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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Ethnohistory Of Freshwater Use On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Sean W. Hixon, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt Jun 2019

The Ethnohistory Of Freshwater Use On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Sean W. Hixon, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Sources of drinking water on islands often present critical constraints to human habitation. On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), there is remarkably little surface fresh water due to the nature of the island’s volcanic geology. While several lakes exist in volcanic craters, most rainwater quickly passes into the subsurface and emerges at coastal springs. Nevertheless, the island sustained a relatively large human population for hundreds of years, one that built an impressive array of monumental platforms (ahu) and statues (moai). To understand how Rapanui acquired their scarce fresh water, we review ethnohistoric data from first European arrival (1722) through ...


Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Monument (Ahu) Locations Explained By Freshwater Sources, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Tanya Brosnan, Terry L. Hunt, Sean W. Hixon, Alex E. Morrison, Matthew Becker Jan 2019

Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Monument (Ahu) Locations Explained By Freshwater Sources, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Tanya Brosnan, Terry L. Hunt, Sean W. Hixon, Alex E. Morrison, Matthew Becker

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Explaining the processes underlying the emergence of monument construction is a major theme in contemporary anthropological archaeology, and recent studies have employed spatially-explicit modeling to explain these patterns. Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) is famous for its elaborate ritual architecture, particularly numerous monumental platforms (ahu) and statuary (moai). To date, however, we lack explicit modeling to explain spatial and temporal aspects of monument construction. Here, we use spatially-explicit point-process modeling to explore the potential relations between ahu construction locations and subsis- tence resources, namely, rock mulch agricultural gardens, marine resources, and freshwa- ter sources—the three most critical resources on ...


Automated Mound Detection Using Lidar And Object-Based Image Analysis In Beaufort County, Sc, Carl P. Lipo, Matt Sanger, Dylan Davis Jun 2018

Automated Mound Detection Using Lidar And Object-Based Image Analysis In Beaufort County, Sc, Carl P. Lipo, Matt Sanger, Dylan Davis

Anthropology Datasets

The study of prehistoric anthropogenic mounded features– earthen mounds, shell heaps, and shell rings – in the American Southeast is stymied by the spotty distribution of systematic surveys across the region. Many extant, yet unidentified, archaeological mound features continue to evade detection due to the heavily forested canopies that occupy large areas of the region, making pedestrian surveys difficult and preventing aerial observation. The use of object-based image analysis (OBIA) as a tool for analysing light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, however, offers an inexpensive opportunity to address this challenge. Using publicly available LiDAR data from Beaufort County, South Carolina and ...


The Moai Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt Jun 2018

The Moai Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

The current database for the moai of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile).


The Shape Of Diversity: A Morphometric Analysis Of Late Archaic Bifaces From Lamoka Lake, Samuel M. Bourcy Jan 2018

The Shape Of Diversity: A Morphometric Analysis Of Late Archaic Bifaces From Lamoka Lake, Samuel M. Bourcy

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

The general assumption of Late Archaic peoples in the Northeast is that they were one homogeneous culture group, but through the study of Lamoka Lake bifaces found at the Lamoka Lake Site, as well as applying the concepts of community of practice, I have shown that tool shape variation could indicate distinct social groups. Using computer software to digitally outline bifaces I compared the shape of over 400 bifaces from Lamoka Lake and statistically analyzed their morphologies in order to provide material correlates of social diversity. Whether this morphological variation is representative of the conscious or unconscious design choices made ...


Indigenous Pottery From Sonora, Mexico: Examining Typologies And Spatial Distribution, Hunter M. Claypatch Jan 2018

Indigenous Pottery From Sonora, Mexico: Examining Typologies And Spatial Distribution, Hunter M. Claypatch

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

A wealth of archaeological surveys and excavations has been conducted in Sonora, Mexico within the past century. Despite the establishment of Centro INAH Sonora, and numerous binational projects, little attempt has been made to synthesize the state’s growing literature. This thesis provides the first detailed study of indigenous ceramics from Sonora, Mexico. Archaeological projects within Sonora have been bifurcated by nation-state boundaries and divergent academic schooling—both possessing their own distinct research goals and methodologies. On a pragmatic level, a synthesis of prehistoric and protohistoric Sonoran pottery is necessary to establish a methodological consensus for classifications and typologies. On ...


