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Articles 1 - 30 of 149

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Integrated Photonic Device, Brittney Kuhn May 2020

Integrated Photonic Device, Brittney Kuhn

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

In computer mediated communication networks, information is typically encoded optically to transmit signals over long distances. At a network node, the optical signal is transformed into the electrical domain, processed electronically, and transformed back to an optical state to reach its destination. Transitioning between optical and electrical encoding of the signal is a potential security weak point, especially for quantum communication links. If information can remain in one state as it travels through the network, then security breaches can be detected and dealt with more easily. Furthermore, keeping the information in one state can reduce power consumption in the network ...


An Overview Of Lasers And Their Applications, Luis Cristian Giovanni Guerrero May 2020

An Overview Of Lasers And Their Applications, Luis Cristian Giovanni Guerrero

Physics

This paper is an overview of lasers and their applications. The fundamentals of laser operation are covered as well as the various applications of advanced laser systems. The primary focus is to highlight some of the technological advancements made possible by lasers in the last half-century.


Construction Of A Hyperspectral Imager Using 3d-Printed And Off-The-Shelf Components, Joshua Moorhouse May 2020

Construction Of A Hyperspectral Imager Using 3d-Printed And Off-The-Shelf Components, Joshua Moorhouse

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences is working in collaboration with the Mechanical Engineering department to create a relatively cheap and modifiable hyperspectral imager. It is constructed using 3D-printed and off-the-shelf components from Edmund Optics and Amazon. The iteration created in this paper delivers spectrograms in the visible spectrum. The long-term goals of the camera are to create hyperspectral images from these spectrograms and to advance the imager into the infrared and near-infrared spectra. This imager is being developed to be used in the Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences environmental test chambers to further the scientific ...


Novel Photon-Detector Models For Enhanced Quantum Information Processing, Elisha Siddiqui Mar 2020

Novel Photon-Detector Models For Enhanced Quantum Information Processing, Elisha Siddiqui

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This work is devoted to the development of novel photon-detector models at room temperature using quantum optics elements. This work comprises of two photon-number-resolving detector (PNRD) models, and the application of PNRD in LIDAR. The first model is based on using a two-mode squeezing device to resolve photon number at room temperature. In this model we study the average intensity-intensity correlations signal at the output of a two-mode squeezing device with |N> and |α> as the two input modes. We show that the input photon-number can be resolved from the average intensity-intensity correlations. In particular, we show jumps in the ...


Tip- And Plasmon-Enhanced Infrared Nanoscopy For Ultrasensitive Molecular Characterizations, Yilong Luan, Liam Mcdermott, F. Hu, Zhe Fei Mar 2020

Tip- And Plasmon-Enhanced Infrared Nanoscopy For Ultrasensitive Molecular Characterizations, Yilong Luan, Liam Mcdermott, F. Hu, Zhe Fei

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

We propose a method for ultrasensitive infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy of molecules with nanoscale footprints by combining the tip enhancement of a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) and the plasmon enhancement of breathing-mode (BM) plasmon resonances of graphene nanodisks (GNDs). To demonstrate this, we develop a quantitative model that is capable of computing accurately the s-SNOM signals of nanoscale samples. With our modeling, we show that the s-SNOM tip can effectively excite gate-tunable BM plasmonic resonances in GNDs with strong field enhancement and sensitive dependence on the size of GND. Moreover, we demonstrate that the intense electric field of ...


The Design Of A Continuous Wave Molecular Nitrogen Stimulated Raman Laser In The Visible Spectrum, Timothy J. Bate Mar 2020

The Design Of A Continuous Wave Molecular Nitrogen Stimulated Raman Laser In The Visible Spectrum, Timothy J. Bate

Theses and Dissertations

Hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs) shows promise as a hybrid laser with higher nonlinear process limits and small beam size over long gain lengths. This work focuses on the design of a CW molecular nitrogen (N2) stimulated Raman laser. N2 offers Raman gains scaling up to 900 amg, scaling higher than H2. The cavity experiment showed the need to include Rayleigh scattering in the high pressure required for N2 Raman lasing. Even at relatively low pressure ssuch as 1,500 psi, high conversion percentages should be found if the fiber length is chosen based on the ...


Special Section Guest Editorial: Machine Learning In Optics, Jonathan Howe, Travis Axtell, Khan Iftekharuddin Jan 2020

Special Section Guest Editorial: Machine Learning In Optics, Jonathan Howe, Travis Axtell, Khan Iftekharuddin

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

This guest editorial summarizes the Special Section on Machine Learning in Optics.


