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Archaeological Anthropology

University of Central Florida

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Articles 1 - 30 of 41

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Elite Meroitic Experience On Sai Island, Sudan: Using Stable Isotope Analysis To Identify Patterns Related To Sex And Age For The Interpretation Of Social Identity, Alexandria Brock May 2019

The Elite Meroitic Experience On Sai Island, Sudan: Using Stable Isotope Analysis To Identify Patterns Related To Sex And Age For The Interpretation Of Social Identity, Alexandria Brock

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The research conducted for this thesis utilized stable isotope analysis to reconstruct the diet of 35 individuals from an elite Meroitic (350 BC – 300 AD) cemetery (site 8.B.5A) located on Sai Island, Sudan, with a focus on adult age categories and biological sex, to understand intraclass variation in diet. Stable carbon and nitrogen values from human bone collagen were used to understand elite social organization, social practice, and gender roles in the Meroitic period through the lens of social identity and post-processual theories. The samples were grouped based on biological sex, median age, and assigned age categories (young ...


Chemical Composition Of Preclassic-Period Maya Slips: Analysis And Interpretation Of Flores Waxy Ware And Paso Caballo Waxy Ware Sherds From Holtun, Guatemala Using Pxrf Spectrometry, Anna Kebler May 2019

Chemical Composition Of Preclassic-Period Maya Slips: Analysis And Interpretation Of Flores Waxy Ware And Paso Caballo Waxy Ware Sherds From Holtun, Guatemala Using Pxrf Spectrometry, Anna Kebler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Slip, a fluid suspension of clay that is applied to the surface of a piece of ceramic, allows for increased control over the functional and aesthetic properties of a finished vessel. The potter can select a slip to provide a more appealing color, texture, and/or luster to the vessel's surface, while maintaining the favorable functional qualities of the paste. Though slip color has long been used as an attribute for classification in the Maya lowlands, only recently have the raw materials of slips been used to inform studies of production and exchange, with much of this work using ...


Estimation Of Weaning Patterns In The Elite Meroitic Population (8-B-5.A) From Sai Island, Sudan Using Stable Nitrogen And Carbon Isotopes, Rachel Gregoire Jan 2019

Estimation Of Weaning Patterns In The Elite Meroitic Population (8-B-5.A) From Sai Island, Sudan Using Stable Nitrogen And Carbon Isotopes, Rachel Gregoire

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research explores dietary patterns of elite non-adults from the Meroitic period (300 BC – AD 350) located in Sai Island, Sudan. The cemetery (8-B-5.A) is believed to have been in use during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Non-adults were chosen because they offer a unique, and often ignored, perspective into customs of past populations. Children require significant energy, which impacts how society feeds and cares for their young. Knowledge of their elite status in society will be consider to explore how this subset of the population may have differed in behavior. A significant factor of child life is ...


Sex Determination Using Discriminant Function Analysis Of Carpals From Maya Sites In Belize From Pre-Classic To Spanish Colonial Period, Michelle D. Labbe Jan 2019

Sex Determination Using Discriminant Function Analysis Of Carpals From Maya Sites In Belize From Pre-Classic To Spanish Colonial Period, Michelle D. Labbe

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The sexing of human skeletal remains is important for identification and demographic purposes. It is made more difficult when elements such as the skull and pelvis are not recovered or are in too poor of a condition to assess. Previous studies have used carpal (wrist) bones of contemporary populations to assess the viability of these skeletal elements exhibiting sexual dimorphism, as these bones are small, compact elements that are usually recovered in good condition. This study evaluates the use of carpal bones recovered from an ancient Maya population from Belize to determine the biological sex of individuals. The study sample ...


