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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Linked-Cluster Expansions For Lattice Spin Models, Yuyi Wan Jan 2020

Linked-Cluster Expansions For Lattice Spin Models, Yuyi Wan

Honors Theses

Similar to various series expansions that are used to approximate mathematical func- tions, the linked-cluster expansion is an approximation method that allows us to approach the actual values of a very large physical system’s different physical quan- tities by systematically studying smaller systems embedded in this larger system. The main concept in linked-cluster expansion, weight, represents the additional con- tribution to a certain physical quantity by increasing the system size by one unit. These weights are used to eventually build up the result on a larger system. In our case, we focus on the partition function, a quantity that ...


An Application Of The Ising Model, Juliano A. Everett Dec 2019

An Application Of The Ising Model, Juliano A. Everett

Publications and Research

Understanding how the Ising model works,what it represents, and how it can be applied to neurology. Given that an Ising model is an Entropy model that could be representative of the firing of neurons, some assumptions of the system are made and then the process is simulated through Monte Carlo methods.


Infinite-Randomness Fixed Point Of The Quantum Superconductor-Metal Transitions In Amorphous Thin Films, Nicholas A. Lewellyn, Ilana M. Percher, J. J. Nelson, Javier Garcia-Barriocanal, Irina Volotsenko, Aviad Frydman, Thomas Vojta, Allen M. Goldman Feb 2019

Infinite-Randomness Fixed Point Of The Quantum Superconductor-Metal Transitions In Amorphous Thin Films, Nicholas A. Lewellyn, Ilana M. Percher, J. J. Nelson, Javier Garcia-Barriocanal, Irina Volotsenko, Aviad Frydman, Thomas Vojta, Allen M. Goldman

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

The magnetic-field-tuned quantum superconductor-insulator transitions of disordered amorphous indium oxide films are a paradigm in the study of quantum phase transitions and exhibit power-law scaling behavior. For superconducting indium oxide films with low disorder, such as the ones reported on here, the high-field state appears to be a quantum-corrected metal. Resistance data across the superconductor-metal transition in these films are shown here to obey an activated scaling form appropriate to a quantum phase transition controlled by an infinite-randomness fixed point in the universality class of the random transverse-field Ising model. Collapse of the field-dependent resistance vs temperature data is obtained ...


Universality Class Of Explosive Percolation In Barabási-Albert Networks, Habib E. Islam, M. K. Hassan Jan 2019

Universality Class Of Explosive Percolation In Barabási-Albert Networks, Habib E. Islam, M. K. Hassan

Physics Faculty Publications

In this work, we study explosive percolation (EP) in Barabási-Albert (BA) network, in which nodes are born with degree k = m, for both product rule (PR) and sum rule (SR) of the Achlioptas process. For m = 1 we find that the critical point tc = 1 which is the maximum possible value of the relative link density t; Hence we cannot have access to the other phase like percolation in one dimension. However, for m > 1 we find that tc decreases with increasing m and the critical exponents ν, α, β and γ for m > 1 are found to ...


Some Results On A Class Of Functional Optimization Problems, David Rushing Dewhurst Jan 2018

Some Results On A Class Of Functional Optimization Problems, David Rushing Dewhurst

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

We first describe a general class of optimization problems that describe many natu- ral, economic, and statistical phenomena. After noting the existence of a conserved quantity in a transformed coordinate system, we outline several instances of these problems in statistical physics, facility allocation, and machine learning. A dynamic description and statement of a partial inverse problem follow. When attempting to optimize the state of a system governed by the generalized equipartitioning princi- ple, it is vital to understand the nature of the governing probability distribution. We show that optimiziation for the incorrect probability distribution can have catas- trophic results, e ...


Statistical Biophysics Blog: Let’S Stop Being Sloppy About Uncertainty, Daniel M. Zuckerman Dec 2017

Statistical Biophysics Blog: Let’S Stop Being Sloppy About Uncertainty, Daniel M. Zuckerman

Scholar Archive

Molecular dynamics simulations often fail to reach timescales characteristic of equilibrum sampling, so great care must be taken in computing and reporting statistical uncertainty.


