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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Studying Near-Critical And Super-Critical Fluids In Reduced Gravity, Christian Hawkins, Ana Oprisan, Carole Lecoutre-Chabot, Yves Garrabos, Daniel Beysens Aug 2019

Studying Near-Critical And Super-Critical Fluids In Reduced Gravity, Christian Hawkins, Ana Oprisan, Carole Lecoutre-Chabot, Yves Garrabos, Daniel Beysens

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Critical and supercritical fluids have a variety of applications, from use as machine lubricants in high pressure or high temperature environments to the manufacturing of materials such as aerogel. The optical properties of fluids undergo rapid changes near the critical point resulting in a rapid increase in turbidity known as critical opalescence. These optical changes can be used to probe the universality of critical behavior. As a fluid approaches the critical point, the compressibility rapidly increases. In a gravitational field, this increase in compressibility leads to near-critical fluids stratifying by phase and density, making it difficult to observe the optical ...


Generation And Use Of Femtosecond, Gigawatt, Near Infrared Laser Pulses From An Amplified, Mode-Locked, Ti:Sapphire Laser, David Anthony Valdés May 2019

Generation And Use Of Femtosecond, Gigawatt, Near Infrared Laser Pulses From An Amplified, Mode-Locked, Ti:Sapphire Laser, David Anthony Valdés

Optical Science and Engineering ETDs

This work modeled the early to middle successes achieved in the field of ultrafast, high peak power optics, beginning with the work of Nobel Prize winners Donna Strickland and Gérard Mourou in 1985. In our work, 100 fs light pulses of around 800 nm were generated by a Ti:Sapphire oscillator, then amplified to approximately 30 GW peak power using a chirped pulse amplification system that included regenerative and multi-pass amplifiers. As a verification of our pulses having high peak powers and ultrashort durations, they were then used to strike water, glass, and a Kerr Cell. Supercontinuum generation was observed ...


Construction Of A Hyperspectral Camera Using Off-The-Shelf Parts And 3d-Printed Parts, Connor Heo May 2019

Construction Of A Hyperspectral Camera Using Off-The-Shelf Parts And 3d-Printed Parts, Connor Heo

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences (ACSPS) is working together with the Mechanical Engineering Department to build a modifiable camera with 3D-printed parts and off-the-shelf parts (sourced from Edmund Optics and Amazon). The design is to be readily changeable, primarily with the 3D printed parts, as to accommodate new ideas and functionalities in the future. Ultimately, the camera should be relatively cheap while maintaining functionality for proposed use cases. Earlier versions of the design will be tested extensively and rapidly updated in the ACSPS labs with benchtop testing. This will involve subjects with both visible and infrared emissions ...


Opticks:, Fyodor Andreievich Shiryaev Jan 2019

Opticks:, Fyodor Andreievich Shiryaev

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Arts of Bard College.


Optical Vortex And Poincaré Analysis For Biophysical Dynamics, Anindya Majumdar Jan 2019

Optical Vortex And Poincaré Analysis For Biophysical Dynamics, Anindya Majumdar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Coherent light - such as that from a laser - on interaction with biological tissues, undergoes scattering. This scattered light undergoes interference and the resultant field has randomly added phases and amplitudes. This random interference pattern is known as speckles, and has been the subject of multiple applications, including imaging techniques. These speckle fields inherently contain optical vortices, or phase singularities. These are locations where the intensity (or amplitude) of the interference pattern is zero, and the phase is undefined.

In the research presented in this dissertation, dynamic speckle patterns were obtained through computer simulations as well as laboratory setups involving scattering ...


From Photon To Neuron Chapter 17: Rainbows And Other Caustics, Philip C. Nelson Dec 2018

From Photon To Neuron Chapter 17: Rainbows And Other Caustics, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends Part III of the book From Photon to Neuron (Princeton Univ Press 2017). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Techniques For Improved Space Object Detection Performance From Ground-Based Telescope Systems Using Long And Short Exposure Images, David J. Becker Aug 2018

Techniques For Improved Space Object Detection Performance From Ground-Based Telescope Systems Using Long And Short Exposure Images, David J. Becker

Theses and Dissertations

Space object detection is of great importance in the highly dependent yet competitive and congested space domain. Detection algorithms employed play a crucial role in fulfilling the detection component in the space situational awareness mission to detect, track, characterize and catalog unknown space objects. Many current space detection algorithms use a matched filter or a spatial correlator on long exposure data to make a detection decision at a single pixel point of a spatial image based on the assumption that the data follows a Gaussian distribution. This research focuses on improving current space object detection algorithms and developing new algorithms ...