Trace Element Analysis Of Human Dentition From The Elite Meroitic Cemetery At Sedeinga, Sudan To Determine Dietary Consumption And Cultural Behaviors, Tiffany Lee Aug 2018

Trace Element Analysis Of Human Dentition From The Elite Meroitic Cemetery At Sedeinga, Sudan To Determine Dietary Consumption And Cultural Behaviors, Tiffany Lee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Minimal research has been conducted on the human skeletal remains from this site, and this research is aimed toward adding knowledge of the Nubian culture for the period between the 1st c. AD to the 4th c. AD, particularly focusing on answering the following questions: 1) Was intra- individual variation present in dietary consumption or cultural behaviors based on elements found within an individual's multiple molars after analysis; 2) Was an inter-individual variation apparent, based on developmental age through permanent molars, that indicated a distinction between dietary consumption against all individuals; and 3) Based on known medicinal and cosmetic ...


New Courland, Tobago: A Gis Analysis Of A 17th-Century Settlement, Amanda Sumner Jan 2018

New Courland, Tobago: A Gis Analysis Of A 17th-Century Settlement, Amanda Sumner

Honors Undergraduate Theses

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Caribbean island of Tobago was contested by several European powers. Among them was an unlikely colonizer, the small Duchy of Courland, located in the western part of modern-day Latvia, which established the New Courland colony on the west coast of Tobago, in May 1654. The aim of this study was to determine the exact geographic location of this settlement through examination of historical texts, maps, and geographic information systems (GIS) data. Remote sensing and GIS methods were used to map the Courlander Fort Jacob on the site of an earlier Dutch fortification, Nieuw ...


Reconstructing The Vocal Capabilities Of Homo Heidelbergensis, A Close Human Ancestor, Austin Blake Stanley Jan 2018

Reconstructing The Vocal Capabilities Of Homo Heidelbergensis, A Close Human Ancestor, Austin Blake Stanley

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The discovery of 5,500 Homo heidelbergensis fossil specimens at the Sima de los Huesos archaeological site in Spain has opened up the opportunity for research to be conducted on the vocal capabilities of this species. Previous research has revealed that the range of vowel sounds an individual can produce, known as the vowel space, is directly affected by the dimensions of the vocal tract. The vowel spaces of two hominins, Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis, have been reconstructed through previous research. However, the vowel space of Homo heidelbergensis has not yet been reconstructed. In this research, I aim to ...


Ceramic Analysis At Ike's Cut, Bahamas Compared With Ft. Liberte, Haiti And El Mango, Cuba, Melissa A. Kays Jan 2018

Ceramic Analysis At Ike's Cut, Bahamas Compared With Ft. Liberte, Haiti And El Mango, Cuba, Melissa A. Kays

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This thesis compares pottery from Ike's Cut, Inagua, Bahamas with assemblages from the site of El Mango, Cuba, analyzed by Ashley Brooke Persons and the site of Ft. Liberte, Haiti, analyzed by Irving Rouse.

The Ike's Cut site was a seasonally occupied location on the largest bank on Inagua, and was utilized for its access to marine resources. The migrants living here brought with them Meillacoid ceramics that were manufactured somewhere in the Greater Antilles. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the ceramics at Ike's Cut share more in common with either the Hispaniolan ...


Feeding The Children: A Paleodietary Reconstruction Of Juveniles From Kuelap, Peru, Marley Denierio Jan 2018

Feeding The Children: A Paleodietary Reconstruction Of Juveniles From Kuelap, Peru, Marley Denierio

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Before reaching adulthood, every individual experiences a period of dependency, the juvenile period, during which they rely on the older, more experienced members of their society for their security, subsistence and care. This juvenile period is an important stage of life for human physical and physiological development. In bioarchaeology, there has been limited research conducted on juveniles, particularly, the development of their own social identity and influences. The research method of stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope analysis is used to reconstruct the paleodiet of juveniles to determine their dietary composition. Specifically, this research is focused on Kuelap, located ...


