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Full-Text Articles in Physics

The Long‐Term Trends Of Nocturnal Mesopause Temperature And Altitude Revealed By Na Lidar Observations Between 1990 And 2018 At Midlatitude, Titus (Tao) Yuan, Stanley C. Solomon, Chiao -Y. She, D. A. Krueger, Han-Li Liu May 2019

The Long‐Term Trends Of Nocturnal Mesopause Temperature And Altitude Revealed By Na Lidar Observations Between 1990 And 2018 At Midlatitude, Titus (Tao) Yuan, Stanley C. Solomon, Chiao -Y. She, D. A. Krueger, Han-Li Liu

All Physics Faculty Publications

The mesopause, a boundary between mesosphere and thermosphere with the coldest atmospheric temperature, is formed mainly by the combining effects of radiative cooling of CO2, and the vertical adiabatic flow in the upper atmosphere. A continuous multidecade (1990‐2018) nocturnal temperature data base of an advanced Na lidar, obtained at Fort Collins, CO (41°N, 105°W), and at Logan, UT (42°N, 112°W), provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the long‐term variations of this important atmospheric boundary. In this study, we categorize the lidar‐observed mesopause into two categories: the “high mesopause” (HM) above 97 km during ...


The Long‐Term Trends Of Nocturnal Mesopause Temperature And Altitude Revealed By Na Lidar Observations Between 1990 And 2018 At Midlatitude, Tao Yuan, S. C. Solomon, Chiao-Yao She, David A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu May 2019

The Long‐Term Trends Of Nocturnal Mesopause Temperature And Altitude Revealed By Na Lidar Observations Between 1990 And 2018 At Midlatitude, Tao Yuan, S. C. Solomon, Chiao-Yao She, David A. Krueger, H.-L. Liu

All Physics Faculty Publications

The mesopause, a boundary between mesosphere and thermosphere with the coldest atmospheric temperature, is formed mainly by the combining effects of radiative cooling of CO2, and the vertical adiabatic flow in the upper atmosphere. A continuous multidecade (1990‐2018) nocturnal temperature data base of an advanced Na lidar, obtained at Fort Collins, CO (41°N, 105°W), and at Logan, UT (42°N, 112°W), provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the long‐term variations of this important atmospheric boundary. In this study, we categorize the lidar‐observed mesopause into two categories: the “high mesopause” (HM) above 97 km during ...


Photochemistry On The Bottom Side Of The Mesospheric Na Layer, Tao Yuan, Wuhu Feng, John M. C. Plane, Daniel R. Marsh Mar 2019

Photochemistry On The Bottom Side Of The Mesospheric Na Layer, Tao Yuan, Wuhu Feng, John M. C. Plane, Daniel R. Marsh

All Physics Faculty Publications

Lidar observations of the mesospheric Na layer have revealed considerable diurnal variations, particularly on the bottom side of the layer, where more than an order-of-magnitude increase in Na density has been observed below 80 km after sunrise. In this paper, multi-year Na lidar observations are utilized over a full diurnal cycle at Utah State University (USU) (41.8o N, 111.8o W) and a global atmospheric model of Na with 0.5 km vertical resolution in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (WACCM-Na) to explore the dramatic changes of Na density on the bottom side of the layer. Photolysis of the ...


Simultaneous Rayleigh-Scatter And Sodium Resonance Lidar Temperature Comparisons In The Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Tao Yuan, Neal R. Criddle Aug 2018

Simultaneous Rayleigh-Scatter And Sodium Resonance Lidar Temperature Comparisons In The Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Tao Yuan, Neal R. Criddle

All Physics Faculty Publications

The Utah State University (USU) campus (41.7°N, 111.8°W) hosts a unique upper atmospheric observatory that houses both a high-power, large-aperture Rayleigh lidar and a Na lidar. For the first time, we will present 19 nights of coordinated temperature measurements from the two lidars, overlapping in the 80–110 km observational range, over one annual cycle (summer 2014 to summer 2015). This overlap has been achieved through upgrades to the existing USU Rayleigh lidar that increased its observational altitude from 45–95 to 70–115 km and by relocating the Colorado State Na lidar to the USU ...


Effects Of Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings Identified In Midlatitude Mesospheric Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Temperatures, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Josh Herron Dec 2014

Effects Of Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings Identified In Midlatitude Mesospheric Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Temperatures, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Josh Herron

Physics Student Research

Mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions. However, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The very dense 11-year data set, collected between 1993–2004, with the Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU), has been carefully examined for such anomalies. The temperatures derived from these data extend over the mesosphere, from 45 to 90 km. During this period extensive data were acquired during seven ...