Investigation Of Spin And Dip-Coating Phase Change Chalcogenide Materials As A Novel Technique For Coating And Functionalizing Conformal Optics, Paul Vecchio Jul 2018

Investigation Of Spin And Dip-Coating Phase Change Chalcogenide Materials As A Novel Technique For Coating And Functionalizing Conformal Optics, Paul Vecchio

Physics and Astronomy Summer Fellows

Chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) have excellent infrared (IR) transparency ranging up to 20 μm, large nonlinear refractive indices, and tailorable thermo-optic coefficients (dn/dT) that have great potential for applications in detectors, sensors, waveguides, imaging devices, photonic waveguides, acousto-optics, and optical devices. Spin and dip coating ChGs from solution is a low-cost, simple, and scalable method for depositing films over a large area. In this study, we utilize the novel approach of spin and dip coating to create thin ChG films of arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) and arsenic selenide (As2Se3). To realize the full potential of ...


Assembling And Characterizing The Efficiency Of An Injection Locked Laser System For Cold Neutral Atom Optical Traps, Alexandra Papa Crawford Jun 2018

Assembling And Characterizing The Efficiency Of An Injection Locked Laser System For Cold Neutral Atom Optical Traps, Alexandra Papa Crawford

Physics

Creating a quantum computer requires a system of particles that can be well-controlled to achieve quantum operations. We need a large array of these particles – called qubits – with long coherence times, which can be initialized, operated on by single and two qubit gates, and read out. For neutral atoms, the qubit states are stable ground states that interact minimally with the environment, leading to long coherence times. Experimentally, the qubits are manipulated using carefully timed laser beam pulses with controlled frequency and intensity, but the outstanding issue for optically trapping cold atoms is finding a light pattern that can hold ...


Investigation Of Iron Oxide Nanocolloidal Suspension Diffusion Using A Direct Imaging Method, Ashley E. Rice, Ana Oprisan Nov 2017

Investigation Of Iron Oxide Nanocolloidal Suspension Diffusion Using A Direct Imaging Method, Ashley E. Rice, Ana Oprisan

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

We performed a set of experiments using a direct imaging method to investigate the diffusion process of iron oxide, Fe2O3, nanoparticles. We studied concentration fluctuations that move against the concentration gradient and induce disturbances in the interface between the iron oxide suspension and water in the sample cell. Using this imaging method in combination with the differential dynamic algorithm for image processing, we are able to extract information about the power, size, and lifetime of the fluctuations. We performed this experiment both in the presence and in the absence of a 4.2 mT magnetic field. We ...


Reflectance Of Xuv Light On A Two Dimensional Conducting Rough Surface, Chelsea Thangavelu Aug 2017

Reflectance Of Xuv Light On A Two Dimensional Conducting Rough Surface, Chelsea Thangavelu

Student Publications

A Fortran program is set up to solve for the reflectance of XUV light from a rough two dimensional surface, resembling experimental mirrors used to reflect XUV light. Because the roughness of the surface is on the order of magnitude of the wavelength of XUV light, our approach requires a Greene's Function instead of using traditional geometrical optics or physical optics. Our Fortran program calculates the impedance (Z) matrix which requires integration over Greene's Function at non-singular points. The Z matrix helps solve for the induced surface current J(x') at non-singular points. At singular points, the program ...