An Echo Of Light, Anaka Marie Wetch Jan 2020

An Echo Of Light, Anaka Marie Wetch

Senior Projects Spring 2020

My senior project film an Echo of Light is an experimental 16mm film exploring light as both a metaphysical and physical process. I became interested in light during my studies in holography, which is a medium revolving around the interference of light. I studied holography independently and with the guidance of professionals in the field. My holographic work is oriented around the natural world and its micro-constituents. I examined and photographed substances, such as salt, pyrite, and quartz with the scanning electron microscope at Bard. These materials have striking crystalline geometry which I intend to explore through the light dependent ...


Production Of Entangled Photons Via Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion, Logan P. Kaelbling Jan 2020

Production Of Entangled Photons Via Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion, Logan P. Kaelbling

Senior Projects Spring 2020

Quantum entanglement, a phenomenon in which the behavior of one particle is somehow immediately correlated with and informed by what is happening to a partner particle a long distance away, has been a pivotal part of the formulation of quantum theory as we know it today and is currently generating many promising avenues of research. As such, finding ways to reliably and inexpensively generate systems of entangled particles for research purposes has become crucial. For my project, I attempt to set up a system that generates energy- and polarization-entangled photons via a technique called spontaneous parametric down conversion. This method ...


Electromagnetic Analysis Of Bidirectional Reflectance From Roughened Surfaces And Applications To Surface Shape Recovery, Julian Antolin Camarena Nov 2019

Electromagnetic Analysis Of Bidirectional Reflectance From Roughened Surfaces And Applications To Surface Shape Recovery, Julian Antolin Camarena

Physics & Astronomy ETDs

Scattering from randomly rough surfaces is a well-established sub area of electrodynamics. There remains much to be done since each surface and optical processes that may occur in within the scattering medium, and countless other scenarios, is different. There are also illumination models that describe lighting in a scene on the macroscopic scale where geometrical optics can be considered adequate. Of particular interest for us is the intersection of the physical scattering theories and the illumination models. We present two contributions: 1) A minimum of two independent images are needed since any opaque surface can be uniquely specified in terms ...


A Rotating Aperture Mask For Small Telescopes, Edward L. Foley Nov 2019

A Rotating Aperture Mask For Small Telescopes, Edward L. Foley

Master's Theses

Observing the dynamic interaction between stars and their close stellar neighbors is key to establishing the stars’ orbits, masses, and other properties. Our ability to visually discriminate nearby stars is limited by the power of our telescopes, posing a challenge to astronomers at small observatories that contribute to binary star surveys. Masks placed at the telescope aperture promise to augment the resolving power of telescopes of all sizes, but many of these masks must be manually and repetitively reoriented about the optical axis to achieve their full benefits. This paper introduces a design concept for a mask rotation mechanism that ...


Studying Near-Critical And Super-Critical Fluids In Reduced Gravity, Christian Hawkins, Ana Oprisan, Carole Lecoutre-Chabot, Yves Garrabos, Daniel Beysens Aug 2019

Studying Near-Critical And Super-Critical Fluids In Reduced Gravity, Christian Hawkins, Ana Oprisan, Carole Lecoutre-Chabot, Yves Garrabos, Daniel Beysens

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Critical and supercritical fluids have a variety of applications, from use as machine lubricants in high pressure or high temperature environments to the manufacturing of materials such as aerogel. The optical properties of fluids undergo rapid changes near the critical point resulting in a rapid increase in turbidity known as critical opalescence. These optical changes can be used to probe the universality of critical behavior. As a fluid approaches the critical point, the compressibility rapidly increases. In a gravitational field, this increase in compressibility leads to near-critical fluids stratifying by phase and density, making it difficult to observe the optical ...


Tailored Frequency Comb Structures And Their Sensing Applications, James Hendrie Aug 2019

Tailored Frequency Comb Structures And Their Sensing Applications, James Hendrie

Optical Science and Engineering ETDs

The focus of this dissertation is the development and investigation of nested cavity mode-locked lasers and their resultant tailored frequency combs. A nested cavity is made up of two cavities, known as parents. One parent is a larger, active, 100MHz Ti:Saph oscillator and the other is a smaller, passive, 7GHz Fabry-Perot Etalon (FPE). Unlike standard frequency combs that are continuous, a tailored comb’s teeth are distributed in equally spaced groups where the center of each group corresponds to the resonance of the FPE and the side bands are determined by the resonances of the Ti:Saph. This unique ...