Midlatitude Mesospheric Temperature Anomalies During Major Ssw Events As Observed With Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Joshua P. Herron Jun 2014

Midlatitude Mesospheric Temperature Anomalies During Major Ssw Events As Observed With Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Joshua P. Herron

Graduate Student Posters

While the mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The original Rayleigh-scatter lidar that operated at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) in the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU) collected a very dense set of temperature data for 11 years, from 1993 through 2004. The temperatures derived from these data extended over the mesosphere, from 45 to 90 km. This work focuses on the extensive Rayleigh lidar ...


Seasonal Variations Of Relative Neutral Densities Between 45 And 90 Km Determined From Usu Rayleigh Lidar Observations, David Barton, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Joshua P. Herron Jun 2014

Seasonal Variations Of Relative Neutral Densities Between 45 And 90 Km Determined From Usu Rayleigh Lidar Observations, David Barton, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Joshua P. Herron

Posters

A Rayleigh-scatter lidar operated at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W), part of Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU), collected extensive data between 1993 and 2004. From the Rayleigh lidar photon-count profiles, relative densities were determined throughout the mesosphere, from 45 to 90 km. Using these relative densities three climatologies were derived, each using a different density normalization at 45 km. The first normalized the relative densities to a constant; the second to the NRL-MSISe00 empirical model which has a strong annual component; and the third ...


Temperatures In The Mid-Latitude Mesosphere During Sudden Stratospheric Warmings As Determined From Rayleigh Lidar Data, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Joshua P. Herron Dec 2013

Temperatures In The Mid-Latitude Mesosphere During Sudden Stratospheric Warmings As Determined From Rayleigh Lidar Data, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Joshua P. Herron

Graduate Student Posters

Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are major disturbances in the polar region of the winter hemisphere that cause major changes in stratospheric temperature and circulation. SSWs are characterized by a temperature increase of tens of degrees Kelvin, averaged over 60°-90° latitude, and a weakening of the polar vortex that persists for the order of a week at the 10 hPa level (roughly 32 km) [Labitzke and Naujokat, 2000]. The polar vortices are cyclones centered on both of the Earth’s poles that are present from the mid-troposphere to the lower stratosphere. Eastward zonal winds define the strong polar vortices in ...


Ground-Based Observations With A Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar From 15-120 Km, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, David L. Barton, Matthew T. Emerick Oct 2013

Ground-Based Observations With A Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar From 15-120 Km, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, David L. Barton, Matthew T. Emerick

Graduate Student Posters

Rayleigh lidar systems have historically made ground-based observations of the upper atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) from 35-90 km. This technology has helped fill the data collection gap between the troposphere and space. Recently our Rayleigh lidar group at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory on the campus of Utah State University (42° N, 112° W) upgraded the original lidar system in order to extend the measurement range for neutral densities and temperatures to higher altitudes and has increased the upper limit, so far, from 90 to 110 km. Next, we will extend the lower altitude limit downward to 15 km. This will ...


Midlatitude, Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar For Observations From 15 To 120 Km, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Joshua P. Herron, Matthew T. Emerick Aug 2013

Midlatitude, Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar For Observations From 15 To 120 Km, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Joshua P. Herron, Matthew T. Emerick

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Electron Loss And Meteoric Dust In The Mesosphere, M. Friedrich, M. Rapp, T. Blix, U. P. Hoppe, K. Torkar, S. Robertson, S. Dickson, K. Lynch Oct 2012

Electron Loss And Meteoric Dust In The Mesosphere, M. Friedrich, M. Rapp, T. Blix, U. P. Hoppe, K. Torkar, S. Robertson, S. Dickson, K. Lynch

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of An Axially Sampling Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer For Upper Atmospheric Measurements, Addison E. Everett, Scott Schicker, Mike Watson, Wayne Sanderson, Dalon Work, Cameron Weston, James Dyer, Erik Syrstad May 2012

Characterization Of An Axially Sampling Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer For Upper Atmospheric Measurements, Addison E. Everett, Scott Schicker, Mike Watson, Wayne Sanderson, Dalon Work, Cameron Weston, James Dyer, Erik Syrstad

Graduate Student Posters

The mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) lies between the turbulent mixing and diffusive layers of the earth’s upper atmosphere. Temperatures in this region are varied and include the coldest region of the earth’s atmosphere, the mesopause. Too high for aircraft and too low for satellites, the only method of direct access to the MLT is by sounding rocket for periods of at most a few minutes. Because of this, the MLT is the most difficult region of the earth’s atmosphere to access and is therefore the least understood region of the earth’s atmosphere. Accurate in-situ measurements of ...