Exploring The Solvability Of The Jaynes-Cummings And Jaynes-Cummings-Like Models: Implementing Quantum Control, Austen Couvertier Aug 2017

Exploring The Solvability Of The Jaynes-Cummings And Jaynes-Cummings-Like Models: Implementing Quantum Control, Austen Couvertier

Student Publications

In this paper we aim to explore the dynamics and overall solvability of the Jaynes-Cummings \& Jaynes-Cummings-Like models. As a lens to understand these dynamics, we focused on cases where the parameters of the system were made time-dependent. All previous work on solving the dynamics of the Jaynes-Cummings models has relied heavily on the use of differential methods and setting the parameters as time-independent constants which were zero or one. To account for this, we utilized the Wei-Norman method which allowed us to analytical solve the time-dependent Hamiltonian. Through the use of this method, we can understand the more general characteristics ...


R&D Of A High-Performance Dirc Detector For A Future Electron-Ion Collider, Stacey Lee Allison Jul 2017

R&D Of A High-Performance Dirc Detector For A Future Electron-Ion Collider, Stacey Lee Allison

Physics Theses & Dissertations

An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is proposed as the next big scientific facility to be built in the United States, costing over $1 billion in design and construction. Each detector concept for the electron/ion beam interaction point is integrated into a large solenoidal magnet. The necessity for excellent hadronic particle identification (pion/kaon/proton) in the barrel region of the solenoid has pushed research and development (R&D) towards a new, high-performance Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC) detector design. The passage of a high energy charged particle through a fused silica bar of the DIRC generates optical Cherenkov ...


Optical Physics Of Rifle Scopes, Ryan Perry Jun 2017

Optical Physics Of Rifle Scopes, Ryan Perry

Physics

Optical systems are typically consist of multiple lenses and mirrors and are used in a wide variety of fields. While there exist a variety of setups, there are a few key concepts that are at the core of all of them. These could be used from the most advanced scientific research to a simple magnifying glass. They are also used in industry and consumer products such as glasses and cameras. We are going to go over these key concepts and show how they apply to telescopes, or more specifically rifle scopes. First, we will go over Snell's Law of ...


Studies In Mesoscopics And Quantum Microscopies, Zhenghao Ding, Gabriel C. Spalding May 2017

Studies In Mesoscopics And Quantum Microscopies, Zhenghao Ding, Gabriel C. Spalding

Honors Projects

This thesis begins with a foundational section on quantum optics. The single-photon detectors used in the first chapter were obtained through the Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPhA), which brokered reduced cost for educational use, and the aim of the single-photon work presented in Chapter 1 is to develop modules for use in Illinois Wesleyan's instructional labs beyond the first year of university. Along with the American Association of Physics Teachers, ALPhA encourages capstone-level work, such as Chapter 1 of this honors thesis, which is explicitly designed to play the role of passing on, to a next generation of physics ...


Using An Atomic Molecular Optics Laboratory For Undergraduate Research And Mentoring Of Physics Students In Georgia, Matthew P. Dallas Apr 2017

Using An Atomic Molecular Optics Laboratory For Undergraduate Research And Mentoring Of Physics Students In Georgia, Matthew P. Dallas

Georgia College Student Research Events

Using an Atomic Molecular Optics Laboratory for Undergraduate Research and Mentoring of Physics Students in Georgia

An Atomic and Molecular Optical (AMO) Physics research lab is an excellent tool to train and mentor undergraduate students in advanced laboratory techniques. Students gain valuable basic experience in experimental designs, data acquisition techniques, working with high precision optical equipment, building electronics, and working in the machine shop. The current project is building and testing an enclosure for the diode laser to reduce sound and vibrational interference. In addition, we are developing and evaluating a new, more compact laser cavity which is 3d printed ...


Key Encryption Through Quantum Optics, Madison Durrance, Zach Galberd, Abbey Savage, Tristan Cabrera, Josh Hoffman Apr 2017

Key Encryption Through Quantum Optics, Madison Durrance, Zach Galberd, Abbey Savage, Tristan Cabrera, Josh Hoffman

Georgia College Student Research Events

Cryptography has been around since the dawn of human civilization to send private messages for commercial, military, and political purposes. Some of the most important ciphers are the Vigenère cipher, the enigma, and the more modern RSA. Because of the development of the internet, private encryption has also become increasingly more important. The weakest link of encryption is the key creation and key distribution. A key is needed to encrypt and decipher codes and is needed by both the user and sender. A solution to this problem is the generation of quantum key distributions. In our experiment, we are now ...


