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Gravitational waves

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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Towards A Real-Time Fully-Coherent All-Sky Search For Gravitational Waves From Compact Binary Coalescences Using Particle Swarm Optimization, M. E. Normandin, Soumya Mohanty Apr 2020

Towards A Real-Time Fully-Coherent All-Sky Search For Gravitational Waves From Compact Binary Coalescences Using Particle Swarm Optimization, M. E. Normandin, Soumya Mohanty

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

While a fully-coherent all-sky search is known to be optimal for detecting gravitational wave signals from compact binary coalescences, its high computational cost has limited current searches to less sensitive coincidence-based schemes. Following up on previous work that has demonstrated the effectiveness of particle swarm optimization (PSO) in reducing the computational cost of this search, we present an implementation that achieves near real-time computational speed. This is achieved by combining the search efficiency of PSO with a significantly revised and optimized numerical implementation of the underlying mathematical formalism along with additional multithreaded parallelization layers in a distributed computing framework. For ...


The Astrophysics Of Nanohertz Gravitational Waves, S. Burke-Spolaor, S. R. Taylor, M. Charisi, T. Dolch, J. S. Hazboun, A. M. Holgado, L. Z. Kelley, T. J. W. Lazio, D. R. Madison, N. Mcmann, C. M. F. Mingarelli, A. Rasskazov, X. Siemens, J. J. Simon, Tristan L. Smith Dec 2019

The Astrophysics Of Nanohertz Gravitational Waves, S. Burke-Spolaor, S. R. Taylor, M. Charisi, T. Dolch, J. S. Hazboun, A. M. Holgado, L. Z. Kelley, T. J. W. Lazio, D. R. Madison, N. Mcmann, C. M. F. Mingarelli, A. Rasskazov, X. Siemens, J. J. Simon, Tristan L. Smith

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Works

Pulsar timing array (PTA) collaborations in North America, Australia, and Europe, have been exploiting the exquisite timing precision of millisecond pulsars over decades of observations to search for correlated timing deviations induced by gravitational waves (GWs). PTAs are sensitive to the frequency band ranging just below 1 nanohertz to a few tens of microhertz. The discovery space of this band is potentially rich with populations of inspiraling supermassive black hole binaries, decaying cosmic string networks, relic post-inflation GWs, and even non-GW imprints of axionic dark matter. This article aims to provide an understanding of the exciting open science questions in ...


High Power And Optomechanics In Advanced Ligo Detectors, Terra Christine Hardwick Nov 2019

High Power And Optomechanics In Advanced Ligo Detectors, Terra Christine Hardwick

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In September 2015, a new era of astronomy began with the first direct detection of grav- itational waves from a binary black hole coalescence. The event was captured by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, comprised of two long-baseline interferometers, one in Livingston, LA and one in Hanford, WA. At the time of the first detection, the interferometers were part way through an upgrade to an advanced configuration and were operating with a strain sensitivity of just better than 10−23/Hz1/2 around 100Hz. The full Advanced LIGO design calls for sensitivity of a few parts in 10−24 ...


Hasasia: A Python Package For Pulsar Timing Array Sensitivity Curves, J. S. Hazboun, J. D. Romano, Tristan L. Smith Oct 2019

Hasasia: A Python Package For Pulsar Timing Array Sensitivity Curves, J. S. Hazboun, J. D. Romano, Tristan L. Smith

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


The Delay Time Of Gravitational Wave — Gamma-Ray Burst Associations, Bing Zhang Jul 2019

The Delay Time Of Gravitational Wave — Gamma-Ray Burst Associations, Bing Zhang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The first gravitational wave (GW) — gamma-ray burst (GRB) association, GW170817/GRB 170817A, had an offset in time, with the GRB trigger time delayed by ∼1.7 s with respect to the merger time of the GW signal. We generally discuss the astrophysical origin of the delay time, Δt, of GW-GRB associations within the context of compact binary coalescence (CBC) — short GRB (sGRB) associations and GW burst — long GRB (lGRB) associations. In general, the delay time should include three terms, the time to launch a clean (relativistic) jet, Δtjet; the time for the jet to break out from the surrounding medium ...


