Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 413

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Identity In The Late Woodland Northeast: Interpreting Communities Of Practice From Paste Composition At The Thomas/Luckey And The Losey 3 Sites, Douglas S. Riethmuller Aug 2020

Identity In The Late Woodland Northeast: Interpreting Communities Of Practice From Paste Composition At The Thomas/Luckey And The Losey 3 Sites, Douglas S. Riethmuller

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

Thomas/Luckey’s 13th -15th and Losey 3’s 14th-17th century occupations in the Late Woodland Northeast contain assemblages with incongruous regional pottery types; Kelso Corded and an assumed non-local Shenks Ferry. I argue the presence of Shenks Ferry vessels at these two sites indicates the movement of people who reproduced their natal designs upon arrival, rather than trade. The question of whether identity and communities of practice can be discerned from pottery decorations and paste was answered by analyzing sherds with pXRF. While pottery types are based on visual attributes, pXRF looks at elemental composition. Decoration is mimicable, but ...


The Temporal Relevance Of Scraping And Polishing Of Trincheras Pottery Sherds In The Alter Valley, Sonora, México, Eta Pastreich Apr 2020

The Temporal Relevance Of Scraping And Polishing Of Trincheras Pottery Sherds In The Alter Valley, Sonora, México, Eta Pastreich

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis focuses on the classification of Trincheras plainware pottery. Trincheras plainware ceramics classifications and their applications have been reexamined in recent years due to an expansion of research. My participation in laboratory research of recently excavated Trincheras pottery was conducted during the 2018 field season of Proyecto Tradicíon Trincheras- in Sonora, México. This project was led by Randall McGuire and Elisa Villalpando. I organized two preliminary studies on ceramics from the Sonoran sites of La Potranca (SON:F:2:4) and San Martin (SON:F:2:82). This paper attempts to illustrate the chronological and typological relevance of scraping ...


Good Governance Of The Commons Of Rapa Nui: Present And Past, Pamela A. Mischen, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt Jan 2020

Good Governance Of The Commons Of Rapa Nui: Present And Past, Pamela A. Mischen, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt

Anthropology Datasets

Sustainable communities on Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) — whether in the past or present— require good governance of shared and common pool resources. Whether managing communal land needed for cultivation, ground water, stones for tools, fishing grounds, cultural heritage, or tourism, governance structures must balance individual interests with the common needs of the community. Much of the recent history of the island has been dominated by government structures that were imposed by Chilean authorities. Recently, however, much of the island’s cultural heritage has been turned over to local native governance. This shift has challenges due to the complex contemporary ...


The Integration Of Lidar And Legacy Datasets Provides Improved Explanations For The Spatial Patterning Of Shell Rings In The American Southeast, Dylan S. Davis, Robert Dinapoli, Matthew Sanger, Carl Lipo Jan 2020

The Integration Of Lidar And Legacy Datasets Provides Improved Explanations For The Spatial Patterning Of Shell Rings In The American Southeast, Dylan S. Davis, Robert Dinapoli, Matthew Sanger, Carl Lipo

Anthropology Datasets

Archaeologists have struggled to combine remotely sensed datasets with preexisting information for landscape-level analyses. In the American Southeast, for example, analyses of lidar data using automated feature extraction algorithms have led to the identification of over 40 potential new pre-European-contact Native American shell ring deposits in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Such datasets are vital for understanding settlement distributions, yet a comprehensive assessment requires remotely sensed and previously surveyed archaeological data. Here, we use legacy data and airborne lidar-derived information to conduct a series of point pattern analyses using spatial models that we designed to assess the factors that best explain ...


The Ethnohistory Of Freshwater Use On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Sean W. Hixon, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt Jun 2019

The Ethnohistory Of Freshwater Use On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), Sean W. Hixon, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Sources of drinking water on islands often present critical constraints to human habitation. On Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile), there is remarkably little surface fresh water due to the nature of the island’s volcanic geology. While several lakes exist in volcanic craters, most rainwater quickly passes into the subsurface and emerges at coastal springs. Nevertheless, the island sustained a relatively large human population for hundreds of years, one that built an impressive array of monumental platforms (ahu) and statues (moai). To understand how Rapanui acquired their scarce fresh water, we review ethnohistoric data from first European arrival (1722) through ...