Repeatability Of The Seasonal Variations Of Ozone Near The Mesopause From Observations Of The 11.072-Ghz Line, Alan E. E. Rogers, P. P. Erickson, V. L. Fish, J. J. Kittredge, S. S. Danford, J. M. Marr, Martina Arndt, J. Sarabia, D. Costa, S. K. May Jan 2012

Repeatability Of The Seasonal Variations Of Ozone Near The Mesopause From Observations Of The 11.072-Ghz Line, Alan E. E. Rogers, P. P. Erickson, V. L. Fish, J. J. Kittredge, S. S. Danford, J. M. Marr, Martina Arndt, J. Sarabia, D. Costa, S. K. May

Physics Faculty Publications

Ground-based observations of the 11.072-GHz line of ozone were made from January 2008 through the middle of September 2011 to estimate the maximum in the nighttime ozone in the upper mesosphere at an altitude of about 95 km for a region centered at 38°N, 290°E. The measurements show seasonal variation with a high degree of repeatability with peaks in ozone concentration about a month following each equinox. A significant increase in ozone concentration above the yearly trend occurred in 2010 from mid-November until the end of December, which the authors attribute to delay in the start of ...


A New Mass Spectrometer For Upper Atmospheric Measurements In The Auroral Region, Addison E. Everett, James S. Dyer, Mike Watson, Wayne Sanderson, Scott Schicker, Dalon Work, Christopher J. Mertens, Scott M. Bailey, Erik A. Syrstad Dec 2011

A New Mass Spectrometer For Upper Atmospheric Measurements In The Auroral Region, Addison E. Everett, James S. Dyer, Mike Watson, Wayne Sanderson, Scott Schicker, Dalon Work, Christopher J. Mertens, Scott M. Bailey, Erik A. Syrstad

Graduate Student Posters

We have previously presented a new rocket-borne time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) for measurements in the mesosphere / lower thermosphere (MLT). Traditionally, mass spectrometry in the MLT has been difficult, mainly due to the elevated ambient pressures of the MLT and high speeds of a sounding rocket flight, which affect the direct sampling of the ambient atmosphere and spatial resolution. The TOF-MS is a versatile, inherently adaptable, axial-sampling instrument, capable of operating in a traditional TOF mode or in a multiplexing Hadamard-transform mode where high spatial resolution is desired. To minimize bow shock effects at low altitudes (~70-110km), the ram surface of ...


Early Observations Of The Middle Atmosphere Above Usu With The World’S Most Sensitive Lidar, Lance W. Petersen, Marcus J. Bingham, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron Apr 2011

Early Observations Of The Middle Atmosphere Above Usu With The World’S Most Sensitive Lidar, Lance W. Petersen, Marcus J. Bingham, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron

Posters

Extensive measurements have been made of the upper atmosphere by satellites and the lower atmosphere is measured twice daily by weather balloons. In contrast, the middle atmosphere is a difficult area to measure and therefore has been much less extensively studied. We are currently upgrading an old lidar system to a new system that will be 70 times more sensitive, making this the most sensitive lidar of its kind in the world. The upgrade consists of combining the outputs of 18 and 24 watt Nd:YAG lasers; implementing an optical chain to detect backscattered light using an existing large, four-mirror ...


The First Ten Months Of Investigation Of Gravity Waves And Temperature Variability Over The Andes, Jonathan Pugmire, Neal Criddle, Michael J. Taylor, P. D. Pautet, Yucheng Zhao Oct 2010

The First Ten Months Of Investigation Of Gravity Waves And Temperature Variability Over The Andes, Jonathan Pugmire, Neal Criddle, Michael J. Taylor, P. D. Pautet, Yucheng Zhao

Graduate Student Posters

The Andes region is an excellent natural laboratory for investigating gravity wave influences on the Upper Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric (MLT) dynamics. The instrument suite that comprised the very successful Maui-MALT program was recently re-located to a new Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) located at Cerro Pachon, Chile to obtain in-depth seasonal measurements of MLT dynamics over the Andes mountains. As part of the instrument set the Utah State University CEDAR Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (MTM) has operated continuously since August 2009 measuring the near infrared OH(6,2) band and the O2(0,1) Atmospheric band intensity and temperature perturbations. This ...


