México, Christopher M. Gunn Jan 2015

Exchange Mechanisms, Consumption, And Household Provisioning Strategies: Maya Economy And Political Economy In The Kiuic Polity, Yucatán, México, Christopher M. Gunn

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

This project examines household exchange systems in the ancient Maya polity of Kiuic, located in the Puuc Hills of northwestern Yucatán, México. Comparisons of variation in domestic artifact assemblages are used to evaluate household participation in exchange networks organized around three kinds of distribution: (1) non-market horizontal exchange among social equals; (2) vertical exchange across socioeconomic ranks; and (3) market exchange, in which price rather than rank structures access to goods. Intensive analyses of ceramic morphology, mineralogy, and chemical composition will document attribute variation within household artifact assemblages, and comparisons of the degrees to which households share overlapping ranges of ...


Living On The Edge: Rethinking Pueblo Period: (Ad 700 – Ad 1225) Indigenous Settlement Patterns Within Grand Canyon National Park, Northern Arizona, Philip B. Mink Ii Jan 2015

Living On The Edge: Rethinking Pueblo Period: (Ad 700 – Ad 1225) Indigenous Settlement Patterns Within Grand Canyon National Park, Northern Arizona, Philip B. Mink Ii

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

This dissertation challenges traditional interpretations that indigenous groups who settled the Grand Canyon during the Pueblo Period (AD 700 -1225) relied heavily on maize to meet their subsistence needs. Instead they are viewed as dynamic ecosystem engineers who employed fire and natural plant succession to engage in a wild plant subsistence strategy that was supplemented to varying degrees by maize. By examining the relationship between archaeological sites and the natural environment throughout the Canyon, new settlement pattern models were developed. These models attempt to account for the spatial distribution of Virgin people, as represented by Virgin Gray Ware ceramics, Kayenta ...


Lithic Analysis Of The Jot-Em-Down Shelter (15mcy348) Collection: Settlement Patterns, Raw Material Utilization, And Shelter Activities Along The Cumberland Plateau, Mary M. White Jan 2014

Lithic Analysis Of The Jot-Em-Down Shelter (15mcy348) Collection: Settlement Patterns, Raw Material Utilization, And Shelter Activities Along The Cumberland Plateau, Mary M. White

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

The Jot-em-Down Shelter (15McY348) was excavated by U.S. Forest Service archaeologists in 1986. The present study concentrated on the lithic assemblage, with a particular focus on the chipped stone debitage. The Jot-em-Down Shelter lithic assemblage was compared to assemblages recovered from four nearby sites, open sites 15McY570 and 15McY616, and rockshelter sites 15McY403 and 15McY409; and rockshelter sites located in and near the Red River Gorge, Cold Oak Shelter (15LE50) and Rock Bridge Shelter (15WO75). This study determined that Jot-em-Down Shelter was a multicomponent site utilized by mobile groups of people from the Early Archaic through Mississippi periods. Use ...


Domestic Megalithic Architecture: An Analysis Of Status And Community At And Around The Ancient Maya Site Of Uci, Yucatan, Mexcio, Joseph S. Stair Jan 2014

Domestic Megalithic Architecture: An Analysis Of Status And Community At And Around The Ancient Maya Site Of Uci, Yucatan, Mexcio, Joseph S. Stair

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

Variation in domestic architecture results from the agency households exercise in their daily lives. This study defines the domestic expression of the megalithic architectural style, based on data collected in and around the ancient Maya site of Ucí, Yucatan, Mexico, by comparing it to its expression in monumental structures. It also shows how the analysis and documentation of architectural variability away from the monumental core can locate more than just commoners and elites within the social organization of the Ancient Maya. This analyzes provides evidence for higher social status for households that possess megalithic architecture since they also possess larger ...


Manufacturing Ceramics: Ceramic Ecology And Technological Choice In The Upper Cumberland River Valley, Melissa Ramsey Jan 2013

Manufacturing Ceramics: Ceramic Ecology And Technological Choice In The Upper Cumberland River Valley, Melissa Ramsey

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

Ceramic material culture recovered from archaeological sites has more to offer the researcher than placing the site or strata into a cultural historic timeline. By examining the characteristics of ceramics manufactured during the Woodland Period in southern Kentucky, this thesis answers questions related to the behavior of the potters who lived and worked there. Using the theoretical basis of ceramic ecology and technological choice, this thesis examines the choices made by the potters of two sites, the Long (15Ru17) and Rowena (15Ru10) sites, located along the Cumberland River in Russell County, Kentucky. The two sites are also compared to one ...


Late Archaic To Early Woodland Lithic Technology At The Knob Creek Site (12hr484), Harrison County, Indiana, Kyle E. Mullen Jan 2013

Late Archaic To Early Woodland Lithic Technology At The Knob Creek Site (12hr484), Harrison County, Indiana, Kyle E. Mullen

Theses and Dissertations--Anthropology

This study examines bifacial technology change at the Knob Creek site (12HR484) in Harrison County, Indiana, from the Late Archaic to Early Woodland periods. Through a statistical and attribute analysis of 2,620 lithic flakes it was possible to detect changes in the lithic reduction process over time. The analysis demonstrates that soft-hammer percussion becomes more prevalent during the Early Woodland component of the site. This is a significant change from the hard-hammer percussion industry of the Lower Late Archaic. The Terminal Archaic Riverton component in this study offers one of the few detailed flake-by-flake analyses for this poorly understood ...


