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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Optically Thin Broad-Line Clouds In Active Galactic Nuclei, Joseph C. Shields, Gary J. Ferland, Bradley M. Peterson Oct 2015

Optically Thin Broad-Line Clouds In Active Galactic Nuclei, Joseph C. Shields, Gary J. Ferland, Bradley M. Peterson

Gary J. Ferland

The broad-line region (BLR) in Seyfert galaxy nuclei exhibits correlated variations in continuum and emission-line luminosity that are qualitatively consistent with photoionization of ionization-bounded (optically thick) clouds. However, evidence is growing that a nonnegligible fraction of the BLR cloud population is optically thin to the Lyman continuum and fully ionized in hydrogen. We consider the implications of this nebular component for observed line emission and find that inclusion of thin clouds in photoionization calculations can resolve several outstanding puzzles of Seyfert variability, notably the behavior of the C IV λ1549/Lyα ratio as a function of continuum luminosity. A similar ...


The Narrow-Line Region Of High-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei, Beverley J. Wills, H. Netzer, M. S. Brotherton, Mingsheng Han, D. Wills, J. A. Baldwin, Gary J. Ferland, I. W. A. Browne Oct 2015

The Narrow-Line Region Of High-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei, Beverley J. Wills, H. Netzer, M. S. Brotherton, Mingsheng Han, D. Wills, J. A. Baldwin, Gary J. Ferland, I. W. A. Browne

Gary J. Ferland

We have made high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations of seven radio-loud quasars with the Faint Object Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope and from the ground at McDonald Observatory and at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The resolution is 300-400 km s-1 over the wavelength range 1000-8500 Å, enabling us to separate the broad and narrow components of the emission lines. This is the first study of the optical and UV narrow lines in such high-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The most important and striking observational result is the relative weakness of the narrow ultraviolet lines, assuming that they have the same ...


Radiation Pressure And Emission Clouds Around Active Galactic Nuclei, Moshe Elitzur, Gary J. Ferland Oct 2015

Radiation Pressure And Emission Clouds Around Active Galactic Nuclei, Moshe Elitzur, Gary J. Ferland

Gary J. Ferland

Detailed calculations of the contribution of the trapped line photons to the overall pressure in line-emitting regions around active galactic nuclei are presented. They lead to the conclusion that radiation pressure is a significant factor in determining the stability of these clouds.


2.1Μm Emission Spectral Properties Of Tm And Ho Doped Transparent Yag Ceramic, G. A. Kumar, Madhab Pokhrel Jan 2012

2.1Μm Emission Spectral Properties Of Tm And Ho Doped Transparent Yag Ceramic, G. A. Kumar, Madhab Pokhrel

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

Highly transparent Tm:Ho:YAG transparent ceramics were prepared using advanced ceramic technology and their spectroscopic properties were studied for infrared laser applications. Following the Judd-Ofelt procedure several spectroscopic properties such as the radiative transition probability (Arad), radiative decay time (τrad) and fluorescence branching ratio (β) are quantitatively obtained from the absorption spectrum. The absorption and emission cross sections corresponding to the 5I7 → 5I8 transition of Ho3+ at 2.1 μm have been evaluated following Mc Cumber theory and found that the obtained emission spectrum very well correlates to the simulated emission spectral data. The optical gain spectrum spread ...


Optically Thin Broad-Line Clouds In Active Galactic Nuclei, Joseph C. Shields, Gary J. Ferland, Bradley M. Peterson Mar 1995

Optically Thin Broad-Line Clouds In Active Galactic Nuclei, Joseph C. Shields, Gary J. Ferland, Bradley M. Peterson

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

The broad-line region (BLR) in Seyfert galaxy nuclei exhibits correlated variations in continuum and emission-line luminosity that are qualitatively consistent with photoionization of ionization-bounded (optically thick) clouds. However, evidence is growing that a nonnegligible fraction of the BLR cloud population is optically thin to the Lyman continuum and fully ionized in hydrogen. We consider the implications of this nebular component for observed line emission and find that inclusion of thin clouds in photoionization calculations can resolve several outstanding puzzles of Seyfert variability, notably the behavior of the C IV λ1549/Lyα ratio as a function of continuum luminosity ...