Becoming Chacoan: The Archaeology Of The Aztec North Great House, Michelle I. Turner May 2019

Becoming Chacoan: The Archaeology Of The Aztec North Great House, Michelle I. Turner

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

Between 900 and 1140 CE, people at Chaco Canyon and throughout its region built multistory monumental structures with hundreds of rooms, known as great houses. This dissertation reports on recent archaeological testing on one such great house, the Aztec North great house at Aztec Ruins National Monument.

I argue that Aztec North’s occupation represents an early, transitional period, as people previously not involved in the Chaco world made choices that increasingly brought them into Chaco’s orbit and changed their way of life forever. The structure represents a remarkable architectural experiment in large-scale adobe construction, one that likely was ...


Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Monument (Ahu) Locations Explained By Freshwater Sources, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Tanya Brosnan, Terry L. Hunt, Sean W. Hixon, Alex E. Morrison, Matthew Becker Jan 2019

Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Monument (Ahu) Locations Explained By Freshwater Sources, Robert J. Dinapoli, Carl P. Lipo, Tanya Brosnan, Terry L. Hunt, Sean W. Hixon, Alex E. Morrison, Matthew Becker

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Explaining the processes underlying the emergence of monument construction is a major theme in contemporary anthropological archaeology, and recent studies have employed spatially-explicit modeling to explain these patterns. Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) is famous for its elaborate ritual architecture, particularly numerous monumental platforms (ahu) and statuary (moai). To date, however, we lack explicit modeling to explain spatial and temporal aspects of monument construction. Here, we use spatially-explicit point-process modeling to explore the potential relations between ahu construction locations and subsis- tence resources, namely, rock mulch agricultural gardens, marine resources, and freshwa- ter sources—the three most critical resources on ...


Automated Mound Detection Using Lidar And Object-Based Image Analysis In Beaufort County, Sc, Carl P. Lipo, Matt Sanger, Dylan Davis Jun 2018

Automated Mound Detection Using Lidar And Object-Based Image Analysis In Beaufort County, Sc, Carl P. Lipo, Matt Sanger, Dylan Davis

Anthropology Datasets

The study of prehistoric anthropogenic mounded features– earthen mounds, shell heaps, and shell rings – in the American Southeast is stymied by the spotty distribution of systematic surveys across the region. Many extant, yet unidentified, archaeological mound features continue to evade detection due to the heavily forested canopies that occupy large areas of the region, making pedestrian surveys difficult and preventing aerial observation. The use of object-based image analysis (OBIA) as a tool for analysing light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, however, offers an inexpensive opportunity to address this challenge. Using publicly available LiDAR data from Beaufort County, South Carolina and ...


The Moai Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt Jun 2018

The Moai Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Carl P. Lipo, Terry L. Hunt

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

The current database for the moai of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile).


The Shape Of Diversity: A Morphometric Analysis Of Late Archaic Bifaces From Lamoka Lake, Samuel M. Bourcy Jan 2018

The Shape Of Diversity: A Morphometric Analysis Of Late Archaic Bifaces From Lamoka Lake, Samuel M. Bourcy

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

The general assumption of Late Archaic peoples in the Northeast is that they were one homogeneous culture group, but through the study of Lamoka Lake bifaces found at the Lamoka Lake Site, as well as applying the concepts of community of practice, I have shown that tool shape variation could indicate distinct social groups. Using computer software to digitally outline bifaces I compared the shape of over 400 bifaces from Lamoka Lake and statistically analyzed their morphologies in order to provide material correlates of social diversity. Whether this morphological variation is representative of the conscious or unconscious design choices made ...


Indigenous Pottery From Sonora, Mexico: Examining Typologies And Spatial Distribution, Hunter M. Claypatch Jan 2018

Indigenous Pottery From Sonora, Mexico: Examining Typologies And Spatial Distribution, Hunter M. Claypatch

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

A wealth of archaeological surveys and excavations has been conducted in Sonora, Mexico within the past century. Despite the establishment of Centro INAH Sonora, and numerous binational projects, little attempt has been made to synthesize the state’s growing literature. This thesis provides the first detailed study of indigenous ceramics from Sonora, Mexico. Archaeological projects within Sonora have been bifurcated by nation-state boundaries and divergent academic schooling—both possessing their own distinct research goals and methodologies. On a pragmatic level, a synthesis of prehistoric and protohistoric Sonoran pottery is necessary to establish a methodological consensus for classifications and typologies. On ...