Student Understanding Of Taylor Series Expansions In Statistical Mechanics, Trevor I. Smith, John R. Thompson, Donald B. Mountcastle Oct 2017

Student Understanding Of Taylor Series Expansions In Statistical Mechanics, Trevor I. Smith, John R. Thompson, Donald B. Mountcastle

Trevor I. Smith

One goal of physics instruction is to have students learn to make physical meaning of specific mathematical expressions, concepts, and procedures in different physical settings. As part of research investigating student learning in statistical physics, we are developing curriculum materials that guide students through a derivation of the Boltzmann factor using a Taylor series expansion of entropy. Using results from written surveys, classroom observations, and both individual think-aloud and teaching interviews, we present evidence that many students can recognize and interpret series expansions, but they often lack fluency in creating and using a Taylor series appropriately, despite previous exposures in ...


Many-Particle Systems, 3, David Peak Aug 2017

Many-Particle Systems, 3, David Peak

Many Particles

Bare essentials of statistical mechanics

Atoms are examples of many-particle systems, but atoms are extraordinarily simpler than macroscopic systems consisting of 1020-1030 atoms. Despite their great size, many properties of macroscopic systems depend intimately on the microscopic behavior of their microscopic constituents. The proper quantum mechanical description of an N -particle system is a wavefunction that depends on 3N coordinates (3 ways of moving, in general, for every particle) and 4N quantum numbers (3 motional quantum numbers and 1 spin quantum number for every particle). (If the “particles” are molecules there might be additional quantum ...


Statistical Biophysics Blog: What I Have Against (Most) Pmf Calculations, Daniel M. Zuckerman May 2017

Statistical Biophysics Blog: What I Have Against (Most) Pmf Calculations, Daniel M. Zuckerman

Scholar Archive

The potential of mean force (PMF) is one of the most widely used characterizations of a biomolecular system computed from simulation, but calculating and interpreting a PMF both present challenges.


Dynamical Mechanisms Leading To Equilibration In Two-Component Gases, Stephan De Bievre, Carlos Mejia-Monasterio, Paul Ernest Parris May 2016

Dynamical Mechanisms Leading To Equilibration In Two-Component Gases, Stephan De Bievre, Carlos Mejia-Monasterio, Paul Ernest Parris

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Demonstrating how microscopic dynamics cause large systems to approach thermal equilibrium remains an elusive, longstanding, and actively pursued goal of statistical mechanics. We identify here a dynamical mechanism for thermalization in a general class of two-component dynamical Lorentz gases and prove that each component, even when maintained in a nonequilibrium state itself, can drive the other to a thermal state with a well-defined effective temperature.


Statistical Biophysics Blog: So You Want To Do Some Path Sampling …, Daniel M. Zuckerman Mar 2016

Statistical Biophysics Blog: So You Want To Do Some Path Sampling …, Daniel M. Zuckerman

Scholar Archive

Basic concepts and limitations of path sampling are described.


Statistical Biophysics Blog: Faq On Trajectory Ensembles, Daniel M. Zuckerman Nov 2015

Statistical Biophysics Blog: Faq On Trajectory Ensembles, Daniel M. Zuckerman

Scholar Archive

The basics of trajectories and the different types of trajectory ensembles are explained.


Effective Microscopic Models For Sympathetic Cooling Of Atomic Gases, Roberto Onofrio, Bala Sundaram Sep 2015

Effective Microscopic Models For Sympathetic Cooling Of Atomic Gases, Roberto Onofrio, Bala Sundaram

Dartmouth Scholarship

Thermalization of a system in the presence of a heat bath has been the subject of many theoretical investigations especially in the framework of solid-state physics. In this setting, the presence of a large bandwidth for the frequency distribution of the harmonic oscillators schematizing the heat bath is crucial, as emphasized in the Caldeira-Leggett model. By contrast, ultracold gases in atomic traps oscillate at well-defined frequencies and therefore seem to lie outside the Caldeira-Leggett paradigm. We introduce interaction Hamiltonians which allow us to adapt the model to an atomic physics framework. The intrinsic nonlinearity of these models differentiates them from ...