Slow Light With Interleaved P-N Junction To Enhance Performance Of Integrated Mach-Zehnder Silicon Modulators, Marco Passoni, Dario Gerace, Liam O'Faolain, Lucio Claudio Andreani May 2019

Slow Light With Interleaved P-N Junction To Enhance Performance Of Integrated Mach-Zehnder Silicon Modulators, Marco Passoni, Dario Gerace, Liam O'Faolain, Lucio Claudio Andreani

Cappa Publications

Slow light is a very important concept in nanophotonics, especially in the context of photonic crystals. In this work, we apply our previous design of band-edge slow light in silicon waveguide gratings [M. Passoni et al, Opt. Express 26, 8470 (2018)] to Mach-Zehnder modulators based on the plasma dispersion effect. The key idea is to employ an interleaved p-n junction with the same periodicity as the grating, in order to achieve optimal matching between the electromagnetic field profile and the depletion regions of the p-n junction. The resulting modulation efficiency is strongly improved as compared to common modulators based on ...


Construction Of A Hyperspectral Camera Using Off-The-Shelf Parts And 3d-Printed Parts, Connor Heo May 2019

Construction Of A Hyperspectral Camera Using Off-The-Shelf Parts And 3d-Printed Parts, Connor Heo

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences (ACSPS) is working together with the Mechanical Engineering Department to build a modifiable camera with 3D-printed parts and off-the-shelf parts (sourced from Edmund Optics and Amazon). The design is to be readily changeable, primarily with the 3D printed parts, as to accommodate new ideas and functionalities in the future. Ultimately, the camera should be relatively cheap while maintaining functionality for proposed use cases. Earlier versions of the design will be tested extensively and rapidly updated in the ACSPS labs with benchtop testing. This will involve subjects with both visible and infrared emissions ...


Generation And Use Of Femtosecond, Gigawatt, Near Infrared Laser Pulses From An Amplified, Mode-Locked, Ti:Sapphire Laser, David Anthony Valdés May 2019

Generation And Use Of Femtosecond, Gigawatt, Near Infrared Laser Pulses From An Amplified, Mode-Locked, Ti:Sapphire Laser, David Anthony Valdés

Optical Science and Engineering ETDs

This work modeled the early to middle successes achieved in the field of ultrafast, high peak power optics, beginning with the work of Nobel Prize winners Donna Strickland and Gérard Mourou in 1985. In our work, 100 fs light pulses of around 800 nm were generated by a Ti:Sapphire oscillator, then amplified to approximately 30 GW peak power using a chirped pulse amplification system that included regenerative and multi-pass amplifiers. As a verification of our pulses having high peak powers and ultrashort durations, they were then used to strike water, glass, and a Kerr Cell. Supercontinuum generation was observed ...


Vision Beyond Optics: Standardization, Evaluation And Innovation For Fluorescence Microscopy In Life Sciences, Maximiliaan Huisman Apr 2019

Vision Beyond Optics: Standardization, Evaluation And Innovation For Fluorescence Microscopy In Life Sciences, Maximiliaan Huisman

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool in biomedical sciences that allows specific molecules to be visualized in the complex and crowded environment of cells. The continuous introduction of new imaging techniques makes microscopes more powerful and versatile, but there is more than meets the eye. In addition to develop- ing new methods, we can work towards getting the most out of existing data and technologies. By harnessing unused potential, this work aims to increase the richness, reliability, and power of fluorescence microscopy data in three key ways: through standardization, evaluation and innovation.

A universal standard makes it easier to assess ...


Optical Vortex And Poincaré Analysis For Biophysical Dynamics, Anindya Majumdar Jan 2019

Optical Vortex And Poincaré Analysis For Biophysical Dynamics, Anindya Majumdar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Coherent light - such as that from a laser - on interaction with biological tissues, undergoes scattering. This scattered light undergoes interference and the resultant field has randomly added phases and amplitudes. This random interference pattern is known as speckles, and has been the subject of multiple applications, including imaging techniques. These speckle fields inherently contain optical vortices, or phase singularities. These are locations where the intensity (or amplitude) of the interference pattern is zero, and the phase is undefined.

In the research presented in this dissertation, dynamic speckle patterns were obtained through computer simulations as well as laboratory setups involving scattering ...