Mesospheric Atmospheric Gravity Wave Properties Derived From Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Observations Above Logan, Utah, Durga Kafle May 2009

Mesospheric Atmospheric Gravity Wave Properties Derived From Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Observations Above Logan, Utah, Durga Kafle

Posters

Approximately 900 nights of observations with a Rayleigh-scatter lidar at Utah State University’s Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (41.7°N, 111.8°W, 1.47 km above sea level), spanning the 11-year period from late 1993 through 2004, have been reduced to derive nighttime temperature and relative density profiles between 45 and 90 km. Of these, 150 profiles that extend to 90 km or above were used in this work, which is based mainly on relative density data with 3-km altitude resolution and 1-hour temporal resolution. This is, we believe, the first comprehensive study of monochromatic gravity waves using Rayleigh-Scatter ...


Rayleigh-Lidar Observations Of Mesospheric Instabilities, Gabriel C. Taylor, Durga N. Kafle, Vincent B. Wickwar Apr 2009

Rayleigh-Lidar Observations Of Mesospheric Instabilities, Gabriel C. Taylor, Durga N. Kafle, Vincent B. Wickwar

Posters

From 1993 to 2004 the Utah State University Rayleigh lidar, known as the USU green laser, collected 900 nights of data from the mesosphere (45-90 km). From these observations profiles of relative neutral densities and absolute temperatures were derived. Usually, the atmosphere is horizontally stratified with a balance between gravitational and pressure forces. When this balance is perturbed, it leads to the generation of buoyancy or “gravity” waves. An example of these is clear air turbulence, which can have dramatic effects on airplanes. As these waves propagate upward, the decrease in atmospheric density and conservation of energy combine to give ...


Large-Amplitude Temperature Waves In The Upper Atmosphere, Jarron Lembke, Vincent B. Wickwar Apr 2008

Large-Amplitude Temperature Waves In The Upper Atmosphere, Jarron Lembke, Vincent B. Wickwar

Posters

Recent LIDAR research at USU found a noctilucent cloud (NLC) near the minimum of a large-amplitude temperature wave in the upper mesosphere. Such a large-amplitude wave had not been seen previously. Initial analysis suggested that this wave might be related to the diurnal tide, but greatly amplified. This research set out to learn whether these waves are a common feature. Large waves or temperature “bumps” exceeding 10 K were found in more than half the observations. A later stage will be to see if they are linked to the tides.


The Green Beam—Lidar Investigations Of The Mesosphere, Vincent B. Wickwar Mar 2007

The Green Beam—Lidar Investigations Of The Mesosphere, Vincent B. Wickwar

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Wavelength Control For A Potassium Resonance Lidar, Everett E. A., Vincent B. Wickwar Apr 2005

Wavelength Control For A Potassium Resonance Lidar, Everett E. A., Vincent B. Wickwar

Posters

An important ground-based way to measure temperatures and winds in the transition region between the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (80 to 105 km) is with a resonance-scatter lidar. An alexandrite laser, with a wavelength in the near infrared at 770 nm, is being added to the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory to make this type of observation of potassium. These observations will complement those that have been made for many years with the green Rayleigh-scatter lidar. For these resonance-scatter observations it is necessary to accurately and precisely control the laser wavelength. The intent is to carefully step across the 4 pm ...


Gobal Change In The Mesosphere And Usu’S Green Beam, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, Troy A. Wynn Jan 2005

Gobal Change In The Mesosphere And Usu’S Green Beam, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, Troy A. Wynn

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Comparisons Of Long-Term Trends And Variability In The Middle Atmosphere, Troy Wynn, Joshua P. Herron, Vincent B. Wickwar Dec 2004

Comparisons Of Long-Term Trends And Variability In The Middle Atmosphere, Troy Wynn, Joshua P. Herron, Vincent B. Wickwar

Posters

The USU Rayleigh Lidar (41.74°N 111.81°W) has been regularly used to measure temperatures in the middle atmosphere from 45 to 90 km. It is well suited for nightly observation; provides excellent vertical temperature resolution; and does not need external calibration. It began operation in August 1993 and a dataset spanning more than ten years has been collected. The analysis here includes 593 nightly temperature profiles from September 1993 through July 2003.

With many sources of variation in the atmosphere, all temperature effects cannot be easily detected. The largest source of temperature variation, and the easiest to ...