Superresolved Swept-Wavelength Interferometry: Fundamental Limits And Use In Three-Dimensional Surface Characterization, Martha Ingeborg Bodine Apr 2017

Superresolved Swept-Wavelength Interferometry: Fundamental Limits And Use In Three-Dimensional Surface Characterization, Martha Ingeborg Bodine

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The high signal-to-noise ratios typical of swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI) enable distance measurements to be superresolved with theoretical 2σ uncertainties as low as 1x10−4 of Fourier transform-limited resolution. This result was obtained by numerically comparing four frequency estimation methods: Local Linear Regression (LLR), Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (ESPRIT), Nonlinear Least Squares (NLS), and Candan’s Estimator (CE). For distances greater than 5 to 20 times the SWI system’s transform-limited resolution, it was shown that CE provides the fastest and most accurate results, with precision approaching the Cramér–Rao bound.

Experimentally, the accuracy and precision of ...


Optical Forces Generated By Plasmonic Nanostructures, Matthew A. Moocarme Feb 2017

Optical Forces Generated By Plasmonic Nanostructures, Matthew A. Moocarme

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

For millennia, scientists have sought to uncover the secrets of what holds the world together. Optical physicists are often at the forefront, unraveling material properties through investigations of light-matter interactions. As the field has progressed, the smallest unit at which matter can be probed and manipulated has subsequently decreased. The resulting sub-field nanophotonics- which reflects the processing of light at the nanoscale- has blossomed into a vast design space for both applied and theoretical researchers. Plasmonics, the phenomena by which the electron-density of a material oscillates in response to incident electromagnetic radiation, is a subject that has excited nanophotonics researchers ...


Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang Dec 2016

Wave Propagation And Imaging In Structured Optical Media, Zun Huang

Open Access Dissertations

Structured optical media, usually characterized by periodic patterns of inhomogeneities in bulk materials, provide a new approach to ultimate control of wave propagation with possible practical applications: from distributed feedback lasers by diffraction gratings, to highly nonlinear performance for super-continuum generation, to fiber-optic telecommunications by microstructured photonic crystal fibers, to invisibility cloaking, to super-resolution imaging with metamaterials etc.

In particular, structured optical media allow to manipulate the wave propagation and dispersion. In this thesis, we focus on engineering the propagation phase dispersion by modulating the compositions and dimensions of the periodic elements. By tailoring the dispersion in momentum space, we ...


Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun Dec 2016

Dynamic Holography In Semiconductors And Biomedical Optics, Hao Sun

Open Access Dissertations

Three-dimensional scanning and display are rapidly-advancing new technologies with important commercial drivers such as 3D printing and remote imaging for big data applications. Holography is a natural approach to recording and displaying three-dimensional information because it uses phase-sensitive interferometry to record interference patterns when a reference beam encounters coherent light arriving from an object. The 3D information is contained in the values of wave optics. Holography is a broad field that goes beyond recording and displaying. For instance, holographic optical elements, which take advantage of holographic imaging principles, perform the functions of lenses, gratings or mirrors. Holographic interferometry is also ...


Transmission Of Focused Picosecond Light Pulse Through Multimode Fibers, Yin Cen Sep 2016

Transmission Of Focused Picosecond Light Pulse Through Multimode Fibers, Yin Cen

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis focuses on a technique of delivering spatially focused and temporally compressed picosecond laser pulses through multimode fibers. This study was inspired by recent success in focusing light through optically diffusive media of which multimode fibers were a special case in terms of causing scrambled phase distribution in the transmitted light. The approach involved controlling the phase distribution of incoming beam using a deformable mirror prior to its entry into the multimode fiber in order to achieve constructive interference at selected spots in the output. With phase control, the intensity of the focused light at the output can be ...


Study Of Plasmonic Properties Of The Gold Nanorods In The Visible To Near Infrared Light Regime, Pijush Kanti Ghosh Aug 2016

Study Of Plasmonic Properties Of The Gold Nanorods In The Visible To Near Infrared Light Regime, Pijush Kanti Ghosh

Theses and Dissertations

Nanostructures of noble metals show unique plasmonic behavior in the visible to near-infrared light range. Gold nanostructures exhibit a particularly strong plasmonic response for these wavelengths of light. In this study we have investigated optical enhancement and absorption of gold nanorods with different thickness using finite element method simulations. This study reports on the resonance wavelength of the sharp-corner and round-corner rectangles of constant length 100 nm and width 60 nm. The result shows that resonance wavelength depends on the polarization of the incident light; there also exists a strong dependence of the optical enhancement and absorption on the thickness ...