A Landscape Of Death: A Comparison Of Non-Adult To Adult Burials At The Late Bronze Age Site Of Tell El-Far'ah (South), Rebecca Reeves Jan 2018

A Landscape Of Death: A Comparison Of Non-Adult To Adult Burials At The Late Bronze Age Site Of Tell El-Far'ah (South), Rebecca Reeves

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to determine whether there are any differences in the burial practices for non-adults and adults at the Late Bronze Age site of Tell el-Far'ah (South) in modern day Israel. The archaeology of childhood together with various methods of analyses, including geospatial and statistical techniques, were utilized to address the main research question focused on the spatial differences and relationships between non-adult and adult burials. There are missing children in the archeological record. Tell el-Far'ah (South) is an example of this phenomenon. Reasons vary from taphonomy to potential infanticide. Based on the currently available data, it ...


A Method For Determining Damage Within Historic Cemeteries: A First Step For Digital Heritage, Justin E. Malcolm Jan 2018

A Method For Determining Damage Within Historic Cemeteries: A First Step For Digital Heritage, Justin E. Malcolm

Honors Undergraduate Theses

While it is true that historic cemeteries are places that contain a wealth of knowledge about the history of a community they are sometimes not well maintained. The information within can be lost as grave-markers are damaged either by natural causes or human interaction. In larger cemeteries preserving these significant places can sometimes be difficult due to a number of different factors. Therefore focusing preservation efforts on specific locations where damage is more likely to occur is crucial to ensure that the monuments that are the most at risk are preserved. One possible way of accomplishing this is through the ...


A Formal Study Of Applied Ancient Water Management Techniques In The Present Water Crisis, Jesann M. Gonzalez Cruz Jan 2017

A Formal Study Of Applied Ancient Water Management Techniques In The Present Water Crisis, Jesann M. Gonzalez Cruz

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Many areas of the world are experiencing the effects of the water crisis. The water crisis is a widespread phenomenon whereby many regions are experiencing a shortage of water, lacking access to clean potable water. This study uses existing literature to examine the ways in which the ecological knowledge of ancient civilizations can be applied to modern water management in attempt to address the current water crisis. The literature reviewed for this study, stemming from notable books and peer reviewed journals, were published between 1882 and the present year. As part of a purposive sample, the following civilizations were chosen ...


Archaeological Gis Analysis Of Raised Field Agriculture In The Bolivian Amazon, Thomas W. Lee Jan 2017

Archaeological Gis Analysis Of Raised Field Agriculture In The Bolivian Amazon, Thomas W. Lee

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Modern agricultural systems have been criticized for their detrimental effects on the environment and a general emphasis on crop yield rather than long-term sustainability. Traditional forms of agriculture may provide case-specific examples of sustainable alternatives for contemporary societies. In the seasonally inundated savannas of the Llanos de Mojos, pre-Columbian Indians piled earth into ‘large raised field platforms’ elevated high enough above the floodplain to allow crops to grow. Archaeological evidence indicates that raised field agriculture supported much larger populations than those found in the Beni today. The examination of satellite imagery has revealed more than 40,000 individual fields spread ...


Patterns In Dental Health: Investigating Dental Disease At The Archaeological Site Of Kuelap In Chachapoyas, Peru, Vu Tran Jan 2016

Patterns In Dental Health: Investigating Dental Disease At The Archaeological Site Of Kuelap In Chachapoyas, Peru, Vu Tran

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Social organization influences individual well-being and overall community health, which may lead to health disparities that manifest in teeth. The research in this thesis explores social variability by analyzing patterns in dental disease at the archaeological site of Kuelap in Chachapoyas, Peru. The ancient Chachapoya (AD 900-1535) were a complex society but the nature of that complexity is not well understood based on traditional archaeological correlates. Since burials at Kuelap lack grave goods that are often used to discriminate variation in social status or identity, bioarchaeological dental proxies were tested. The dental remains of 106 individuals (7 subadults, 54 adult ...