Diet Of The Prehistoric Population Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) Shows Environmental Adaptation And Resilience, Catrine L. Jarmine, Thomas Larsen, Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp Jun 2017

Diet Of The Prehistoric Population Of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) Shows Environmental Adaptation And Resilience, Catrine L. Jarmine, Thomas Larsen, Terry L. Hunt, Carl P. Lipo, Reidar Solsvik, Natalie Wallsgrove, Cassie Ka'apu-Lyons, Hilary G. Close, Brian N. Popp

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

Objectives: The Rapa Nui “ecocide” narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources.

Materials and methods: Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analy- ses and amino acid ...


Resource Scarcity And Monumental Architecture: Cost Signaling On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Chile, Dylan Davis, Carl P. Lipo Apr 2017

Resource Scarcity And Monumental Architecture: Cost Signaling On Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Chile, Dylan Davis, Carl P. Lipo

Research Days Student Posters 2016-2019

Costly signaling theory (CST) explains a variety of elaborate behavioral displays as a consequence of competition over resources when the risk of direct conflict is high. Within an archaeological context, monumental architecture is potentially explained as a facet of costly signaling between individuals and groups. On Rapa Nui, CST offers an explanation for the construction of labor-intensive monuments including massive statues (moai) and ceremonial platforms (ahu). Using hypotheses derived from CST and spatial data about the distribution of archaeological features, the degree to which CST accounts for the investment in prehistoric monumental architecture on Rapu Nui is evaluated.


Book Review: Ghost Walls: The Story Of A 17th-Century Colonial Homestead, By Sally M. Walker, Garry Wheeler Stone Feb 2017

Book Review: Ghost Walls: The Story Of A 17th-Century Colonial Homestead, By Sally M. Walker, Garry Wheeler Stone

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Ghost Walls: The Story of a 17th-Century Colonial Homestead, by Sally M. Walker, 2014, Carolrhoda Books, Lerner Publishing, Minneapolis, MN, 136 pages, 105 photographs, 18 drawings, $20.95 (cloth).


Book Review: A History Of Boston In 50 Artifacts, By Joseph M. Bagley, Patricia Samford Feb 2017

Book Review: A History Of Boston In 50 Artifacts, By Joseph M. Bagley, Patricia Samford

Northeast Historical Archaeology

A History of Boston in 50 Artifacts, by Joseph M. Bagley, 2016, University Press of New England, Hanover, NH, 232 pages, 153 color illustrations, references, and index, $24.95 (cloth), $21.99 (eBook).


Book Review: Eating In The Side Room: Food, Archaeology, And African American Identity, By Mark S. Warner, Stéphane Noël Feb 2017

Book Review: Eating In The Side Room: Food, Archaeology, And African American Identity, By Mark S. Warner, Stéphane Noël

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Eating in the Side Room: Food, Archaeology, and African American Identity, by Mark S. Warner, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 208 pages, black and white illustrations, references, index, $74.95 (cloth).


Book Review: Tobacco, Pipes, And Race In Colonial Virginia: Little Tubes Of Mighty Power, By Anna Agbe-Davies, Sara Rivers Cofield Feb 2017

Book Review: Tobacco, Pipes, And Race In Colonial Virginia: Little Tubes Of Mighty Power, By Anna Agbe-Davies, Sara Rivers Cofield

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Tobacco, Pipes, and Race in Colonial Virginia: Little Tubes of Mighty Power, by Anna Agbe-Davies, 2015, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA, 184 pages, $94.00 (cloth), $34.95 (paper and eBook).


Book Review: The Archaeology Of Race In The Northeast, Ed. By Christopher N. Matthews And Allison Manfra Mcgovern, Alexandra Chan Feb 2017

Book Review: The Archaeology Of Race In The Northeast, Ed. By Christopher N. Matthews And Allison Manfra Mcgovern, Alexandra Chan

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Archaeology of Race in the Northeast, ed. by Christopher N. Matthews and Allison Manfra McGovern, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainseville, 392 pages, $84.95 (cloth).