Student Understanding Of The Boltzmann Factor, Trevor I. Smith, Donald B. Mountcastle, John R. Thompson Sep 2015

Student Understanding Of The Boltzmann Factor, Trevor I. Smith, Donald B. Mountcastle, John R. Thompson

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

We present results of our investigation into student understanding of the physical significance and utility of the Boltzmann factor in several simple models. We identify various justifications, both correct and incorrect, that students use when answering written questions that require application of the Boltzmann factor. Results from written data as well as teaching interviews suggest that many students can neither recognize situations in which the Boltzmann factor is applicable nor articulate the physical significance of the Boltzmann factor as an expression for multiplicity, a fundamental quantity of statistical mechanics. The specific student difficulties seen in the written data led us ...


Statistical Biophysics Blog: More Is Better: The Trajectory Ensemble Picture, Daniel M. Zuckerman Aug 2015

Statistical Biophysics Blog: More Is Better: The Trajectory Ensemble Picture, Daniel M. Zuckerman

Scholar Archive

The trajectory ensemble is fundamental in statistical physics and relatively easy to understand. It is also information-rich, as both equilibrium and non-equilibrium observables may be derived from it.


Statistical Biophysics Blog: A Hello: The Point Of This Blog, Daniel M. Zuckerman Apr 2015

Statistical Biophysics Blog: A Hello: The Point Of This Blog, Daniel M. Zuckerman

Scholar Archive

No abstract provided.


Spatiotemporally Periodic Driven System With Long-Range Interactions, Owen Dale Myers Jan 2015

Spatiotemporally Periodic Driven System With Long-Range Interactions, Owen Dale Myers

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

It is well known that some driven systems undergo transitions when a system parameter is changed adiabatically around a critical value. This transition can be the result of a fundamental change in the structure of the phase space, called a bifurcation. Most of these transitions are well classified in the theory of bifurcations. Among the driven systems, spatiotemporally periodic (STP) potentials are noteworthy due to the intimate coupling between their time and spatial components. A paradigmatic example of such a system is the Kapitza pendulum, which is a pendulum with an oscillating suspension point. The Kapitza pendulum has the strange ...


Theoretical And Numerican Studies Of Phase Transitions And Error Thresholds In Topological Quantum Memories, Pejman Jouzdani Jan 2014

Theoretical And Numerican Studies Of Phase Transitions And Error Thresholds In Topological Quantum Memories, Pejman Jouzdani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019

This dissertation is the collection of a progressive research on the topic of topological quantum computation and information with the focus on the error threshold of the well-known models such as the unpaired Majorana, the toric code, and the planar code. We study the basics of quantum computation and quantum information, and in particular quantum error correction. Quantum error correction provides a tool for enhancing the quantum computation fidelity in the noisy environment of a real world. We begin with a brief introduction to stabilizer codes. The stabilizer formalism of the theory of quantum error correction gives a well-defined description ...


Modeling The Interaction Of Complex Networks, Wenjia Liu Jan 2014

Modeling The Interaction Of Complex Networks, Wenjia Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many specific networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized well, but in isolation from one another. Yet, in the real world, different networks support each other's functions, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we introduce a stochastically evolving network, namely a preferred degree network, and study the interactions between such two networks. First, a homogeneous preferred degree network is studied. The resultant degree distribution is consistent with a Laplacian distribution, and an approximate theory provides good explanations. Second, another preferred degree network is ...


Student Understanding Of Taylor Series Expansions In Statistical Mechanics, Trevor I. Smith, John R. Thompson, Donald B. Mountcastle Aug 2013

Student Understanding Of Taylor Series Expansions In Statistical Mechanics, Trevor I. Smith, John R. Thompson, Donald B. Mountcastle

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

One goal of physics instruction is to have students learn to make physical meaning of specific mathematical expressions, concepts, and procedures in different physical settings. As part of research investigating student learning in statistical physics, we are developing curriculum materials that guide students through a derivation of the Boltzmann factor using a Taylor series expansion of entropy. Using results from written surveys, classroom observations, and both individual think-aloud and teaching interviews, we present evidence that many students can recognize and interpret series expansions, but they often lack fluency in creating and using a Taylor series appropriately, despite previous exposures in ...