Bioarchaeological Investigations Of The Red House Archaeological Site, Port Of Spain, Trinidad: A Pre-Columbian, Mid-Late Ceramic Age Caribbean Population., Patrisha Meyers Jan 2016

Bioarchaeological Investigations Of The Red House Archaeological Site, Port Of Spain, Trinidad: A Pre-Columbian, Mid-Late Ceramic Age Caribbean Population., Patrisha Meyers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In 2013 structural assessments associated with ongoing renovations of the Red House, Trinidad and Tobago's Parliament building, revealed human remains buried beneath the foundation. Excavations and radiocarbon dating indicate the remains are pre-Columbian with 14C dates ranging between approximately AD 125 and AD 1395. Due to the small overall sample size and the inability to attribute all individuals to a specific Amerindian period, the skeletal sample was considered as an aggregate. A bioarchaeological assessment of excavated graves and associated human skeletal material was conducted to determine the demographic profile and the pathological conditions exhibited by the collective skeletal 'population ...


The Crypt People From The Cathedral Basilica Of Saints Stanislaus And Vladislaus, Vilnius, Lithuania: Reconstruction Of Life Histories Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Kaylee Schotten Jan 2015

The Crypt People From The Cathedral Basilica Of Saints Stanislaus And Vladislaus, Vilnius, Lithuania: Reconstruction Of Life Histories Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Kaylee Schotten

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stable isotope analyses of multiple tissue types have been used to reconstruct life histories of individuals from past populations. This thesis presents the life history reconstructions of a unique population recovered from a 16th to 18th century cathedral crypt located in Vilnius, Lithuania. The sample consists of 23 individuals (21 males, one possible female, and one juvenile). Stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope analyses were performed on bone and dentin collagen, and on bone and enamel hydroxyapatite, resulting in eight isotope values per individual, providing both childhood and adult dietary and migration information. For bone collagen the average δ13C isotope ...


Practical Use Of Ground Penetrating Radar: A Survey Of Coastal Historic Cemeteries In Brevard County, Florida, William Boynton Jan 2015

Practical Use Of Ground Penetrating Radar: A Survey Of Coastal Historic Cemeteries In Brevard County, Florida, William Boynton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) research conducted in coastal environments is one area that is lacking in archaeology. Surveys conducted in this type of environment afford the opportunity to evaluate the practical use GPR under field conditions. Coastal environments are effective for this evaluation because they offer a host of conditions that GPR surveys do not normally encounter at one time. The relationship of the land to the coast, sub-surface conditions and reliable survey areas create a "perfect storm" to test how practical the use of GPR is in coastal environments. This research is a study of homestead cemeteries situated within ...


Settlement History And Interaction In The Manialtepec Basin Of Oaxaca's Central Coast, Victoria Menchaca Jan 2015

Settlement History And Interaction In The Manialtepec Basin Of Oaxaca's Central Coast, Victoria Menchaca

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As the focus of over 70 years* of archaeological research, Oaxaca, Mexico, is one of Mesoamerica*s best understood regions. Yet, despite the volume of work in Oaxaca, information about one of its key resource areas, the central Pacific coast, remains limited. Specifically, the ambiguous role of Oaxaca*s Central Coast in interregional relationships during pre-Hispanic times to the sites of Monte Alban and Tututepec has been a chronic problem and major source of debate for decades. The purpose of this thesis is to begin clarifying the role of Oaxaca*s Central Coast in interregional networks and its pre-Hispanic history ...


Community Identity And The Archaeological Complex Of Túcume, Perú: A Synthesis Of Cranial And Dental Nonmetric Variation, Wesley Garrett Jan 2015

Community Identity And The Archaeological Complex Of Túcume, Perú: A Synthesis Of Cranial And Dental Nonmetric Variation, Wesley Garrett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The archaeological complex of Túcume was once a regional center of political and religious importance on the north coast of Perú (ca. AD 1000-1532). Previous research into the identity of the individuals interred at the site has yielded conflicting results. Within this intrasite biodistance analysis, community identity as reflected in the cranial and dental nonmetric variation and burial patterns is examined. This research also addresses methodological issues in nonmetric biodistance studies by examining the utility of combining cranial and dental nonmetric datasets. The sample examined (n=161) includes male and female crania from five distinct burial locations within Túcume. Gower ...