Opticks:, Fyodor Andreievich Shiryaev Jan 2019

Opticks:, Fyodor Andreievich Shiryaev

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Arts of Bard College.


Spectroscopy Of Neon For The Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory, H. C. Busch, M. B. Cooper, C. I. Sukenik Jan 2019

Spectroscopy Of Neon For The Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory, H. C. Busch, M. B. Cooper, C. I. Sukenik

Physics Faculty Publications

We describe a spectroscopy experiment, suitable for upper-division laboratory courses, that investigates saturated absorption spectroscopy and polarization spectroscopy in a neon discharge. Both experiments use nearly identical components, allowing students to explore both techniques in a single apparatus. Furthermore, because the wavelength of the laser is in the visible part of the spectrum (640 nm), the experiment is well-suited for students with limited experience in optical alignment. The labs nicely complement a course in atomic or plasma physics, provide students with the opportunity to gain important technical skills in the area of optics and lasers, and can provide an introduction ...


From Photon To Neuron Chapter 17: Rainbows And Other Caustics, Philip C. Nelson Dec 2018

From Photon To Neuron Chapter 17: Rainbows And Other Caustics, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends Part III of the book From Photon to Neuron (Princeton Univ Press 2017). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Techniques For Improved Space Object Detection Performance From Ground-Based Telescope Systems Using Long And Short Exposure Images, David J. Becker Aug 2018

Techniques For Improved Space Object Detection Performance From Ground-Based Telescope Systems Using Long And Short Exposure Images, David J. Becker

Theses and Dissertations

Space object detection is of great importance in the highly dependent yet competitive and congested space domain. Detection algorithms employed play a crucial role in fulfilling the detection component in the space situational awareness mission to detect, track, characterize and catalog unknown space objects. Many current space detection algorithms use a matched filter or a spatial correlator on long exposure data to make a detection decision at a single pixel point of a spatial image based on the assumption that the data follows a Gaussian distribution. This research focuses on improving current space object detection algorithms and developing new algorithms ...


Investigation Of Spin And Dip-Coating Phase Change Chalcogenide Materials As A Novel Technique For Coating And Functionalizing Conformal Optics, Paul Vecchio Jul 2018

Investigation Of Spin And Dip-Coating Phase Change Chalcogenide Materials As A Novel Technique For Coating And Functionalizing Conformal Optics, Paul Vecchio

Physics and Astronomy Summer Fellows

Chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) have excellent infrared (IR) transparency ranging up to 20 μm, large nonlinear refractive indices, and tailorable thermo-optic coefficients (dn/dT) that have great potential for applications in detectors, sensors, waveguides, imaging devices, photonic waveguides, acousto-optics, and optical devices. Spin and dip coating ChGs from solution is a low-cost, simple, and scalable method for depositing films over a large area. In this study, we utilize the novel approach of spin and dip coating to create thin ChG films of arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) and arsenic selenide (As2Se3). To realize the full potential of ...


Rotation Of Two-Petal Laser Beams In The Near Field Of A Spiral Microaxicon, S. S. Stafeev, Liam O'Faolain, M. V. Kotlyar Jun 2018

Rotation Of Two-Petal Laser Beams In The Near Field Of A Spiral Microaxicon, S. S. Stafeev, Liam O'Faolain, M. V. Kotlyar

Cappa Publications

Using a spiral microaxicon with the topological charge 2 and NA = 0.6 operating at a 532-nm wavelength and fabricated by electron-beam lithography, we experimentally demonstrate the rotation of a two-petal laser beam in the near field (several micrometers away from the axicon surface). The estimated rotation rate is 55 °/mm and linearly dependent on the on-axis distance, with the theoretical rotation rate being 53 °/mm. The experimentally measured rotation rate is found to be linear and coincident with the simulation results only on the on-axis segment from 1.5 to 3 mm. The experimentally measured rotation rate is 66 ...


Assembling And Characterizing The Efficiency Of An Injection Locked Laser System For Cold Neutral Atom Optical Traps, Alexandra Papa Crawford Jun 2018

Assembling And Characterizing The Efficiency Of An Injection Locked Laser System For Cold Neutral Atom Optical Traps, Alexandra Papa Crawford

Physics

Creating a quantum computer requires a system of particles that can be well-controlled to achieve quantum operations. We need a large array of these particles – called qubits – with long coherence times, which can be initialized, operated on by single and two qubit gates, and read out. For neutral atoms, the qubit states are stable ground states that interact minimally with the environment, leading to long coherence times. Experimentally, the qubits are manipulated using carefully timed laser beam pulses with controlled frequency and intensity, but the outstanding issue for optically trapping cold atoms is finding a light pattern that can hold ...