Disordered Bosons In One Dimension: From Weak- To Strong-Randomness Criticality, Fawaz Hrahsheh, Thomas Vojta Dec 2012

Disordered Bosons In One Dimension: From Weak- To Strong-Randomness Criticality, Fawaz Hrahsheh, Thomas Vojta

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We investigate the superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition of one-dimensional bosons with off-diagonal disorder by means of large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For weak disorder, we find the transition to be in the same universality class as the superfluid-Mott insulator transition of the clean system. The nature of the transition changes for stronger disorder. Beyond a critical disorder strength, we find nonuniversal, disorder-dependent critical behavior. We compare our results to recent perturbative and strong-disorder renormalization group predictions. We also discuss experimental implications as well as extensions of our results to other systems.


Information Content Of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking, Marcelo Gleiser, Nikitas Stamatopoulos Aug 2012

Information Content Of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking, Marcelo Gleiser, Nikitas Stamatopoulos

Dartmouth Scholarship

We propose a measure of order in the context of nonequilibrium field theory and argue that this measure, which we call relative configurational entropy (RCE), may be used to quantify the emergence of coherent low-entropy configurations, such as time-dependent or time-independent topological and nontopological spatially extended structures. As an illustration, we investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking in three spatial dimensions. In particular, we focus on a model where a real scalar field, prepared initially in a symmetric thermal state, is quenched to a broken-symmetric state. For a certain range of initial temperatures, spatially localized, long-lived structures known ...


Everything Is Entangled, Roman V. Buniy, Stephen D. H. Hsu Jan 2012

Everything Is Entangled, Roman V. Buniy, Stephen D. H. Hsu

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

We show that big bang cosmology implies a high degree of entanglement of particles in the universe. In fact, a typical particle is entangled with many particles far outside our horizon. However, the entanglement is spread nearly uniformly so that two randomly chosen particles are unlikely to be directly entangled with each other - the reduced density matrix describing any pair is likely to be separable.


Motor-Driven Dynamics Of Cytoskeletal Filaments In Motility Assays, Shiladitya Banerjee, M. Cristina Marchetti, Kristian Muller-Nedebock Jun 2011

Motor-Driven Dynamics Of Cytoskeletal Filaments In Motility Assays, Shiladitya Banerjee, M. Cristina Marchetti, Kristian Muller-Nedebock

Physics

We model analytically the dynamics of a cytoskeletal filament in a motility assay. The filament is described as rigid rod free to slide in two dimensions. The motor proteins consist of polymeric tails tethered to the plane and modeled as linear springs and motor heads that bind to the filament. As in related models of rigid and soft two-state motors, the binding/unbinding dynamics of the motor heads and the dependence of the transition rates on the load exerted by the motor tails play a crucial role in controlling the filament's dynamics. Our work shows that the filament effectively ...


Evidence For Power-Law Griffiths Singularities In A Layered Heisenberg Magnet, Fawaz Hrahsheh, Hatem Barghathi, Priyanka Mohan, Rajesh Narayanan, Thomas Vojta Jun 2011

Evidence For Power-Law Griffiths Singularities In A Layered Heisenberg Magnet, Fawaz Hrahsheh, Hatem Barghathi, Priyanka Mohan, Rajesh Narayanan, Thomas Vojta

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We study the ferromagnetic phase transition in a randomly layered Heisenberg model. A recent strong-disorder renormalization group approach [Phys. Rev. B 81, 144407 (2010)] predicted that the critical point in this system is of exotic infinite-randomness type and is accompanied by strong power-law Griffiths singularities. Here, we report results of Monte-Carlo simulations that provide numerical evidence in support of these predictions. Specifically, we investigate the finite-size scaling behavior of the magnetic susceptibility which is characterized by a non-universal power-law divergence in the Griffiths phase. In addition, we calculate the time autocorrelation function of the spins. It features a very slow ...