An Examination Of The Progression Of Fracture Propagation In Long Bones During The Postmortem Period In Central Florida, Ashley Green Jan 2015

An Examination Of The Progression Of Fracture Propagation In Long Bones During The Postmortem Period In Central Florida, Ashley Green

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The forensic anthropologist is often tasked with analyzing skeletal trauma and determining time since death. Differentiating between perimortem and postmortem fractures can be difficult when bone retains fresh characteristics in the postmortem interval. As a result, it is important to conduct research that investigates timing of injury in the postmortem period by observing fracture characteristics created at known postmortem intervals. Investigation into the timing of injury was undertaken in this study over a four month time period. By fracturing bones using a custom impact device, specific morphological characteristics that are typically used in trauma analysis were created for analysis. Long ...


Evaluation Of A Field Histology Technique And Its Use In Histological Analyses Of Mummified Tissues From Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt, Jennifer Branson Jan 2013

Evaluation Of A Field Histology Technique And Its Use In Histological Analyses Of Mummified Tissues From Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt, Jennifer Branson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Use of paleohistology to identify histological structures in mummified tissues can allow insight into pathological conditions such as parasites, cirrhosis and lung scarring. However, increasing concerns in archaeological sciences include restrictions on removal of human remains from their site of origin for scientific study. In the case of mummified remains, the use of a field paleohistology kit may be deemed useful for ‘point-of-care’ pathological assessment of preserved tissues. This study evaluates field paleohistology protocols for mummified soft tissue based on techniques used modern medical field missions. The application of this technique alleviates the need for export or removal of remains ...


Which Way To The Jook Joint?: Historical Archaeology Of A Polk County, Florida Turpentine Camp, Deborah Ziel Jan 2013

Which Way To The Jook Joint?: Historical Archaeology Of A Polk County, Florida Turpentine Camp, Deborah Ziel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The extraction and distillation of pine sap for the naval stores industry reached its apex of production in the early decades of the twentieth century. Post-emancipation, the industry employed African American labor in the long leaf pine forests of the southeastern United States under a system of debt peonage that replaced the master-slave dynamic with a similar circumscriptive construct. Laborers rented company housing and were paid in scrip, a monetary system that limited their purchase of the basic goods of subsistence to the company commissary at inflated prices, resulting in an endless cycle of debt. Despite the oppressive circumstances of ...


Reevaluating The Late Classic Lu-Bat Glyphic Phrase: The Artist And The Underworld, Patrick Carroll Jan 2013

Reevaluating The Late Classic Lu-Bat Glyphic Phrase: The Artist And The Underworld, Patrick Carroll

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The study of hieroglyphic texts is vital to the interpretation of the ancient Maya and how their worldview contributed to their daily lives. Hieroglyphic decipherment has been an arduous undertaking and a wide variety of the Late Classic Maya writing styles has also been documented. When specific hieroglyphic phrases are not fully understood it has been necessary to utilize other sources of information to help increase the understanding of these texts. The “lubat” glyphic phrase has been utilized in multiple mediums throughout the Late Classic period and is described as an artist’s signature. This artist signature is directly related ...


Hidden Earthworks In The Forests Of The Bolivian Amazon, John H. Walker Jul 2012

Hidden Earthworks In The Forests Of The Bolivian Amazon, John H. Walker

ProSIGAB Documents

No abstract provided.


Stable Isotopes And Multiple Tissue Analysis: Reconstructing Life Histories For Individuals From Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt, Noel Johns Jan 2012

Stable Isotopes And Multiple Tissue Analysis: Reconstructing Life Histories For Individuals From Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt, Noel Johns

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stable isotope analysis is often used to evaluate elements of the lives of past peoples, such as diet and health status, at a societal level. Analysis at an individual level is exceptionally rare, and has not been conducted using a variety of tissues representing both early life and life approximate to death. In this study, δ 13C and δ15N isotope signatures are used to create life histories for single individuals from Romano-Christian period Kellis 2 cemetery in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. Samples are obtained from several different tissues, including tooth dentin, bone collagen, hair, nail, skin, and gut content, all ...