Low-Latency Gravitational-Wave Alerts For Multimessenger Astronomy During The Second Advanced Ligo And Virgo Observing Run, B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Apr 2019

Low-Latency Gravitational-Wave Alerts For Multimessenger Astronomy During The Second Advanced Ligo And Virgo Observing Run, B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Advanced LIGO's second observing run (O2), conducted from 2016 November 30 to 2017 August 25, combined with Advanced Virgo's first observations in 2017 August, witnessed the birth of gravitational-wave multimessenger astronomy. The first ever gravitational-wave detection from the coalescence of two neutron stars, GW170817, and its gamma-ray counterpart, GRB 170817A, led to an electromagnetic follow-up of the event at an unprecedented scale. Several teams from across the world searched for EM/neutrino counterparts to GW170817, paving the way for the discovery of optical, X-ray, and radio counterparts. In this article, we describe the online identification of gravitational-wave transients ...


Search For Multimessenger Sources Of Gravitational Waves And High-Energy Neutrinos With Advanced Ligo During Its First Observing Run, Antares, And Icecube, A. Albert, M. André, M. Anghinolfi, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Jan 2019

Search For Multimessenger Sources Of Gravitational Waves And High-Energy Neutrinos With Advanced Ligo During Its First Observing Run, Antares, And Icecube, A. Albert, M. André, M. Anghinolfi, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, such as binary neutron star and black hole mergers or core-collapse supernovae, can drive relativistic outflows, giving rise to non-thermal high-energy emission. High-energy neutrinos are signatures of such outflows. The detection of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos from common sources could help establish the connection between the dynamics of the progenitor and the properties of the outflow. We searched for associated emission of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical transients with minimal assumptions using data from Advanced LIGO from its first observing run O1, and data from the Antares and IceCube neutrino observatories from ...


A Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor Search For Electromagnetic Signals Coincident With Gravitational-Wave Candidates In Advanced Ligo's First Observing Run, E. Burns, A. Goldstein, C. M. Hui, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Jan 2019

A Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor Search For Electromagnetic Signals Coincident With Gravitational-Wave Candidates In Advanced Ligo's First Observing Run, E. Burns, A. Goldstein, C. M. Hui, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We present a search for prompt gamma-ray counterparts to compact binary coalescence gravitational wave (GW) candidates from Advanced LIGO's first observing run (O1). As demonstrated by the multimessenger observations of GW170817/GRB 170817A, electromagnetic and GW observations provide complementary information about the astrophysical source, and in the case of weaker candidates, may strengthen the case for an astrophysical origin. Here we investigate low-significance GW candidates from the O1 compact binary coalescence searches using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), leveraging its all sky and broad energy coverage. Candidates are ranked and compared to background to measure the significance. Those ...


Gravitational Radiation From Superradiant Instabilities Of Rotating Black Holes, Shrobana Ghosh Jan 2019

Gravitational Radiation From Superradiant Instabilities Of Rotating Black Holes, Shrobana Ghosh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We use the Teukolsky formalism to calculate the gravitational radiation from a non-axi\-symmetric cloud formed due to superradiant amplification of a spin-0 bosonic field. We focus on the prospects of the future space-based gravitational wave detector, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), and the current version of ground-based detector, Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (AdLIGO), to detect or constrain scalars with mass in the range $m_s\in [10^{-19},10^{-15}]$ eV and $m_s\in[10^{-14},10^{-11}]$ eV, respectively. Using astrophysical models of black hole populations calibrated to observations we find that, in optimistic scenarios, AdLIGO could detect ...