Rayleigh-Lidar Observations Of Mesospheric Mid-Latitude Density Climatology Above Utah State University, Eric M. Lundell, Vincent B. Wickwar Dec 2004

Rayleigh-Lidar Observations Of Mesospheric Mid-Latitude Density Climatology Above Utah State University, Eric M. Lundell, Vincent B. Wickwar

Posters

Data from Rayleigh lidars have been used extensively to derive temperatures in the mesospheric region of the atmosphere. However, these data have not been used extensively in a similar way to derive neutral densities. We report on one such mid-latitude, density climatology between 45 and ~90 km, based on nearly 600 good nights of observations carried out since 1993 at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (41.7°N 111.8°W). They produce relative density profiles that are then normalized at 45 km to an empirical model, in this case the MSISe00 model. Despite this normalization ...


Seasonal Variations Of The Gravity Wave Momentum Flux In The Antarctic Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere, P. J. Espy, G. O.L. Jones, G. R. Swenson, J. Tang, Michael J. Taylor Dec 2004

Seasonal Variations Of The Gravity Wave Momentum Flux In The Antarctic Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere, P. J. Espy, G. O.L. Jones, G. R. Swenson, J. Tang, Michael J. Taylor

All Physics Faculty Publications

Airglow imager and dynasonde/imaging Doppler interferometer (IDI) radar wind measurements at Halley Station, Antarctica (75.6S, 26.6W) have been used to estimate the seasonal variation of the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum carried by highfrequency atmospheric gravity waves. The cross-correlation coefficients between the vertical and horizontal wind perturbations were calculated from sodium (Na) airglow imager data collected during the austral winter seasons of 2000 and 2001. These were combined with wind velocity variances from coincident radar measurements to estimate the daily averaged upper limit of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum due to gravity waves. The resulting momentum ...


Results From The Middle Atmosphere With The Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar At Usu’S Atmospheric Lidar Observatory, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, Troy A. Wynn, Eric M. Lundell Aug 2004

Results From The Middle Atmosphere With The Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar At Usu’S Atmospheric Lidar Observatory, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, Troy A. Wynn, Eric M. Lundell

Posters

No abstract provided.


Comparisons Of Long-Term Trends And Variability In The Middle Atmosphere, Troy Wynn, Joshua P. Herron, Vincent B. Wickwar Jul 2004

Comparisons Of Long-Term Trends And Variability In The Middle Atmosphere, Troy Wynn, Joshua P. Herron, Vincent B. Wickwar

Posters

Rayleigh Lidar is routinely used to measure temperatures in the middle atmosphere from 45 to 90 km. It is well adapted for nightly observation, provides excellent vertical temperature resolution, and does not need external calibration. The USU Rayleigh Lidar (41.74°N 111.81°W) dataset spans more than ten years from September 1993 to July 2003 with 62 monthly profiles (about 5 years of data) spread over that period.

With many sources of variation in the atmosphere, all temperature effects cannot be detected. The largest source, and the easiest to measure, is the seasonal variation. In addition there are ...


Mesospheric Mid-Latitude Density Climatology Above Utah State University, Eric M. Lundell, Vincent B. Wickwar Jun 2004

Mesospheric Mid-Latitude Density Climatology Above Utah State University, Eric M. Lundell, Vincent B. Wickwar

Posters

Lidars have been used extensively to derive temperatures, but not absolute densities, in the mesospheric region of the atmosphere. We used observations since 1993 with the Rayleigh- scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (41.7oN, 111.8oW) to create an absolute density climatology between 45 and ~95 km. The observations provide profiles of relative density to which an absolute scale is attached by normalizing the profiles at 45 km to the densities in the MSISe00 empirical model. We examine the density variations on several time scales—during the climatological year, from year to year ...


Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (Alo) Ten-Year Mesospheric Temperature Climatology, Joshua P. Herron, Vincent B. Wickwar Jun 2004

Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (Alo) Ten-Year Mesospheric Temperature Climatology, Joshua P. Herron, Vincent B. Wickwar

Posters

The Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) on the Utah State University (USU) (41.7°N, 111.8°W) campus has been in operation since 1993. The temperature database now contains over ten years of Rayleigh-scatter temperatures. A multi-year temperature climatology has been calculated from these observations along with the RMS and interannual variability. These temperatures and the climatology are currently being used in a number of mesospheric studies, including mesospheric inversion layers, tides, planetary waves, cyclical variations, trends, longitudinal comparisons, and validation studies.


Examples Of Alo Results, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, Karen M. Nelson, Troy A. Wynn, Kristina Thomas, Eric M. Lundell Jun 2004

Examples Of Alo Results, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron, Karen M. Nelson, Troy A. Wynn, Kristina Thomas, Eric M. Lundell

Presentations

No abstract provided.