Dynamical Critical Scaling And Effective Thermalization In Quantum Quenches: Role Of The Initial State, Shusa Deng, Gerardo Ortiz, Lorenza Viola Mar 2011

Dynamical Critical Scaling And Effective Thermalization In Quantum Quenches: Role Of The Initial State, Shusa Deng, Gerardo Ortiz, Lorenza Viola

Dartmouth Scholarship

We explore the robustness of universal dynamical scaling behavior in a quantum system near criticality with respect to initialization in a large class of states with finite energy. By focusing on a homogeneous XY quantum spin chain in a transverse field, we characterize the nonequilibrium response under adiabatic and sudden quench processes originating from a pure as well as a mixed excited initial state, and involving either a regular quantum critical or a multicritical point. We find that the critical exponents of the ground-state quantum phase transition can be encoded in the dynamical scaling exponents despite the finite energy of ...


Unitary-Quantum-Lattice Algorithm For Two-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence, Bo Zhang, George Vahala, Linda L. Vahala, Min Soe Jan 2011

Unitary-Quantum-Lattice Algorithm For Two-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence, Bo Zhang, George Vahala, Linda L. Vahala, Min Soe

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Quantum vortex structures and energy cascades are examined for two-dimensional quantum turbulence (2D QT) at zero temperature. A special unitary evolution algorithm, the quantum lattice algorithm, is employed to simulate the Bose-Einstein condensate governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. A parameter regime is uncovered in which, as in 3D QT, there is a short Poincare recurrence time. It is demonstrated that such short recurrence times are destroyed by stronger nonlinear interaction. The similar loss of Poincare recurrence is also seen in the 3D GP equation. Various initial conditions are considered in an attempt to discern if 2D QT exhibits inverse ...


Poincare Recurrence And Spectral Cascades In Three-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence, George Vahala, Jeffrey Yepez, Linda L. Vahala, Min Soe, Bo Zhang, Sean Ziegeler Jan 2011

Poincare Recurrence And Spectral Cascades In Three-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence, George Vahala, Jeffrey Yepez, Linda L. Vahala, Min Soe, Bo Zhang, Sean Ziegeler

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The time evolution of the ground state wave function of a zero-temperature Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) gas is well described by the Hamiltonian Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. Using a set of appropriately interleaved unitary collision-stream operators, a qubit lattice gas algorithm is devised, which on taking moments, recovers the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation under diffusion ordering (time scales as length2). Unexpectedly, there is a class of initial states whose Poincaré recurrence time is extremely short and which, as the grid resolution is increased, scales with diffusion ordering (and not as length3). The spectral results of J. Yepez et al. [Phys. Rev ...


Dynamical Conductivity At The Dirty Superconductor-Metal Quantum Phase Transition, Adrian Del Maestro, Bernd Rosenow, Jose A. Hoyos, Thomas Vojta Oct 2010

Dynamical Conductivity At The Dirty Superconductor-Metal Quantum Phase Transition, Adrian Del Maestro, Bernd Rosenow, Jose A. Hoyos, Thomas Vojta

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We study the transport properties of ultrathin disordered nanowires in the neighborhood of the superconductor-metal quantum phase transition. To this end we combine numerical calculations with analytical strong-disorder renormalization group results. The quantum critical conductivity at zero temperature diverges logarithmically as a function of frequency. In the metallic phase, it obeys activated scaling associated with an infinite-randomness quantum critical point. We extend the scaling theory to higher dimensions and discuss implications for experiments.


Fluctuations And Pattern Formation In Self-Propelled Particles, Shradha Mishra, Aparna Baskaran, M. Cristina Marchetti Apr 2010

Fluctuations And Pattern Formation In Self-Propelled Particles, Shradha Mishra, Aparna Baskaran, M. Cristina Marchetti

Physics

We consider a coarse-grained description of a system of self-propelled particles given by hydrodynamic equations for the density and polarization fields. We find that the ordered moving or flocking state of the system is unstable to spatial fluctuations beyond a threshold set by the self-propulsion velocity of the individual units. In this region, the system organizes itself into an inhomogeneous state of well-defined propagating stripes of flocking particles interspersed with low density disordered regions. Further, we find that even in the regime where the homogeneous flocking state is stable, the system exhibits large fluctuations in both density and orientational order ...