The Optical-Ultraviolet-Γ-Ray Spectrum Of 3c 279, Hagai Netzer, D. Kazanas, Beverley J. Wills, D. Wills, Han Mingsheng, M. S. Brotherton, J A. Baldwin, Gary J. Ferland, I. W. A. Browne Jul 1994

The Optical-Ultraviolet-Γ-Ray Spectrum Of 3c 279, Hagai Netzer, D. Kazanas, Beverley J. Wills, D. Wills, Han Mingsheng, M. S. Brotherton, J A. Baldwin, Gary J. Ferland, I. W. A. Browne

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We have obtained spectrosocpy of the violently variable quasar 3C 279, simultaneous with γ-ray observations, in 1992 April. Our combined optical (McDonald Observatory and Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory (CTIO) and ultraviolet (HST) observations, made when the source was faint, show a very steep power-law continuum (Fν∝ν-1.95) and strong broad emission lines. This is the first time that the broad ultraviolet lines of this object have been measured, and we note several unusual properties of the spectrum. In particular, the profiles of C IV λ1549 and Mg II λ2798 are asymmetric, with very ...


Hot Gas And The Origin Of The Nebular Continuum In Novae, Pedro Saizar, Gary J. Ferland Apr 1994

Hot Gas And The Origin Of The Nebular Continuum In Novae, Pedro Saizar, Gary J. Ferland

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

A featureless blue continuum (with constant fν) is a defining feature of declining classical novae. The fact that fν is constant into the infrared, and the absence of a Balmer jump, suggests that this continuum originates in hot tenous gas. The electron temperature and density of the hot gas phase of classical nova QU Vul 1984 are estimated from ground-based optical and IUE ultraviolet observations. This region has a temperature of 105 - 106, and a density in the range of 2 x 104 to 3 x 105cm-3. In addition, a colder, denser ...


Nebular Properties And The Ionizing Radiation Field In The Galactic Center, Joseph C. Shields, Gary J. Ferland Apr 1994

Nebular Properties And The Ionizing Radiation Field In The Galactic Center, Joseph C. Shields, Gary J. Ferland

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Nebulosity in the central parsec of the Milky Way exhibits a low-ionization spectrum that has led previous analyses of this region to conclude that this material is photoionized by a relatively soft continuum. We have reanalyzed the infrared emission-line spectrum of te Galactic center in order to consider whether the data could actually be explained with photoionization by a relatively hard, yet dilute continuum, and additionally to constrain the properties of the reaiating plasma. We conclude that the composite infrared spectrum does not place strong restrictions on the nature of the ionizing continuum and that much of the ionized gas ...


The Narrow-Line Region Of High-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei, Beverley J. Wills, H. Netzer, M. S. Brotherton, Mingsheng Han, D. Wills, J. A. Baldwin, Gary J. Ferland, I. W. A. Browne Jun 1993

The Narrow-Line Region Of High-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei, Beverley J. Wills, H. Netzer, M. S. Brotherton, Mingsheng Han, D. Wills, J. A. Baldwin, Gary J. Ferland, I. W. A. Browne

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We have made high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations of seven radio-loud quasars with the Faint Object Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope and from the ground at McDonald Observatory and at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The resolution is 300-400 km s-1 over the wavelength range 1000-8500 Å, enabling us to separate the broad and narrow components of the emission lines. This is the first study of the optical and UV narrow lines in such high-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs).

The most important and striking observational result is the relative weakness of the narrow ultraviolet lines, assuming that they have the ...


Modeling Sio Maser Emission From Late-Type Stars, Philip B. Lockett, Moshe Elitzur Nov 1992

Modeling Sio Maser Emission From Late-Type Stars, Philip B. Lockett, Moshe Elitzur

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We have performed a thorough study of both radiative and collisional pumping of the SiO masers around late-type stars, carefully considering the combined and separate actions of each type of pump in order to gauge its effectiveness. We find that collisional pumping is severely underestimated when the model calculations use a small number (less than about 18) of rotational levels in each vibrational state. We have developed a procedure that corrects this problem and gives results that are nearly independent of the number of levels utilized in the calculations. We recognize, but do not solve, an important problem that afflicts ...