Book Review: Consumerism And The Emergence Of The Middle Class In Colonial America, By Christina J. Hodge, Stephen A. Brighton Feb 2017

Book Review: Consumerism And The Emergence Of The Middle Class In Colonial America, By Christina J. Hodge, Stephen A. Brighton

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Consumerism and the Emergence of the Middle Class in Colonial America, by Christina J. Hodge, 2014, Cambridge University Press, 247 pages, black and white figures, references, index, $95.00 (cloth), $88.00 (eBook).


Book Review: Everyday Religion: An Archaeology Of Protestant Belief And Practice In The Nineteenth Century, By Hadley Kruczek-Aaron, Christa M. Beranek Feb 2017

Book Review: Everyday Religion: An Archaeology Of Protestant Belief And Practice In The Nineteenth Century, By Hadley Kruczek-Aaron, Christa M. Beranek

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Everyday Religion: an Archaeology of Protestant Belief and Practice in the Nineteenth Century, by Hadley Kruczek-Aaron, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 237 pages, black and white figures, references, index, $79.95 (cloth).


Book Review: The Archaeology Of American Cities, By Nan A. Rothschild And Diana Dizerega Wall, Joseph Bagley Feb 2017

Book Review: The Archaeology Of American Cities, By Nan A. Rothschild And Diana Dizerega Wall, Joseph Bagley

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Archaeology of American Cities, by Nan A. Rothschild and Diana diZerega Wall, 2015, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, 250 pages, $69.95 (cloth), $21.95 (paper).


Archaeological Evidence For Trade In Harz Roller Canaries, Scott D. Stull Feb 2017

Archaeological Evidence For Trade In Harz Roller Canaries, Scott D. Stull

Northeast Historical Archaeology

A previously unidentified redware vessel has been determined to be a watering pot for a canary cage. This artifact represents an archaeologically recoverable element of the international trade in songbirds, with the birds shipped from Germany to the United States and elsewhere around the world.


Last Gap: The Construction, Operation, And Dissolution Of The Adirondack Iron And Steel Company’S “New Furnace”, David P. Staley Feb 2017

Last Gap: The Construction, Operation, And Dissolution Of The Adirondack Iron And Steel Company’S “New Furnace”, David P. Staley

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Isolation and historical circumstances have largely preserved the “New Furnace” at the Adirondack Iron & Steel Company’s Upper Works. An historical account suggested that the operational process at the facility would be clearly represented by an array of tools and debris. Daily activities at a blast furnace tend to obliterate much of the archaeologically observable behavioral evidence, and decades of visitors and vandalism have removed any tools abandoned after the last casting. Through the interpretation of sediments, stratigraphy, features, and under-utilized material culture, such as building materials, smelting raw materials, and slag, it is possible to reveal aspects of construction ...


Four Historical Landscapes Of The Merchant’S House Museum Backlot, Manhattan Island, New York, Identified Through Pollen Analysis, Gerald K. Kelso, Diana Dizerega Wall Feb 2017

Four Historical Landscapes Of The Merchant’S House Museum Backlot, Manhattan Island, New York, Identified Through Pollen Analysis, Gerald K. Kelso, Diana Dizerega Wall

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The Merchant’s House Museum is on Manhattan Island in New York City, at 29 East Fourth Street, between Lafayette Street and the Bowery. It is the sole, remaining, intact 19th-century family home in the city with original, period furnishings. An archaeological study of the Merchant’s House backyard was undertaken in 1991–1995 in conjunction with an historical-structure study of the house. This pollen analysis of a soil profile from a central parterre was part of the backlot study.