Rapid Optical Ptychographic Prototyping With Broad Bandwidth Illumination, Jonathan T. Reichanadter Jan 2016

Rapid Optical Ptychographic Prototyping With Broad Bandwidth Illumination, Jonathan T. Reichanadter

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The focus of the experiment is to construct an optical CDI microscope for rapid prototype development of techniques and algorithms for multicolor experiments. CDI is often accomplished using a monochromatic beam, but in this experiment the probe will be polychromatic. This multicolor illumination ptychography offers probe and object characterization for each color, meaning that ptychography identifies the spectral response of the object. In my research I explore multicolor ptychography using a broad bandwidth illumination.


Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal Apr 2015

Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal

Krishna C. Mandal

No abstract provided.


Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal Apr 2015

Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal

Krishna C. Mandal

No abstract provided.


Modifications To A Cavity Ringdown Spectrometer To Improve Data Acquisition Rates, Gregory Alan Bostrom Mar 2015

Modifications To A Cavity Ringdown Spectrometer To Improve Data Acquisition Rates, Gregory Alan Bostrom

Dissertations and Theses

Cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) makes use of light retention in an optical cavity to enhance the sensitivity to absorption or extinction of light from a sample inside the cavity. When light entering the cavity is stopped, the output is an exponential decay with a decay constant that can be used to determine the quantity of the analyte if the extinction or absorption coefficient is known. The precision of the CRDS is dependent on the rate at which the system it acquires and processes ringdowns, assuming randomly distributed errors. We have demonstrated a CRDS system with a ringdown acquisition rate of ...


Improving Imaging Resolution For In-Situ Measurements Of Bose-Einstein Condensates, David Goldberger Jan 2015

Improving Imaging Resolution For In-Situ Measurements Of Bose-Einstein Condensates, David Goldberger

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A 85Rb Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) is an ideal experimental tool for studying strongly interacting quantum many-body systems. In our experiment we measure the size of the BEC by analyzing images of the BEC. Unfortunately our current imaging resolution limits our ability to make accurate measurements of the BEC size in-situ. In this thesis I will describe my work to improve the imaging resolution of our experimental system, which resulted in the implementation and testing of a new and improved imaging system. I will also outline some of the novel physics we plan to investigate with the new capability to ...


Characterizing Ge28sb12se60 In The Near- And Mid-Infrared, Caroline L. Hughes Jan 2015

Characterizing Ge28sb12se60 In The Near- And Mid-Infrared, Caroline L. Hughes

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis examines applications of chalcogenide glasses and their potential for use in the mid-infrared region and discusses methods by which the bulk loss absorption of these materials can be measured in this regime. The bulk loss was measured for Ge28Sb12Se60 as well as reference sample Ge33As12Se55 in both the near- and mid-infrared, at specific wavelengths of 1.534 μm and 3.677 μm. The bulk loss for the Ge28Sb12Se60 sample was measured to be (0.07 ± 0.2) cm-1 in the near-infrared and ...


Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Instrumentation, Detector Characterization, And A Search For Gravitational Signals From Gamma-Ray Bursts, Daniel Hoak Jan 2015

Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Instrumentation, Detector Characterization, And A Search For Gravitational Signals From Gamma-Ray Bursts, Daniel Hoak

Doctoral Dissertations

In the coming years, the second generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors are widely expected to observe the gravitational radiation emitted by compact, energetic events in the nearby universe. The field of gravitational wave astrophysics has grown into a large international endeavor with a global network of kilometer-scale observatories. The work presented in this thesis spans the field, from optical metrology, to instrument commissioning, to detector characterization and data analysis. The principal results are a method for the precise characterization of optical cavities, the commissioning of the advanced LIGO Output Mode Cleaner at the Hanford observatory, and a search for ...