Diet Of The Prehistoric Population Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) Shows Environmental Adaptation And Resilience, Catrine L. Jarmine, Thomas Larsen, Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp Jun 2017

Diet Of The Prehistoric Population Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) Shows Environmental Adaptation And Resilience, Catrine L. Jarmine, Thomas Larsen, Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Objectives: The Rapa Nui “ecocide” narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources.

Materials and methods: Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analy- ses and amino acid ...


Resource Scarcity And Monumental Architecture: Cost Signaling On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Chile, Dylan Davis, Carl P. Lipo Apr 2017

Resource Scarcity And Monumental Architecture: Cost Signaling On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Chile, Dylan Davis, Carl P. Lipo

Research Days Student Posters

Costly signaling theory (CST) explains a variety of elaborate behavioral displays as a consequence of competition over resources when the risk of direct conflict is high. Within an archaeological context, monumental architecture is potentially explained as a facet of costly signaling between individuals and groups. On Rapa Nui, CST offers an explanation for the construction of labor-intensive monuments including massive statues (moai) and ceremonial platforms (ahu). Using hypotheses derived from CST and spatial data about the distribution of archaeological features, the degree to which CST accounts for the investment in prehistoric monumental architecture on Rapu Nui is evaluated.


Wagons, Trains, Trucks, And Bottles: Transportation Networks And Commodity Access In Castroville, Texas, Kellam Throgmorton Jan 2017

Wagons, Trains, Trucks, And Bottles: Transportation Networks And Commodity Access In Castroville, Texas, Kellam Throgmorton

Anthropology Student Scholarship

The premise of this paper is that changing modes of transportation significantly affected how residents of Castroville, Texas, acquired commodities, which in turn influenced how they expressed particular ethnic, regional, and class identities through consumption. Castroville residents lived (and continue to live) within a broader world system of commodity exchange. As we strive to understand how identities are reflected in and co-created through the objects we surround ourselves with, it is important to remember that economic relations that extend well beyond the local can structure a community’s access to commodities. Geographic space becomes a meaningful variable when we think ...


Using Structure From Motion Mapping To Record And Analyze Details Of The Colossal Hats (Pukao) Of Monumental Statues On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Sean W. Hixon, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt, Christopher Lee Jan 2017

Using Structure From Motion Mapping To Record And Analyze Details Of The Colossal Hats (Pukao) Of Monumental Statues On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Sean W. Hixon, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt, Christopher Lee

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Structure from motion (SfM) mapping is a photogrammetric technique that offers a cost-effective means of creating three-dimensional (3-D) visual representations from overlapping digital photographs. The technique is now used more frequently to document the archaeological record. We demonstrate the utility of SfM by studying red scoria bodies known as pukao from Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile). We created 3-D images of 50 pukao that once adorned the massive statues (moai) of Rapa Nui and compare them to 13 additional pukao located in Puna Pau, the island’s red scoria pukao quarry. Through SfM, we demonstrate that the majority of these ...


Book Review: Archaeology Of The War Of 1812, Ed. By Michael T. Lucas And Julie M. Schablitsky, Joseph H. Last Jun 2015

Book Review: Archaeology Of The War Of 1812, Ed. By Michael T. Lucas And Julie M. Schablitsky, Joseph H. Last

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Archaeology of the War of 1812, ed. By Michael T. Lucas and Julie M. Schablitsky, 2014, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, 337 pp., 15 chapters with bibliographies, 52 figures, 10 tables, index, $79.00 (cloth).


Book Review: Historical Archaeology Of The Delaware Valley, 1600–1850, Ed. By Richard F. Veit And David Orr, Lu Ann De Cunzo Jun 2015

Book Review: Historical Archaeology Of The Delaware Valley, 1600–1850, Ed. By Richard F. Veit And David Orr, Lu Ann De Cunzo

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Historical Archaeology of the Delaware Valley, 1600–1850, ed. By Richard F. Veit and David Orr, 2014, University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, $54.95 (cloth).