Sourcing A Stone Paver From The Colonial St. Inigoes Manor, Maryland, Marcus M. Key, Leslie P. Milliman, Michael A. Smolek, Silas D. Hurry Feb 2017

Sourcing A Stone Paver From The Colonial St. Inigoes Manor, Maryland, Marcus M. Key, Leslie P. Milliman, Michael A. Smolek, Silas D. Hurry

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The objective of this study is to determine the source of a limestone paver recovered from the colonial era Old Chapel Field archaeological site (18ST329-183) in St. Inigoes, Maryland. The site is in the Coastal Plain physiographic province, where there are no viable local sources of rock. As the site was a Jesuit manor, the primary hypothesis is that the stone came from England, the emigration origin point for the Maryland colonists. The secondary objective is to determine whether the stone paver was from the Jesuit Brick Chapel at St. Mary’s City (18ST1-103), reused after the chapel was torn ...


“The Science And Misteire Of Glazing”: Thoughts On The Use Of Marked Window Leads In Archaeological Analysis, Timothy B. Riordan Feb 2017

“The Science And Misteire Of Glazing”: Thoughts On The Use Of Marked Window Leads In Archaeological Analysis, Timothy B. Riordan

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Marked window leads have the potential to add significant insights to the understanding of archaeological sites. One of the few artifacts that commonly bears a date, window leads can provide a terminus post quem (TPQ) for the feature or level in which they are found. There have been attempts to go beyond their use as a TPQ, and, based on these artifacts, describe architectural sequences, structural changes, and do feature comparisons. While all of these have produced interesting results, their validity remains uncertain because of a lack of basic data on glaziers and vise makers. This study looks at the ...


Striking While The Iron Is Hot: Federal Period Rural Blacksmithing In Somerset County, New Jersey, Michael J. Gall Feb 2017

Striking While The Iron Is Hot: Federal Period Rural Blacksmithing In Somerset County, New Jersey, Michael J. Gall

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Blacksmith shops and the items they produced were once vital components of rural communities prior to the introduction of mass-produced merchandise during the late 19th century. This article focuses on the archaeology of an undocumented 1780s–1790s shop operated by Garret Voorhees, Jr., on his Middlebush Village farmstead in Franklin Township, Somerset County, New Jersey. Garret had earlier worked in his father’s shop, 1/2 mi. from his home, prior to and during the American Revolution. In 1777, Garret lost his home and farm buildings to British arson. Following the war’s end, circumstances suggest the 33-year old blacksmith ...


An Evaluation Of Tobacco Pipe Stem Dating Formulas, Lauren K. Mcmillan Feb 2017

An Evaluation Of Tobacco Pipe Stem Dating Formulas, Lauren K. Mcmillan

Northeast Historical Archaeology

There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th- and 18th-century colonial sites with imported white, ball-clay, tobacco-pipe stems. The formulas are based on Harrington’s 1954 histogram of time periods: Binford’s linear formula, Hanson’s ten linear formulas, and the Heighton and Deagan curvilinear formula. Data on pipe stem-bore diameters were collected from 28 sites in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods. The results of this project indicate that current conventional use of Binford’s formula, to the exclusion of the other ...


Clay Pipe-Stem Beads In North America, Karlis Karklins Feb 2017

Clay Pipe-Stem Beads In North America, Karlis Karklins

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Beads fashioned from the stems of clay tobacco pipes have been found at a number of archaeological sites, principally in the Northeast. This practice appears to have begun in the early 17th century and continued until at least the beginning of the 19th century. Although stem fragments are ideally suited for stringing and have the appearance of tubular shell beads, beads fashioned from them are relatively scarce, possibly because researchers do not recognize them. To qualify as a bead, a pipe stem must exhibit clear evidence of intentional modification of the ends and/or show use wear at the extremities ...


Turlington’S Balsam Of Life, Olive Jones, Allen Vegotsky Feb 2017

Turlington’S Balsam Of Life, Olive Jones, Allen Vegotsky

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Robert Turlington (1697-1766), weaver, patent medicine vendor, and entrepreneur left his mark in our archaeological record. Bottles embossed BY THE KING’S ROYAL PATENT GRANTED TO / ROBT TURLINGTON FOR HIS INVENTED BALSAM OF LIFE / JANUY 26 1754 / LONDON bear witness to a medicine marketed in distinctive packaging for close to 175 years. Turlington successfully used several strategies to market Balsam of Life, but was less able to protect Balsam of Life from imitators. After his death, his business survived until 1804. The distinctive bottles were still being made in 1919.

Turlington’s patent, dated 1743/44, listed 27 ingredients in ...