Prospects For Observing And Localizing Gravitational-Wave Transients With Advanced Ligo, Advanced Virgo And Kagra, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Dec 2018

Prospects For Observing And Localizing Gravitational-Wave Transients With Advanced Ligo, Advanced Virgo And Kagra, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We present possible observing scenarios for the Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We estimate the sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals, and study the capability of the network to determine the sky location of the source. We report our findings for gravitational-wave transients, with particular focus on gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of binary neutron star systems, which are the most promising targets for multi-messenger astronomy. The ability to localize the sources ...


Broadband Measurement And Reduction Of Quantum Radiation Pressure Noise In The Audio Band, Jonathan Daniel Cripe Jun 2018

Broadband Measurement And Reduction Of Quantum Radiation Pressure Noise In The Audio Band, Jonathan Daniel Cripe

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

One hundred years after Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in his general theory of relativity, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) made the first direct detection of gravitational waves. Since the first detection of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger, LIGO has gone on to detect gravitational waves from multiple binary black hole mergers, and more recently from a binary neutron star merger in collaboration with telescopes around the world. The detection of gravitational waves has opened a new window to the universe and has launched the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

With the first ...


Search For Compact Object Coalescences And Understanding Their Significance Using Data From Advanced Ligo, Debnandini Mukherjee May 2018

Search For Compact Object Coalescences And Understanding Their Significance Using Data From Advanced Ligo, Debnandini Mukherjee

Theses and Dissertations

Gravitational waves were observed for the first time on September 14, 2015. A 36 and a 29 solar mass black holes were seen to inspiral around each other and merge about 410 Mpc away. This gave momentum to the areas of gravitational wave astrophysics and astronomy. While the universe could be perceived in the electromagnetic spectrum so far, enabling us to "see" it with telescopes, it could now be "listened to" using gravitational waves. Also, black holes being optically dark, could be observed directly for the very first time after this discovery. The 100 year old theory of General Relativity ...


Undergraduate Research In Gravitational Waves Astronomy At Marshall University, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton Dec 2017

Undergraduate Research In Gravitational Waves Astronomy At Marshall University, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton

Maria C. Babiuc-Hamilton

This is a presentation of undergraduate student research into gravitational waves at Marshall University.


On The Progenitor Of Binary Neutron Star Merger Gw170817, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Dec 2017

On The Progenitor Of Binary Neutron Star Merger Gw170817, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

On 2017 August 17 the merger of two compact objects with masses consistent with two neutron stars was discovered through gravitational-wave (GW170817), gamma-ray (GRB 170817A), and optical (SSS17a/AT 2017gfo) observations. The optical source was associated with the early-type galaxy NGC 4993 at a distance of just ∼40 Mpc, consistent with the gravitational-wave measurement, and the merger was localized to be at a projected distance of ∼2 kpc away from the galaxy's center. We use this minimal set of facts and the mass posteriors of the two neutron stars to derive the first constraints on the progenitor of GW170817 ...


Estimating The Contribution Of Dynamical Ejecta In The Kilonova Associated With Gw170817, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Dec 2017

Estimating The Contribution Of Dynamical Ejecta In The Kilonova Associated With Gw170817, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

The source of the gravitational-wave (GW) signal GW170817, very likely a binary neutron star merger, was also observed electromagnetically, providing the first multi-messenger observations of this type. The two-week-long electromagnetic (EM) counterpart had a signature indicative of an r-process-induced optical transient known as a kilonova. This Letter examines how the mass of the dynamical ejecta can be estimated without a direct electromagnetic observation of the kilonova, using GW measurements and a phenomenological model calibrated to numerical simulations of mergers with dynamical ejecta. Specifically, we apply the model to the binary masses inferred from the GW measurements, and use the ...


Gw170608: Observation Of A 19 Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Dec 2017

Gw170608: Observation Of A 19 Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

On 2017 June 8 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave (GW) signal from the merger of two stellar-mass blackholes was observed by the two Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses of 12+7 -2M⊙+2-2M⊙ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowing us to compare black holes detected through GWs with electromagnetic observations. The source's luminosity distance is 340+140 -140 ...