Book Review: The Archaeology Of American Cemeteries And Gravemarkers, By Sherene Baugher And Richard F. Veit, Timothy B. Riordan Jun 2015

Book Review: The Archaeology Of American Cemeteries And Gravemarkers, By Sherene Baugher And Richard F. Veit, Timothy B. Riordan

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Archaeology of American Cemeteries and Gravemarkers, by Sherene Baugher and Richard F. Veit, 2014, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 254 pages, 40 black-and-white figures, references, $69.95 (cloth).


Gunflints And Musket Balls: Implications For The Occupational History Of The Eaton Site And The Niagara Frontier, Michael Roets, William Engelbrecht, John D. Holland Jun 2015

Gunflints And Musket Balls: Implications For The Occupational History Of The Eaton Site And The Niagara Frontier, Michael Roets, William Engelbrecht, John D. Holland

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The multicomponent Eaton site in West Seneca, New York, was the focus of a long-term archaeological project. While the major emphasis was the excavation of a mid-16th-century Iroquoian village, all artifacts are being analyzed. These include 12 gunflints and 8 musket balls deposited at some point after the abandonment of the Iroquoian village. This article describes these objects, their distribution and dating, and the implications of these artifacts for the history of the site and the region.


Continuity Of Lithic Practice From The Eighteenth To The Nineteenth Centuries At The Nipmuc Homestead Of Sarah Boston, Grafton, Massachusetts, Joseph M. Bagley, Stephen Mrozowski, Heather Law Pezzarossi, John Steinberg Jun 2015

Continuity Of Lithic Practice From The Eighteenth To The Nineteenth Centuries At The Nipmuc Homestead Of Sarah Boston, Grafton, Massachusetts, Joseph M. Bagley, Stephen Mrozowski, Heather Law Pezzarossi, John Steinberg

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Stone tools have been found at all Nipmuc-related house sites in central Massachusetts dating from the 17th through 20th centuries. This article explores in detail the lithic assemblage recovered from the kitchen midden of the late 18th and early 19th century Sarah Burnee/Sarah Boston farmstead in Grafton, Massachusetts. Quartz and quartzite lithics were found in similar concentrations as historic ceramics within the midden suggesting that these tools were in active use within the household. Ground-stone tools of ancient origin indicate curation and reuse of older materials, and knapped glass and re-worked gunflints suggest knowledge of flintknapping. This article argues ...


Dating Methods And Techniques At The John Hallowes Site (44wm6): A Seventeenth-Century Example, Lauren K. Mcmillan, D. Brad Hatch, Barbara J. Heath Jun 2015

Dating Methods And Techniques At The John Hallowes Site (44wm6): A Seventeenth-Century Example, Lauren K. Mcmillan, D. Brad Hatch, Barbara J. Heath

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The John Hallowes site (44WM6) in Westmoreland County, Virginia, was excavated between July 1968 and August 1969. No report of the excavations was completed at that time, although an article summarizing the findings was published in Historical Archaeology in 1971, dating the site’s occupation to the period from the 1680s to 1716. From 2010 to 2012, a systematic reanalysis of the site, features, history, and artifacts was conducted by archaeologists at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Benefiting from nearly 40 years of advances in Chesapeake archaeology, the reanalysis has challenged accepted dates for the site’s occupation, which is ...


The Seal Cove Shipwreck Project: Investigating An Historical Wooden Vessel On Mount Desert Island, Maine, Franklin H. Price, Stephen Dilk, Baylus C. Brooks Jr. Jun 2015

The Seal Cove Shipwreck Project: Investigating An Historical Wooden Vessel On Mount Desert Island, Maine, Franklin H. Price, Stephen Dilk, Baylus C. Brooks Jr.

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Two one-week field projects, carried out during the summers of 2011 and 2012, investigated an historical wooden shipwreck in the intertidal zone on the western side of Mount Desert Island, Maine. Salvage, tide, ice, and other environmental forces have reduced the wreck to a keel, frames, and outer hull planking. Despite this, some observations can be made from the limited surviving evidence. The vessel appears to have been heavily-built, with a full-bodied hull, and constructed in the mid to late 19th century. Its location, hull, and the wood shavings and brick chips found between its timbers suggest that it may ...