The Foods And Crops Of The Muisca: A Dietary Reconstruction Of The Intermediate Chiefdoms Of Bogota (Bacata) And Tunja (Hunza), Colombia, Jorge Luis Garcia Jan 2012

The Foods And Crops Of The Muisca: A Dietary Reconstruction Of The Intermediate Chiefdoms Of Bogota (Bacata) And Tunja (Hunza), Colombia, Jorge Luis Garcia

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Muisca people of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia had an exceptionally complex diet, which is the result of specific subsistence strategies, environmental advantages, and social restrictions. The distinct varieties of microclimates, caused by the sharp elevations in this part of the Andes, allows for a great biodiversity of plants and animals that was accessible to the native population. The crops of domesticated and adopted plants of the Muisca include a wide variety of tubers, cereals, fruits, and leaves that are described in detail in this thesis. The Muisca used an agricultural method known as microverticality where the different thermic ...


Detecting Submerged Remains: Controlled Research Using Side-Scan Sonar To Detect Proxy Cadavers, Carrie Healy Jan 2012

Detecting Submerged Remains: Controlled Research Using Side-Scan Sonar To Detect Proxy Cadavers, Carrie Healy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While side-scan sonar has become a valuable geophysical tool for forensic water searches, controlled research is paramount to determine the best practices for searches in aquatic environments as it provides a structured environment in which to investigate variables that influence the effectiveness of the technology and provides valuable experience for sonar operators. The purpose of this research is to conduct controlled research in order to evaluate the applicability of side-scan sonar to searches involving submerged firearms and proxy cadavers. In addition, the best practices for employing this technology in forensic searches in freshwater ponds and lakes in a humid, subtropical ...


Integrating Differential Global Positioning Systems And Geographic Information Systems For Analysis And Mapping Of Skeletal Dispersals, Brittany Walter Jan 2012

Integrating Differential Global Positioning Systems And Geographic Information Systems For Analysis And Mapping Of Skeletal Dispersals, Brittany Walter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Scene mapping is an integral part of processing a forensic scene with scattered human remains. By utilizing the appropriate mapping technique, investigators can accurately document the location of human remains and maintain a precise geospatial record of this evidence at a scene. Global positioning system (GPS) units have been used for years to survey the spatial distribution of large-scale archaeological sites. However, differential global positioning (DGPS) unit now provide decreased positional error suitable for small-scale surveys, such as forensic scenes. Because of the lack of knowledge concerning this utility in mapping a scene, controlled research is necessary to determine the ...


Maize And Stone A Functional Analysis Of The Manos And Metates Of Santa Rita Corozal, Belize, Lisa Glynns Duffy Jan 2011

Maize And Stone A Functional Analysis Of The Manos And Metates Of Santa Rita Corozal, Belize, Lisa Glynns Duffy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The manos and metates of Santa Rita Corozal, Belize are analyzed to compare traditional maize-grinding types to the overall assemblage. A reciprocal, back-and-forth grinding motion is the most efficient way to process large amounts of maize. However, rotary movements are also associated with some ground stone implements. The number of flat and trough metates and two handed manos are compared to the rotary-motion basin and concave type metates and one-handed manos to determine predominance and distribution. Flat is the predominant type and, together with the trough type, these grinding stones make up the majority of metates at the site. Manos ...


Fish From Afar Marine Resource Use At Caracol, Belize, Smith Petra Cunningham Jan 2011

Fish From Afar Marine Resource Use At Caracol, Belize, Smith Petra Cunningham

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The ancient Maya had strong ties to the sea. The trade, transportation and use of marine resources were important not only to coastal Maya communities, but also to the heavily populated cities that lay many miles inland. A review of zooarchaeological evidence recovered from excavations at the inland site of Caracol, Belize suggests that the inhabitants imported marine fish for food, marine shell for working into trade items, and sharks teeth and stingray spines for ritual use. This thesis examines the manner in which fish and other marine resources were used, procured and transported from the coast to the site ...