Identifying And Analyzing The Use Of Space In Ancient Mayan House Mounds In Kancab, Yucatan, Mexico, V. Camille Westmont Jun 2012

Identifying And Analyzing The Use Of Space In Ancient Mayan House Mounds In Kancab, Yucatan, Mexico, V. Camille Westmont

Kaleidoscope

No abstract provided.


Political Economy Of Exotic Trade On The Mississippian Frontier: A Case Study Of A Fourteenth Century Chiefdom In Southwestern Virginia, Maureen Elizabeth Siewert Meyers Jan 2011

Political Economy Of Exotic Trade On The Mississippian Frontier: A Case Study Of A Fourteenth Century Chiefdom In Southwestern Virginia, Maureen Elizabeth Siewert Meyers

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Although the Mississippian culture area has been studied for decades, the frontier of the Mississippian region is less understood. Various Mississippian frontiers appear to have been important for the obtainment of trade goods which were important symbols of chiefly power. Studying these frontiers will allow archaeologists to better understand the emergence and maintenance of power within Southeastern chiefdoms. This dissertation explores one frontier site, Carter Robinson (44LE10) in southwestern Virginia, and its role in Southern Appalachian chiefdom power through its control of trade at the border. This research identifies ceramic and non-utilitarian markers of trade and identifies changes at the ...


Production, Exchange And Social Interaction In The Green River Region Of Western Kentucky: A Multiscalar Approach To The Analysis Of Two Shell Midden Sites, Christopher R. Moore Jan 2011

Production, Exchange And Social Interaction In The Green River Region Of Western Kentucky: A Multiscalar Approach To The Analysis Of Two Shell Midden Sites, Christopher R. Moore

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The Green River region of western Kentucky has been a focus of Archaic period research since 1915. Currently, the region is playing an important role in discussions of Archaic hunter-gatherer cultural complexity. Unfortunately, many of the larger Green River sites contain several archaeological components ranging from the Early to Late Archaic periods. Understanding culture change requires that these multiple components somehow be sorted and addressed individually.

Detailed re-analyses of Works Progress Administration (WPA) era artifact collections from two archaeological sites in the Green River region – the Baker (15Mu12) and Chiggerville (15Oh1) shell middens – indicate that these sites are relatively isolated ...


Disjuncture Among Classic Period Cultural Landscapes In The Tuxtla Mountains, Southern Veracruz, Mexico, Wesley Durrell Stoner Jan 2011

Disjuncture Among Classic Period Cultural Landscapes In The Tuxtla Mountains, Southern Veracruz, Mexico, Wesley Durrell Stoner

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Teotihuacan was the most influential city in the Classic Mesoamerican worldsystem. Like other influential cities in the ancient world, however, Teotihuacan did not homogenously affect the various cultural landscapes that thrived in Mesoamerica during the Classic period (300-900 CE). Even where strong central Mexican influences appear outside the Basin of Mexico, the nature, extent, and strength of these influences are discontinuous over time and space. Every place within the Classic Mesoamerican landscape has a unique Teotihuacan story. In the Tuxtla Mountains of southern Veracruz, Mexico, Matacapan, located in the Catemaco Valley, drew heavily upon ideas and symbols fostered at Teotihuacan ...


Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene Colonization And Regionalization In Northern Perú: Fishtail And Paiján Complexes Of The Lower Jequetepeque Valley, Greg J. Maggard Jan 2010

Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene Colonization And Regionalization In Northern Perú: Fishtail And Paiján Complexes Of The Lower Jequetepeque Valley, Greg J. Maggard

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Until relatively recently, the view of Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers in the Americas was dominated by the “Clovis-first” paradigm. However, recent discoveries have challenged traditional views and forced reconsiderations of the timing, processes, and scales used in modeling the settlement of the Americas. Chief among these discoveries has been the recognition of a wide range of early cultural diversity throughout the Americas that is inconsistent with previously held notions of cultural homogeneity.

During the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene, the development of widely varying economic, technological and mobility strategies in distinct environments is suggestive of a range of different adaptations and traditions.

It ...


Community Strategies In The Aztec Imperial Frontier: Perspectives From Totogal, Veracruz, Mexico, Marcie L. Venter Jan 2008

Community Strategies In The Aztec Imperial Frontier: Perspectives From Totogal, Veracruz, Mexico, Marcie L. Venter

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Using archaeological and ethnohistorical data, this dissertation examines the character of the relationship between the Late Postclassic (ca. AD 1250-1520) frontier center of Totogal, located in the western Tuxtla Mountains (Toztlan) of southern Veracruz, Mexico, and the expanding Aztec Empire. Traditional models of imperialism examine frontiers from a core perspective that limits the autonomy and agency of groups in the path of expansion. Recent ethnographic, ethnohistoric, and archaeological studies of other boundaries, however, suggest that considerable room for negotiation exists within the space of interactions, whether asymmetrical amounts of power characterize the home bases of those groups.

I argue that ...