A Family Affair: Whaling As Native American Household Strategy On Eastern Long Island, New York, Emily Button Jun 2015

A Family Affair: Whaling As Native American Household Strategy On Eastern Long Island, New York, Emily Button

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Nineteenth-century Native Americans from the northeastern United States became locally famous as mariners in the commercial whaling fleet. In the struggle to protect their small land bases and maintain their communities, going to sea became part of household practices for cultural and economic survival. From approximately 1800 through 1880, indigenous whaling families from Long Island used wages from commercial whaling to combat the limitations of land, credit, and capital that they faced on and off reservations. Whaling’s opportunities supported household formation and property accumulation among Shinnecock and Montaukett people for three generations, but whaling’s instability and risk meant ...


Reservation Subsistence: A Comparative Paleoethnobotanical Analysis Of A Mashantucket Pequot And Euro-American Household, William A. Farley Jun 2015

Reservation Subsistence: A Comparative Paleoethnobotanical Analysis Of A Mashantucket Pequot And Euro-American Household, William A. Farley

Northeast Historical Archaeology

In southeastern Connecticut in the 19th century, many Native Americans resided on reservations in close proximity to European American communities. The Mashantucket Pequot, who lived on a government controlled reservation during this period, and their European American neighbors both utilized forestland resources in their subsistence strategies. This article explores the subsistence strategies of both groups and interprets the importance of the reservation to indigenous-identity maintenance.


“New Bottles Made With My Crest”: Colonial Bottle Seals From Eastern North America, A Gazetteer And Interpretation, Richard Veit, Paul R. Huey Jun 2015

“New Bottles Made With My Crest”: Colonial Bottle Seals From Eastern North America, A Gazetteer And Interpretation, Richard Veit, Paul R. Huey

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Bottle seals or crests are one of the more intriguing categories of artifacts recovered from historic archaeological sites. These small blobs of glass were applied to the necks or shoulders of bottles. They were embossed with initials, shields, and other insignia. They bear dates, as well as the initials and names of individuals and families, taverns, vineyards, schools, retailers, and military units. Archaeologists seriating blown glass bottles from colonial sites in North America have employed them as important dating tools. They have also been interpreted as status markers. This paper provides a gazetteer of bottles with seals from eastern North ...


“An Earthly Tabernacle”: English Land Use And Town Planning In Seventeenth-Century Woodbridge, New Jersey, Michael J. Gall Jun 2015

“An Earthly Tabernacle”: English Land Use And Town Planning In Seventeenth-Century Woodbridge, New Jersey, Michael J. Gall

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The archaeology of townscapes can provide important information about cultural development and the transfer of settlement systems. This close examination of 17th-century settlement in northeastern New Jersey focuses on Woodbridge Township, Middlesex County, between 1669 and 1676. The study highlights the complexity of early colonial settlement systems in East Jersey and also examines the ways in which experimentation with Old World– and New England–style corporation settlement models; strong desires for land accumulation, power, and wealth; inheritance practices; and religion influenced English townscape development within northeastern New Jersey. The aspects outlined herein likely influenced the creation of other township-corporation settlements ...


Hier Leydt Begraven: A Primer On Dutch Colonial Gravestones, Brandon Richards Jun 2015

Hier Leydt Begraven: A Primer On Dutch Colonial Gravestones, Brandon Richards

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Although colonial Dutch gravestones appear in the archaeological record decades later than English gravestones, evidence suggests that New Netherland colonists and their descendants knew of and used grave markers prior to the 1664 conquest by the English. Various factors, such as development pressures, neglect, misidentification, and the likelihood that many were made of wood, have all contributed to the loss of the earliest markers. The oldest surviving colonial Dutch gravestones date between 1690 and 1720, with the most common types being the trapezoidal, tablet, and plank- and post-like forms. It is highly likely that these types are a legacy of ...


Editor's Introduction, Susan Maguire Jun 2015

Editor's Introduction, Susan Maguire

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Editor's introduction to the volume.


Awards For Excellence In Service Feb 2015

Awards For Excellence In Service

Northeast Historical Archaeology

2003, 2007, 2008, and 2011 award recipients for the Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology's Award for Excellence in Service.