Radiation Pressure And Emission Clouds Around Active Galactic Nuclei, Moshe Elitzur, Gary J. Ferland Jun 1986

Radiation Pressure And Emission Clouds Around Active Galactic Nuclei, Moshe Elitzur, Gary J. Ferland

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Detailed calculations of the contribution of the trapped line photons to the overall pressure in line-emitting regions around active galactic nuclei are presented. They lead to the conclusion that radiation pressure is a significant factor in determining the stability of these clouds.


Bowen Fluoresence And He Ii Lines In Active Galaxies And Gaseous Nebulae, Hagai Netzer, Moshe Elitzur, Gary J. Ferland Dec 1985

Bowen Fluoresence And He Ii Lines In Active Galaxies And Gaseous Nebulae, Hagai Netzer, Moshe Elitzur, Gary J. Ferland

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We have calculated the intensity of He II and the O III and N III Bowen lines under a variety of astrophysical conditions. Our line-transfer method is based on the escape probability formalism and is especially suitable for combining line fluorescence and photoionization calculations in a simple, straightforward way. It reproduces the results of the more sophisticated line-transfer calculations quite accurately and is much better for producing realistic ionization and thermal structures. An extensive grid of models is presented and discussed, with special emphasis on the case of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Many O III and N III Bowen lines ...


Cosmic Rays And The Emission-Line Regions Of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gary J. Ferland, R. F. Mushotzky Nov 1984

Cosmic Rays And The Emission-Line Regions Of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gary J. Ferland, R. F. Mushotzky

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We discuss the effects that the synchrotron emitting relativistic electrons, which are known to exist throughout many distance scales in active nuclei, could have on the emission-line regions that characterize these objects. Detailed models of both the inner, dense, broad-line region and the outer, lower density, narrow-line region are presented, together with the first models of the optically emitting gas often found within extended radio lobes. We show that, in all cases, if the relativistic gas that produces the synchrotron radio emission is mixed with the gas in the emission-line region, then significant changes in the emission-line spectrum will result ...


Radiation Pressure And The Stability Of Broad-Line Region Clouds, Gary J. Ferland, Moshe Elitzur Oct 1984

Radiation Pressure And The Stability Of Broad-Line Region Clouds, Gary J. Ferland, Moshe Elitzur

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We discuss two constraints on the existence and stability of quasar emission-line gas. The case of a constant pressure photoionized cloud in pressure equilibrium with a surrounding hot gas is considered. We show that the radiation pressure of the internally generated line emission makes a significant contribution to the total pressure in standard broad-line region models, and that models with either a higher ionization parameter or lower gas density are dominated by radiation pressure and hence unstable. Further, clouds with ionization parameters lower than the standard value cannot be supported by any hot gas which is heated only by the ...


Stimulated Emission And The Flat Balmer Decrements Of Cataclysmic Variable Stars, Moshe Elitzur, Gary J. Ferland, W. G. Mathews, G. A. Shields Sep 1983

Stimulated Emission And The Flat Balmer Decrements Of Cataclysmic Variable Stars, Moshe Elitzur, Gary J. Ferland, W. G. Mathews, G. A. Shields

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Balmer emission lines from cataclysmic variables often have nearly equal intensities rather than the rapid decrement predicted by simple nebular theory. Traditionally, this has been interpreted in terms of local thermodynamic equilibrium emission from a dense gas with small volume located just above the accretion disk. In this Letter we show that the intense radiation field within a close binary system can affect excited-state populations and optical emission in ways which allow a relatively low density gas to closely mimic the high-density situation. In at least one case, the old nova V603 Aql, the emitting gas has a low density ...


Broad Line Region Clouds And The Absorbing Material In Ngc 4151, Gary J. Ferland, R. F. Mushotzky Nov 1982

Broad Line Region Clouds And The Absorbing Material In Ngc 4151, Gary J. Ferland, R. F. Mushotzky

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

The constraints imposed by X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical observations on the absorbing material in the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 are discussed. These observations are compared to the predictions of photoionization models of both broad line region clouds, which Holt et al. identify as the source of the extinction, and to models of the narrow line region gas. The weakness of both C III] 1909 and the broad component of Hα relative to C IV 1549, together with the absence of an absorption Balmer jump, indicate that the ionization parameter for the broad line region is a factor ...