Search For High-Energy Neutrinos From Binary Neutron Star Merger Gw170817 With Antares, Icecube, And The Pierre Auger Observatory, Antares Collaboration, The Icecube Collaboration, The Pierre Auger Collaboration, Ligo Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration, Karen Andeen Nov 2017

Search For High-Energy Neutrinos From Binary Neutron Star Merger Gw170817 With Antares, Icecube, And The Pierre Auger Observatory, Antares Collaboration, The Icecube Collaboration, The Pierre Auger Collaboration, Ligo Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration, Karen Andeen

Physics Faculty Research and Publications

The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded by the FermiGamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory(INTEGRAL), indicating particle acceleration by the source. The precise location of the event was determined by optical detections of emission following the merger. We searched for high-energy neutrinos from the merger in the GeV–EeV energy range using the Antares, IceCube, and Pierre Auger Observatories. No neutrinos ...


An Active Galactic Nucleus Caught In The Act Of Turning Off And On, Julia M. Comerford, R Scott Barrows, Francisco Müller Sánchez, Rebecca Nevin, Jenny E. Greene, David Pooley, Daniel Stern, Fiona A. Harrison Nov 2017

An Active Galactic Nucleus Caught In The Act Of Turning Off And On, Julia M. Comerford, R Scott Barrows, Francisco Müller Sánchez, Rebecca Nevin, Jenny E. Greene, David Pooley, Daniel Stern, Fiona A. Harrison

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Research

We present the discovery of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) that is turning off and then on again in the z = 0.06 galaxy SDSS J1354+1327. This episodic nuclear activity is the result of discrete accretion events that could have been triggered by a past interaction with the companion galaxy that is currently located 12.5 kpc away. We originally targeted SDSS J1354+1327 because its Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum has narrow AGN emission lines that exhibit a velocity offset of 69 km s−1 relative to systemic. To determine the nature of the galaxy and its velocity-offset ...


Search For High-Energy Neutrinos From Binary Neutron Star Merger Gw170817 With Antares, Icecube, And The Pierre Auger Observatory, A. Albert, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Nov 2017

Search For High-Energy Neutrinos From Binary Neutron Star Merger Gw170817 With Antares, Icecube, And The Pierre Auger Observatory, A. Albert, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), indicating particle acceleration by the source. The precise location of the event was determined by optical detections of emission following the merger. We searched for high-energy neutrinos from the merger in the GeV-EeV energy range using the Antares, IceCube, and Pierre Auger Observatories. No neutrinos directionally ...


Multi-Messenger Observations Of A Binary Neutron Star Merger, Karen Andeen Oct 2017

Multi-Messenger Observations Of A Binary Neutron Star Merger, Karen Andeen

Physics Faculty Research and Publications

On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of ~1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg2 at a luminosity distance of Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the ...


Multi-Messenger Observations Of A Binary Neutron Star Merger, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Oct 2017

Multi-Messenger Observations Of A Binary Neutron Star Merger, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of ~1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg2 at a luminosity distance of 40+ 8-8 Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to ...


Upper Limits On Gravitational Waves From Scorpius X-1 From A Model-Based Cross-Correlation Search In Advanced Ligo Data, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website. Sep 2017

Upper Limits On Gravitational Waves From Scorpius X-1 From A Model-Based Cross-Correlation Search In Advanced Ligo Data, Benjamin P. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia, For Full List Of Authors, See Publisher's Website.

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We present the results of a semicoherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1, using data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. The search method uses details of the modeled, parametrized continuous signal to combine coherently data separated by less than a specified coherence time, which can be adjusted to trade off sensitivity against computational cost. A search was conducted over the frequency range 25-2000 Hz, spanning the current observationally constrained range of binary orbital parameters. No significant detection candidates were found, and frequency-dependent upper limits were set using a combination of sensitivity estimates ...