Arqueología Crítica Y Praxis [Critical Archaeology And Praxis], Randall H. Mcguire Jan 2015

Arqueología Crítica Y Praxis [Critical Archaeology And Praxis], Randall H. Mcguire

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

La Arqueología se ha utilizado tradicionalmente para apoyar al poder en las arenas de lucha por la economía, las ideologías, las identidades y la política. La arqueología puede ser una forma de praxis para ayudar a crear un mundo más humano, una vez que los arqueólogos se convierten en más que “simples oradores”. La gran mayoría de los arqueólogos practica su arte para obtener el conocimiento del mundo. Varios arqueólogos han tratado de criticar al mundo y el lugar de la arqueología en el mismo. Muy pocos han entrado completamente en la dialéctica de la praxis y han construido una ...


Ceramics Of Aztec North And The Terrace Community, Aztec Ruins National Monument, Michelle I. Turner Jan 2015

Ceramics Of Aztec North And The Terrace Community, Aztec Ruins National Monument, Michelle I. Turner

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

This study reports on a ceramic analysis of nearly 1500 surface-collected potsherds from five unexcavated sites on the river terrace at Aztec Ruins National Monument, including the Aztec North great house. I conducted a detailed attribute analysis and mean ceramic dating.

The mean ceramic date for Aztec North is AD 1104±39, while other terrace sites have later mean dates. Based on these dates, it appears that Aztec North was constructed before or contemporaneously with Aztec West, and it might have been the first structure in the Terrace Community. These data support the theory that, even at this earliest moment ...


Feasting On Broken Glass: Making A Meal Of Seeds, Bones, And Sherds, Mary C. Beaudry Aug 2014

Feasting On Broken Glass: Making A Meal Of Seeds, Bones, And Sherds, Mary C. Beaudry

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Drawing on various lines of evidence that provide insight into late 18th- and early 19th-century episodes of dining at the Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm in Newbury, Massachusetts, I explore ways in which historical archaeologists can move from discussions of food and foodstuffs to explore menus, meals, and dining. I argue that by drawing together many lines of evidence—food remains such as bones, seeds, and shells; documentary sources; and ceramics, glassware, and utensils—archaeologists are able to “feast” upon the evidence and to go beyond merely reporting on what people ate in the past. They do so by exploring ways of interpreting ...


Modeling Communities Through Food: Connecting The Daily Meal To The Construction Of Place And Identity, Karen Bescherer Metheny Aug 2014

Modeling Communities Through Food: Connecting The Daily Meal To The Construction Of Place And Identity, Karen Bescherer Metheny

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Foodways are an aspect of community building that find expression in the physical and cultural landscape. Using family reconstitution, food maps, and other archaeological and anthropological approaches to study foodways and commensality in the mining town of Helvetia, Pennsylvania (ca. 1891–1947), I lay out a program to reconstruct the spatial relationships associated with food procurement, preparation, and consumption in historic-period communities. Particular emphasis is placed on food sharing and shared food activities in the context of the daily meal. These reconstructed relationships or food connections reflect the varied networks and boundaries within the community, based on ethnicity, gender, age ...


Applying Concepts From Historical Archaeology To New England's Nineteenth-Century Cookbooks, Anne Yentsch Aug 2014

Applying Concepts From Historical Archaeology To New England's Nineteenth-Century Cookbooks, Anne Yentsch

Northeast Historical Archaeology

This article describes a study of New England cookbooks as a data source for historical archaeologists. The database for this research consisted of single-authored, first-edition cookbooks written by New England women between 1800 and 1900, together with a small set of community cookbooks and newspaper advertisements. The study was based on the belief that recipes are equivalent to artifact assemblages and can be analyzed using the archaeological methods of seriation, presence/absence, and chaîne opératoire. The goal was to see whether change through time could be traced within a region, and why change occurred; whether it was an archetypal shift ...


Decline In The Use And Production Of Red-Earthenware Cooking Vessels In The Northeast, 1780-1880, Meta F. Janowitz Aug 2014

Decline In The Use And Production Of Red-Earthenware Cooking Vessels In The Northeast, 1780-1880, Meta F. Janowitz

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Ceramic collections from archaeological sites dating to and before the early 19th century are often dominated by red-earthenware vessels used in the foodways complex. By the late 19th century, redware vessels are much less common in New England and the Middle Atlantic region. This decline in the use and production of red earthenwares has many causes, including decreased costs of alternative materials (stoneware, refined earthenware, metal, and glass) and an awareness of the harmful effects of lead glazes, but the most important factor is the change in food-preparation technology from open-hearth to stove cooking.