Tunable Optical Buffer Through An Analogue To Electro-Magnetically Induced Transparency In Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavities, Changyu Hu, Sebastian A. Schulz, Alexandros A. Liles, Liam O'Faolain Mar 2018

Tunable Optical Buffer Through An Analogue To Electro-Magnetically Induced Transparency In Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavities, Changyu Hu, Sebastian A. Schulz, Alexandros A. Liles, Liam O'Faolain

Cappa Publications

Tunable on-chip optical delay has long been a key target for the research community, as it is the enabling technology behind delay lines, signal re-timing and other applications vital to optical signal processing. To date the field has been limited by high optical losses associated with slow light or delay structures. Here, we present a novel tunable delay line, based on a coupled cavity system exhibiting an Electromagnetically Induced Transparency-like transmission spectrum, with record low loss, around 15dB/ns. By tuning a single cavity the delay of the complete structure can be tuned over 120ps, with the maximum delay approaching ...


Investigation Of Iron Oxide Nanocolloidal Suspension Diffusion Using A Direct Imaging Method, Ashley E. Rice, Ana Oprisan Nov 2017

Investigation Of Iron Oxide Nanocolloidal Suspension Diffusion Using A Direct Imaging Method, Ashley E. Rice, Ana Oprisan

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

We performed a set of experiments using a direct imaging method to investigate the diffusion process of iron oxide, Fe2O3, nanoparticles. We studied concentration fluctuations that move against the concentration gradient and induce disturbances in the interface between the iron oxide suspension and water in the sample cell. Using this imaging method in combination with the differential dynamic algorithm for image processing, we are able to extract information about the power, size, and lifetime of the fluctuations. We performed this experiment both in the presence and in the absence of a 4.2 mT magnetic field. We ...


Exploring The Solvability Of The Jaynes-Cummings And Jaynes-Cummings-Like Models: Implementing Quantum Control, Austen Couvertier Aug 2017

Exploring The Solvability Of The Jaynes-Cummings And Jaynes-Cummings-Like Models: Implementing Quantum Control, Austen Couvertier

Student Works

In this paper we aim to explore the dynamics and overall solvability of the Jaynes-Cummings \& Jaynes-Cummings-Like models. As a lens to understand these dynamics, we focused on cases where the parameters of the system were made time-dependent. All previous work on solving the dynamics of the Jaynes-Cummings models has relied heavily on the use of differential methods and setting the parameters as time-independent constants which were zero or one. To account for this, we utilized the Wei-Norman method which allowed us to analytical solve the time-dependent Hamiltonian. Through the use of this method, we can understand the more general characteristics ...


Reflectance Of Xuv Light On A Two Dimensional Conducting Rough Surface, Chelsea Thangavelu Aug 2017

Reflectance Of Xuv Light On A Two Dimensional Conducting Rough Surface, Chelsea Thangavelu

Student Works

A Fortran program is set up to solve for the reflectance of XUV light from a rough two dimensional surface, resembling experimental mirrors used to reflect XUV light. Because the roughness of the surface is on the order of magnitude of the wavelength of XUV light, our approach requires a Greene's Function instead of using traditional geometrical optics or physical optics. Our Fortran program calculates the impedance (Z) matrix which requires integration over Greene's Function at non-singular points. The Z matrix helps solve for the induced surface current J(x') at non-singular points. At singular points, the program ...


R&D Of A High-Performance Dirc Detector For A Future Electron-Ion Collider, Stacey Lee Allison Jul 2017

R&D Of A High-Performance Dirc Detector For A Future Electron-Ion Collider, Stacey Lee Allison

Physics Theses & Dissertations

An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is proposed as the next big scientific facility to be built in the United States, costing over $1 billion in design and construction. Each detector concept for the electron/ion beam interaction point is integrated into a large solenoidal magnet. The necessity for excellent hadronic particle identification (pion/kaon/proton) in the barrel region of the solenoid has pushed research and development (R&D) towards a new, high-performance Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC) detector design. The passage of a high energy charged particle through a fused silica bar of the DIRC generates optical Cherenkov ...