Towards A Standardized Characteristic Extraction Tool, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton Aug 2017

Towards A Standardized Characteristic Extraction Tool, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton

Maria C. Babiuc-Hamilton

Knowing the precise details of the gravitational wave signature obtained from numerical simulations of binary black hole mergers is a key requirement for meaningful detection and scientific interpretation of the data. However, the waveforms are not easy to be accurately computed. The importance of this problem to the future of gravitational wave astronomy is well recognized. Cauchy-Characteristic Extraction (CCE) is the most precise and refined extraction method available. The CCE technique connects the strong-field Cauchy evolution of the spacetime near the merger to the characteristic evolution to future null infinity where the waveform is extracted in an unambiguous way. Recently ...


Simulating Magnetospheres With Numerical Relativity: The Giraffe Code, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton Aug 2017

Simulating Magnetospheres With Numerical Relativity: The Giraffe Code, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton

Maria C. Babiuc-Hamilton

Numerical Relativity is successful in the simulation of black holes and gravitational waves. In recent years, teams have tackled the problem of the interaction of gravitational and electromagnetic waves. We developed a new code for the numerical simulation of neutron and black hole magnetospheres, using the FFE formalism. We tested the performance of the new code named GiRaFFE, in 1D and 3D test suits. We will study magnetospheres, focusing on jets by the Blandford -Znajek mechanism.


Towards A Fully Nonlinear Cauchy Characteristic Extraction, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton Aug 2017

Towards A Fully Nonlinear Cauchy Characteristic Extraction, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton

Maria C. Babiuc-Hamilton

The artificial finite outer boundary present in Cauchy codes introduce two sources of error: The outer boundary condition and waveform extraction at an inner worldtube. The problem of proper boundary condition for a radiating system can be solved only by extension to Ι+ (conformal compactification). Cauchy Characteristic Extraction (CCE) offers a means to avoid these errors.


Towards Improved Accuracy Of Gravitational Waves Extraction, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton Aug 2017

Towards Improved Accuracy Of Gravitational Waves Extraction, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton

Maria C. Babiuc-Hamilton

Results in developing two new methods to improve the accuracy of waveform extraction using characteristic evolution. Numerical method: circular boundaries, with angular dissipation in the characteristic code. Geometric method: computation of Weyl tensor component Y4 at null infinity, in a conformally compactified treatment. Comparison and calibration in tests problems based upon linearized waves.


Gravitational & Electromagnetic Waves On The Null Cone, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton Aug 2017

Gravitational & Electromagnetic Waves On The Null Cone, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton

Maria C. Babiuc-Hamilton

Bondi (1962) proved mathematically the existence of gravitational waves at null infinity. He found an exact solution of Einstein equations. Within this metric, he calculated the loss of mass due to the emission of gravitational waves. The mas of a system is constant if and only if there is no news. If there is news, the mass decreases as long as there are news.


Steps Towards A Nonlinear Cauchy-Characteristic Code Patching, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton Jul 2017

Steps Towards A Nonlinear Cauchy-Characteristic Code Patching, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton

Maria C. Babiuc-Hamilton

Cauchy-characteristic extractions (CCE) avoids the errors due to extraction at finite worldtube. The Cauchy and the characteristic approaches have complementary strengths and weaknesses. Unification of the two methods is a promising way of combining the strengths of both formalisms.


An Analysis Of The Gravitational Waves Null Memory, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton Jul 2017

An Analysis Of The Gravitational Waves Null Memory, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton

Maria C. Babiuc-Hamilton

Gravitational wave astronomy sees (hears) gravitational waves by observing the phenomena of gravitational and electromagnetic memory, and the formation of trapped surfaces and horizons.


Tools For Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton Jul 2017

Tools For Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Maria Babiuc-Hamilton

Maria C. Babiuc-Hamilton

Gravitational waves have been confirmed. Tools are available for their study, including the Einstein Toolkit, SimulationTools and the SXS Gravitational Waveform Database.